Section I Warm-up by fjzhangxiaoquan

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									Section I Warm-up
Excerpt from Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography
Exercise: You will hear s monologue. As you listen, answer the following questions by circling
True or False.
1.My brother's newspaper, which began to print in 1820 or 182 I, was the second that appeared in
AmericaTrue/False
2. My brother's friends thought it wouldn't be successful because there were already too many
newspapers in America.True/False
3. The articles written by some of my brother's friends contributed to the success of the newspaper.
True/False
4. I did not sign my name on my article because I was afraid of my brother's opposition.True/False
5. My brother's writing friends had a Iow opinion of my unsigned article. True/False
6. It's my only article that was published on my brother's newspaper.True/False
7. My brother was pleased when he found out the truth.True/False
8. Whenever our arguments were brought to my father, his judgment was usually in my brother's
favor. True/False
9. New York was nearly 300 kilometers from home. True/False
10. Old McWilliams Bradford, a printer in New York, hired me for my skill and expectation 2 Test
Your Skills
Section 2 Test Your Skills
Task 1: The Early Life of Clara Barton
Exercise: Listen to the talk and answer the following questions by choosing A, B, C, or D.
I. Clara Barton was educated at home because
  A. she was shy and terrified of school
  B. there were no schools near her home
  C. her sisters were teachers
  D. her family was too poor to pay for school
2. When smallpox spread throughout the town, young Clara
  A. refused to leave her home
  B. visited and helped nursing the sick people
  C. caught the disease and was very sick
  D. took care of her sick brother
3. During her years of teaching, Clara saved her money because
  A. she wanted to travel to New York
  B. she wanted to get married
  C. she wanted to complete her education
  D. she wanted to help her family
4. When the Barton family moved to Bordentown, New Jersey, Clara
  A. established a free school for poor children
  B. provided money for poor families
  C. ran a small private school
  D. went to a local college to further her education .
Task 2: George Gershwin
Vocabulary
Exercise: Listen to the talk and answer the following questions by choosing A, B, C, or D.
I. George Gershwin believed that
A. American people can appreciate his music the best
B. music should express the thought and feeling or its own time in history
C. American music should be an imitation of the music of other times and other countries
D. American music should be based on folk songs
2. When he was a boy, George
A. could not stay quiet
B. was a troublemaker
C. wanted to go to another school
D. was not interested in music
3. Charles Hambitzer, George's music teacher,
A. taught him to compose pop songs
B. taught him to play at various concerts
C. recognized his talent and gave him guidance
D. taught him theories of classical music
4. From Kilenyi, his second teacher, George learned
  A. how to write the words for his music
B. how to compose music for the orchestra
C. how to play the piano on the stage
      D. how to write American popular songs
      5. When was George's musical comedy La, La, Lucille published?
        A. In 1924.
        B. In 1912.
        C. In 1937.
        D. In 1919.
      Section 3 Meet the Challenge
      Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks in the following passage as you listen to the monologue.
        Henry Ford_________through his business ability, as well as his skill in invention. He
established three rules for_______: (I) bring the work to the workman; (2) provide service after
the sale; (3) always build your factory near deep water. The first rule is seen in____________ , the
manufacture of large numbers of things that are just alike, each worker performing only on part of
the whole operation. Ford developed the________ method of production. Service after the sale
was______ , making machines of a definite size and shape so that every one would be just like all
the others and so that a certain part would fit in its proper place in any of the machines. The
assembly line and standardization made possible the production of large numbers of cars in a short
time_________ . Ford followed the third rule by_______ his factories by water, thus making the
cost of transportation lower than it would have been by railroad.
      Exercise 2: Answer the following questions in no more than three words as you listen to the
monologue.
      I. When was Henry Ford born?
      ______________
      2. What did Henry love to do as a boy?
      ______________
      unit I People
  3. How old was Henry when he built his first "farm locomotive"?
___________
4. What did "horseless carriage" refer to?
  ___________
5. When did the Fords move to Detroit?
  ____________
6. What did other carmakers try to use to power their automobiles?
________________
7. When was the Ford Motor Company established?
_________
8. What was the color of the Model T?
  ______________
9. How many Model Ts had been sold throughout the world?
________________
10. When did Henry Ford die?
______________
Unit 2
Section 1 warm-up
Exercise: You will hear a dialogue. As you listen, answer the following questions by circling True
or False.
  I. The post office is not far from here. True/False
  2. The post office is close to the high school.True/False
  3. The two speakers do not go in the same direction. True/False
  4. The woman is here in Newport on business.True/False
  5. The woman knows her way around though she's been here only for three days. True/False
  6. The woman is going to work for the city government True/False
  7. The man sells paper to Newport Paper Company.True/False
  8. The woman has a son and a daughter. True/False
  9. The man's son is fifteen and his daughter is sixteen. True/False
10. It's possible that their children are going to the same school.True/False
Section 2 Test Your Skills
Task/r: The Tropical Rain Forest
Exercise: Listen to the talk on the tropical rain forest and answer the following questions by
choosing A, B, C, or D.
I. Why can't the tops of big trees be seen from the ground?
  A. Because their leaves grow in profusion.
B. Because the trees are too tall.
  C. Because large vines hang down from them.
D. Because it is too dark in the forest
2. Why is it damp in these forests?
  A. Because there is little sunlight.
B. Because the trees keep the water well.
C. Because the weather is mild all year round.
D. Because it rains all the time.
3. How many seasons are there in the jungle?
A. Two.
B. One.
C. Three.
D. Four.
4. How long are the nights and days in the jungle?
A. Nights are longer than days.
B. Days are longer than nights.
C. Days are almost as long as nights throughout the year
D. There are nights for half a year and days for the other half.
5. Where is the largest tropical forest in the world?
A. In Asia
B. In South America
C. In Africa.
D. In Australia.
6. Where are most of the clearings located?
A. In the middle of the jungle.
     B. At the edge of the jungle.
     Task Switzerland
     Exercise: Listen to the talk on Switzerland and answer the following questions by choosing A,
B, C, or D.
     I. What is the location of Switzerland in Europe?
       A. In Western Europe.
       B. In Southern Europe.
       C. In Eastern Europe.
       D. In Mid Europe.
     2. What is Switzerland famous for?
       A. Beautiful scenery, unique bank service, and high-quality products.
       B. Beautiful scenery, unique bank service, and four groups of people.
       C. Beautiful scenery, unique bank service, and international organizations.
       D. Beautiful scenery, high-quality products, four groups of people.
     3. What is the official name of Switzerland?
       A. Swiss Federation.
       B. Federal Republic of Switzerland.
       C. Swiss Confederation.
       D. Republic of Switzerland.
     4. What is the total area of Switzerland?
       A. 15 940 square kilometers.
       B. 15 940 square miles.
     C. 15 914 square kilometers.
       D. 15 914 square miles.
     S. Which is the neighboring country of Switzerland on the east?
       A. Italy. B. Germany.
       C. France.D. Austria,
     6. What is the percentage of the foreign-born Swiss population?
       A. 5%. B. 500/0.
       C. 15%.D. 10%.
     7. Which of the following is a feature of a typical Swiss?
       A. Tall build.
       B. Brown or blond hair.
       C. Blue eyes.
       D. Idle.
     8. What are the four official languages in Switzerland?
       A. German, English, French, and Italian.
       B. English, Italian, French, and Romansch.
       C. German, Italian, Romansch, and French.
       D. German, French, Italian, and Austrian.
     Section 3 Meet the Challenge
       Bill's Visit to Washington
           Exercise 2: Answer the following questions in no more than five words.
     Unit 2 Places
     Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks of the following passage as you listen to the recording.
       This afternoon we_______ Mount Vernon, the home of George Washington.
     It is a______now. It took us about half an hour to drive out there or~ a nice
       ______ I _____when Washington lived there it took him all day to ride that far on a horse.
Mount Vernon is a beautiful old house on a hill that the Potomac River. You can walk through the
rooms and see the kind of they used to have long ago. All the buildings at Mount Vernon are kept
when Washington lived there~ You can see the______ they had. You can see how all the farm
work_______. It was really interesting. I think I’ll write something about it for______ when I get
back in school this fall.
     What was the first place Bill and his family visited?
     How many sides does the Pentagon have?
     Which library is the largest in the United States?
     Where did Bill and his family spend the afternoon?
     How long did it take them to get there?
     Who Used to live at Mount Vernon?
     What does Bill plan to write when he gets home?
     What are they going to do in the evening?
     When are they going to leave the next day?
     Unit 3
     Section I Warm-up
     Heathrow Runways
     Exercise: You will hear a report about Heathrow airport. As you listen, answer the following
questions by circling True or False.
     I. Heathrow Airport has 5 terminals right now.True/False
      2. According to British Midland Airway. Airport capacity at Heathrow could be increased by
10 flights a day.True/False
      3. Heathrow will run out of capacity space because the airport has only one
runway.True/False
      4. The runways at Heathrow are used both for planes to take off and land at the same time.
True/False
      5. If Heathrow could not increase its capacity, business will go to other European cities like
Brussels, Amsterdam or Paris. True/False
      6. The mixed operation proposals put forward by British Midland did not meet with strong
local opposition.True/False
      7. Michael Rainer has taken the case to the European Court of Human
        Rights because he could no longer put up with the airport noise. True/False
      8. MPs from the Heathrow area supported the British Midland proposals.True/False
      9. The local residents have to arrange their daily schedule to avoid staying at home when the
airport is in operation.True/False
      10. The Depa~ment of-l-ransport has not approved the proposals so f~True/False
        Section 2 Test Your Skills
      Task f: On the Beach in Puerto Rico
      Exercise: Listen to the dialogue and answer the following questions
      by choosing A, B, C, or D.
      I. What is the girl's wish?
        A. Spending holidays on the tropical island every year.
        B. Moving to a mountainous area so that she could get fresh air.
        C. Staying in a place where the climate is perfect.
        D. Living in a place where she could swim throughout the year.
      2. What is the nicest thing on the island according to the boy?
        A. The warm climate.
        B. Quietness with few people.
        C. The clean sea water.
        D. Miles of sand and palm trees.
      3. What is it like on the other side of the island?
        A. There' is a tropical forest.
        B. There is another beach.
        C. It's like a desert with no rain.
        D. It's a mountainous are~
      4. What is special about the rain on this side of the island?
           A. It never rains.
           B. It rains a lot at night
           C. It rains a lot in winter.
           D. It always rains at noon.
           Task 2: Cameras Trap Speeding Drivers
           Exercise: Listen to the report and answer the following questions by choosing A, B, C, or
           D.
           I. Where were the 400 speeding drivers trapped?
         A. In the suburbs of Oxford.
         B. In the center of Oxford.
         C. In some streets of Oxford.
         D. All over Oxfordshire.
        2. Thousands more drivers across the county are now facing prosecution unless they
         A. pay their fines
         B. appear in the magistrate's court
         C. apologize to the County Council
         D. drive under the speed limit
        3. The spy camera will be used
         A. at the traffic lights in Thames Street
         B. at accident black spots
         C. all over the county
         D. on the main roads of Oxford shire
        4. What happened after the system had been installed?
         A. There was a decrease in overall speeding.
        B. The number of traffic accidents was reduced.
         C. There was no change at all.
             D. Drivers became more careful only in front of the spy cameras.
             5. What is the proportion of accidents caused by speed in all accidents according to
        Chief SuperintendentVinar?
               A. One quarter.
               B. One half.
               C. One fifth.
               D. One third.
             6. How are the speeding drivers fined in Oxford shire?
               A. They get a fine ticket for 14 pounds and loss of driver's license.
               B. They get a fine ticket for 14 pounds and extensive trial.
               C. They get a fine ticket for 40 pounds and automatic court appearances.
               D. They get a 40-pound fine plus three penalty points.
             Section 3 Meet the Challenge
             Transport in the UK
             Exercise: Answer the following questions in no more than three words.
             I. Write down three means of transport that have experienced decline in Britain.
             _______________
             2. What remains by far the most popular mode of passenger travel?
             ______________
             3. Which means of transport carries most freight in Britain?
             ______________________________________
             Unit 3 Travel
4. What was the total number of licensed vehicles on the roads of Great Britain in 1998?
               5. What was the total mileage of Britain's road network in 1998?
               6. What was the passing rate for the driving tests in 1998?
7. What was the number of full driving license holders in Britain in 1998?
              8. What is Britain's road safety record in the European Union?
Unit 4
Section I Warm-up
Philately in China
Exercise: You will hear a talk on stamp collecting. As you listen, answer the following questions
by circling True or False.
I. China's first stamp was issued in the second half of the 19th century.True/False
2. Philatelic activities started in China about 80 years ago. True/False
3. The Chinese Philatelic Society was set up in Shanghai.True/False
4. The purpose of publishing the Philately magazine was to
  encourage stamp collecting activities.True/False
5. Collecting stamps was dangerous during the "Cultural Revolution:'True/False
6. Philately did not resume its popularity after the "Cultural
  Revolution."True/False
7. The well-known philatelist Jiang Zhifang collected only Chinese
  True/False stamps.
8. The 1979 exhibition of China's stamps in Hong Kong attracted
I 13 000 viewers. True/False
9. The national magazine philately resumed publication in February 1980.True/False
10. The best stamps of the 30 years of the People's Republic of China were selected by 50 000
philatelists. True/False
Section 2 Test Your Skills
Task 1: Sports
Vocabulary
Exercise: Fill in each of the following sports category with three specific items you hear from the
recording.
I. Athletics include_______ , _________, and
2. Ball games include ________,________, and
3. War games include_________ , ____________, and
4. Work games include________ , and
5. Transportation sports include__________ , and
Exercise: Listen to the dialogue and answer the following questions by choosing A, B, C, or D.
  What contributed to the development of popular music in the Middle Ages?
  A. The Church.
  B. Folk music.
  C. Festivals.
  D. Wandering minstrels.
2. In which century did the Italian opera achieve spectacular success across Europe?
  A. Seventeenth century.
  B. Fifteenth century.
  C. Sixteenth century.
  D. Eighteenth century.
3. When did rock'n'roll emerge in the United States?
  A. In the mid-forties.
 B. In the late forties.
 C. In the mid-fifties.
 D. In the early sixties.
4. Whose feelings did rock'n'roll reflect?
 A. Middle-aged people.
 B. Young people.
 C. Old people.
 D. Black people. Task 2.' Popular Music
Vocabulary
Section 3 Meet the Challenge
 Why People Love Sporfsoars
Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks in the following passages as you listen to the talk.
 Ever since man invented the wheel, he has harbored a passion for
In the sports car, he found both of these powerful forces entwined in an expression of____ .
Almost from the very______ of the car's development it has offered these powerful inducements.
The car has also given its owner a certain_____, either real or imagined, that gives him or her a
sense of identity and pride. A sports-car______ these values. In Ks form and function it evokes the
romance of speed and________ of going fast. It provides an expression of
 In its very being it_______success, style, even virility.
       It is largely the______ of these very human emotions and vanities that led to the birth and
popularity of the sports-car Of course, there is far more to the sports-car than KS use as a badge of
success and________. Beauty,______, and the satisfaction of driving a responsive and powerful
machine will often provide more than enough reason for owning one. To simply cast the eyes over
a beautifully styled sports-car can give a________.
       Unit 4 Free-time Activities
1rExercise 2: Answer the following questions in no more than three words.
         I, Write three of the inducements that attract sports-car buyers.
       2. What should not be overlooked in a sports car besides its beautiful style according to the
speaker?
         3. What is the most important factor in sports-car ownership?
         4. What was the most important drive for the improvement on the sports-car?
       5. When did sports-cars become smaller and cheaper?
       6. In which period was the sports-car business on the decline?
         7. Which country came to the rescue of the sports-car business?
         8. Why is the quest for the super-cars disappearing?
       Unit 5
       Section I Warm-up
       Cardiac Patients and Relatives
       Vocabulary
       Exercise: You will hear a news report. As you listen, answer the fol- lowing questions by
circling True or False.
       I. John Care, who had a heart transplant four weeks ago, is four and
       half years old. True/False
       2. John has a two-year-old brother in Scotland. True/False
3. When the caravan was stolen, they lost 1,000 pounds cash.True/False
4. On most nights Margaret Carr has to sleep on the floor outside
  John's room to take care of him.True/False
5. Their home in Scotland is 400 kilometers away from Harefield
  hospital.True/False
6. Harefield now does two hundred operations a year, including
heart transplants.True/False
7. The patient's siblings may also be sick when the patient is suffering.True/False
8. Harefield needs accommodation for at least fifty families while it
now can only cater for forty. True/False
9. Harefield has no accommodation for patients' siblings. True/False
10. Two million pounds is needed to provide for eighty families.True/False
Section 2 Test Your Skills
Task 1: Plague
Exercise: Listen to the talk and answer the following questions by choosing A, B, C, or D.
I. Which of the following contagious diseases does NOT have a long history?
  A. Plague.B. Choler~
  C. Tuberculosis.D. AIDS.
2. Which part of the world still suffers from diseases such as sleeping sickness and malaria?
  A. IndiaL B. The Middle East
  C. Europe. D. Tropical countries.
3. When did the first recognized plague epidemic occur?
  A. 542 BC. B. 542 AD.
  C. 452 AD.D. 452 BC.
4. When did the second pandemic occur?
  A. Between t 346 and 1363.B. Between 1346 and 1353.
  C. Between 1336 and 1353. D. Between 1346 and 1363.
5. The second pandemic in Europe killed
  A. 2 000 000 peopleB. 3 700 000 people
  C. 25 000 000 people D. 190 000 people
6. What is the number of the lost population in Britain during the second pandemic?
  A. 1700000.B. 15000000.
  C. I 500 000. D. I 200 000.
7. What was identified in 1894 during the third plague?
  A. The plague bacillus of the rat and the human.
  B. The plague bacillus of the cat
  C. The role of the flea in the transmission of the disease.
  D. The plague bacillus of the flea.
8. Who developed the first anti-plague vaccine?
  A. Simon. B. Pasteur.
  C. Huffiness. D. Yersin.
9. Which country suffered the most from the third pandemic?
  A. Britain.B. Algeria.
  C. India. D. China.
        Task 2'. Lasers in Dentistry
        Exercise: Listen to the talk and answer the following questions by choosing A, B, C, or D.
        I. What is the percentage of people in Britain who visit their dentist regularly?
          A. Forty per cent.B. Thirty per cent
          C. Fifty per centD. Sixty per cent
        2. Why don't people like visiting their dentist when they have tooth problems?
        A. Toothaches are not serious health problems.
          B. Toothaches will be over even if people do not go to their dentist
          C. Most dentists have bad manners.
          D. Most people are afraid of. the drill or the needle.
        3. What is the advantage of the dental laser compared with the traditional drill?
          A. tt causes no pain. B. It is quieter.
          C. It is cheaper. D. It is convenient to use.
        4. What is the cost for the new equipment?
          A. 55 000 pounds.B. 55 000 dollars.
          C. 35 000 pounds. D. 45 000 pounds.
        5. What is true about the new equipment?
          A. It uses the fast-speed drill.
          B. It does not make noise.
          C. It vibrates the decayed tooth.
          D. It works with a strong light beam.
        Section 3 Meet the Challenge
          Filling a Gal~ for the Homeless and Toothless
          Vocabulary
        Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks in the following passages as you listen to the dialogue.
          As she does not have a dental nurse, Ms Daly has to_____ a range of duties. When she
sees a new patient, she________ their dental condition into a cassette recorder and transcribes the
tape at home. She also has to sterilize her at home.
          At all the community centers she displays notices telling people the days and times she
will be_____. She then operates a queuing system, as well as making appointments-- use the time
as well as possible.
          The vast majority of her patients are men, their ages_____from the early twenties to the
late seventies. Many haveassette recorder and transcribes the tape at home. She also has to
sterilize her at home.
          At all the community centers she displays notices telling people the days and times she
will be______. She then operates a queuing system, as well as making appointments-- use the time
as well as possible.
          The vast majority of her patients are men, their ages____ from the early twenties to the
late seventies. Many have teeth in such bad condition—usually caused by dietary problems or a
complete lack of carethat they have become afraid of visiting a
          Most have teeth broken or missing and many also have____plaque, tartar and broken
fillings. Another typical problem is dentures that are either or broken, resulting in the person
having difficulty speaking or eating.
        Some people she has seen_____to survive with no dentures at all, accepting an unhealthy
mouth as one of the hazards of life on the street
       Exercise 2: Answer the following questions in as few words as you can.
       I. Where is the simple clinic located?
       2. How often does Ms Daly establish her temporary dental clinic there?
       3. What kind of people are the patients?
       4. How are their teeth?
       5. What does Bob, a former boxer, need?
       6. From where did Ms Daly move to London a couple of years ago?
       7. Where does Ms Daly get a grant?
       8. How many homeless people are there throughout London? Teeth in such bad
condition—usually caused by dietary problems or a complete lack of care that they have become
afraid of visiting a Most have teeth broken or missing and many also have_____ plaque, tartar and
broken fillings. Another typical problem is dentures that are either or broken, resulting in the
person having difficulty speaking or eating.
       Some people she has seen_____ to survive with no dentures at all, accepting an unhealthy
mouth as one of the hazards of life on the street
       Exercise 2: Answer the following questions in as few words as you can.
       I. Where is the simple clinic located?
       2. How often does Ms Daly establish her temporary dental clinic there?
       3. What kind of people are the patients?
       4. How are their teeth?
       5. What does Bob, a former boxer, need?
       6. From where did Ms Daly move to London a couple of years ago?
       7. Where does Ms Daly get a grant?
       8. How many homeless people are there throughout London?
       Unit 6
       Section 1 Warm-up
         Survey on Ethnic Staff in British Schools
       Exercise: You will hear s report about a survey. As you listen, answer the following
questions by circling True or False.
       I. The findings of the survey on ethnic staff in British schools are
         released two years after the survey. True/False
         2. Statistics show that only 3.3% of full-time teachers come from
         minority groups. True/False
         3. The population of ethnic groups is about 5.5% of the country's
         total. True/False
         4. The Department for Education has got reliable statistics either of
         teacher or pupil population according to CRE (Commission for
         Racial Equality).True/False
         5. The lack of black and Asian teachers contributed to poor academic
         results. True/False
         6. In Bradford, around one third of pupils are black or Asian while less'
         than I% of teachers are from these ethnic groups. True/False
         7. Figures are not publicly available because the local governments
        have not submitted their statistics yetTrue/False
        8. Minority groups are very enthusiastic about applying to post-
        graduate teacher training programs but very few are accepted. True/False
      9. According to the director of TASC (Teaching As a Career), Iow
      salary for school teachers may deter potential applicants.True/False
      I 0. At the university of North London, 14% of education students
      are from ethnic minorities. True/False
      .Section 2 Test Your Skills
      Task ~: A College Professor's Monologue
      Exercise: Listen to the monologue of a college professor and answer
      the following questions by choosing A, B, C, Or D.
      I. What may be '(he speaker's specialty?
        A. A professor of speech.
        B. A professor of English.
        C. A professor of business administration.
        D. A professor of political science.
      2. What is true about the study of inter-personal communication since the Second?
        World War?
        A. There has been some growth,
      B. There has been a fast growth.
        C. There has been no growth.
      D. There has been a decline.
      3. Which of the following is the speaker's viewpoint?
      A. Animals communicate with one another.
         B. We should invite both the interviewer and the interviewee to parties.
         C. Communication plays an important role in business.
           D. We are able to tell people how to do business with others.
         4. What is the speaker's role in helping a southern bank to make more profit?
           A. Restructuring the banlc
           B. Providing consultation on management
           C. Helping to recruit qualified employees.
           D. Coordinating the interofEce and intraoffice communication.
         5. What was Ronald Reagan good at according to the speaker?
           A. Social reform.
           B. Economic reform.
           C. International affairs.
           D. Public relations.
         Task Indian Pupils Come Top
Exercise: Listen to the report and answer the following questions by choosing A, B, C, or D.
         I. According to the survey, which group in the following scored best?
           A. English children.
           B. Welsh children.
           C. Scots children.
           D. Asian children.
2. Which group in the following performed better than others?
  A. Students from Roman Catholic schools.
  B. Students from Church of England schools.
  C. Students from county schools.
  D. Students from the Caribbean community.
3. From the survey the boroughs and the government should learn that they should
  A. set good examples for other students to follow
B. make new syllabuses to suit the needs of most students
  C. allocate more fund to improve students' performance and motivate teachers
  D. close the schools showing bad results
4. What should be the right relationship between schools and parents?
  A. Parents should supervise schools.
  B. There is nothing parents can do.
  C. Schools should cooperate more closely with parents.
  D. Schools should expect more from the parents.
Section 3 Meet the Challenge
  Teacher Stress
Exercise 1: Fill the blanks in the following passage as you listen to the
report.
  The report____that life in the classroom is leaving teachers as casualties.
The numerous education changes in recent years______ aggressive pupils and
parents, are blamed for a sharp increase in the pressures teachers face, leaving many
unable to cope. It's something the profession has_____.This east London
office of the National Union of Teachers offers counseling for the many who
  One of the______of the situation is that we don't hear about the problems
until they've gone really too far, when we're talking about trying to assist members
as best we can who are heading for
  Carole Shaw is one of those teachers_________ the stress too much. She
taught languages to eleven to sixteen-year-olds at an east London school, but____ago she
resigned.
  Carole Shaw:"l had various________, and in the end I had to take more adore time
offworlc I think that there are just too many changes happening too fall
too many demands being made of people which I don't think are. I just
don't think you can pay attention to them all and do justice to them."
Exercise 2: Answer the following questions in no more than five wools.
  I. What is the annual financial cost of teacher stress?
  2. Write down at least one of the causes for teacher stress.
  3. What service does the London office of the National Union of Teachers offer
to the teachers who need help?
  4. What did Carole Shaw, one of those teachers who found the stress too much,
  do a few months ago?
  5. What is the estimated rate of teachers who suffer serious mental or physical
  stress?
  6. What is the rate of teachers who suffer from less serious illnesses?
  7. Write down one of the results caused by teacher stress.
  8. What is the purpose of the report guidelines?
  9. According to a teacher, what needs to be done to solve the problems of stress?
I 0. What does the Department of Education say about the report?
Unit 7
Section I Warm-up
Jobs Are Chief Cause of Stress
Exercise: You will hear a report on stress. As you listen, answer the
following questions by circling True or False.
I. Job worries were the number one cause of stress according to a
survey by BUPA. True/False
2. One in four people said that their relatives were a source of
stress. True/False
3. Nearly one in eight people became stressful because of their
worrying about their children.True/False
4. While men worry more about their job, women have more stress
caused by their children. True/False
5. Noisy neighbors, fear of crime and other people's cigarette smoke
were also important stress-causing factors according to the surveyTrue/False
6. Some people reacted to stress by becoming more irritable,
impatient or angry. True/False
7. Some people became sleepless, tired or unhappy because of stress.True/False
8. Some people tended to smoke more, eat more or take medicine
  if they were under stress.True/False
9. The most common solution to stress was to take a holiday
  somewhere. True/False
10. According to Dr. Thalami-Jones, people are less affected by
        external factors than personal matters. True/False
        Section 2 Test Your Skills
        Task f: Interviewing a Radio-TV Reporter
        Exercise: Listen to the interview and answer the following questions by choosing
A, B, C, or D.
        I. Who most influenced the woman's decision to become a reporter?
          A. Her father. B. Her mother.C. Her teachers. D. Her parents.
        2. Her father always told her that one of the most valuable things in life was
          A. NewspapersB. books C. an education D. happiness
        3. What did her father often encourage her to do?
          A. To read.B. To write.
          C. To listen. D. To associate with people.
        4. Which of the following is NOT a necessity in the woman's life?
          A. Newspapers.B. Movies.
          C. News magazines D. Books.
        5. What was the other thing her father repeated?
          A. Settle down and get married before getting a good start at life first.
        B. Put one's career before marriage.
        C. Family is more important than one's career
        D. Never get married and settle down.
       6. What is the woman's marital status?
        A. Single. B. Married. C. Divorced.D. Engaged.
       7. Why did the woman have an inferiority complex?
        A. She could not get along with other kids.
        B. She was born into a poor family.
        C. She had a birthmark on the right side of her face...
        D. She had bad grades in school.
       8. What did her mother say about her birthmark?
        A. It could be removed and she would become beautiful.
        B. It would become less noticeable when she grew up.
        C. The birthmark would make her more beautiful.
        D. She was not ugly at all with it
       9. Which of the following is not mentioned about what the woman could do?
        A. Be very funny.B. Write interesting things.
       C. Make people listen. D. Make people talk
       Task London Ballet Company to Close
       Exercise: Listen to the report and answer the following questions by choosing A, B,
C, or D.
        Why does the London City Ballet have to close?
        A. There has been a lack of audiences.
        B. The Prince of Wales is no longer their patron.
        C. Very few people would like to join the company.
        D. They have run out of money.
       2. How much money do audiences provide a year?
        A. 100 000 pounds.B. 500 000 pounds.
        C. I 700 000 pounds.D. 700 000 pounds.
       3. What role do patrons of the ballet company play?
        A. They raise funds for the company.
        B. They attract audiences to the shows.
        C. They allocate grant to the company.
        D. They help to make plans for the company.
       4. From whom does the company wish to get help?
        A. The Prince of Wales.B. The local government.
        C. The Arts Council. D. The audiences.
       Section 3 Meet the Challenge
       Five-Stroke Rule Will Devalue the Art of Riding
       Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks in the following paragraphs as you listen to the
monologue.
        The incident that cost me a_____ was in a small race at Taunton. Yet
       Adrian Maguire showed in last year's Gold Cup that the_____on using the stick go
out of the window in a big race.
          Following the Cheltenham showpiece, the steward’s had________but to suspend
Maguire for four days, since he was found to have hit Cool Ground 20 times from the
second last fence.
          Yet had he not done so, the horse________won--a fact which lends credence to
jockeys thinking that the stick makes a horse go fasten
          Jockeys are being________to defend the correct use of the stick because
        Some employees of the Jockey Clubs ____ butchers, thus creating a! Wedge
between the two parties instead of solving the problem. It has caused and is damaging to
the interests of racing.
          The Jockey Club brought in the I 0-stroke whip guideline, which I believe to be
nod, as it has improved the_______er, the Jockey Club meets next
        Monday____________s to five strokes, because of pressure mainly from he
RSPCA. This is___it will_________of riding.
          It is the whip itself. Although there are rules on the length and the width of the
stick, the material is more important
          I know the Jockey Club arethis. Felt-covered sticks are often used but they are
not the answer, because when it rains the felt soaks up and the stick can be more, not less,
severe than the conventional one.
        Exercise 2: Answer the following questions in no more than five words.
        I. What is the image of jockeys in the eyes of many people?
        ___________
        2. What does the speaker as a jockey think of this view?
        ______________
        3. How did jockeys one past try~ horses according to the speaker’s personal
experiences?
        __________
        4. What is the present guideline condemning whipping horses in the race?
        _____________
        5. Do ail the horse owners or trainers share the same attitude to whipping horses n
the race?
          ________________
        6. Why is the speaker being suspended from racing?
          _______________
        7. Why did he hit his racing horse more than I 0 strokes at the race?
          ______________
        8. Whom does a jockey work for?
        ___________________

      Unit8
        Popular Science
      Section I Warm-up
      Exercise: You will hear a dialogue about plastics. As you listen, answer the
following questions by circling True or False.
      I. At the beginning, Susan regards things made from plastics as
               worthless substitutes. True/False
               2. The watering can Giles and Susan bought was cheap because the
               color was painted on it True/False
               3. The paint of metal utensils becomes chipped when they are
               knocked against something hard.True/False
               4. If Giles' tape recorder weren't made of plastics, it would be much
               bigger. True/False
               5. According to Mr. Harvey, the plastics expert, people are wrong
               to call plastics substitutes.True/False
               6. Cheapness is the sole factor that makes plastics acceptable to
               industry.True/False
               7. The plastics industry is being asked to develop new products for
               a wide range of uses. True/False
               8.Susan's refrigerator does not have a door-catch.True/False
               9. Some floor tiles are made of PVC. True/False
               10. PVC has magnetic attraction. True/False
               Section 2 Test Your Skills
               Task 1: The Gases in the Air
         Exercise: Listen to the talk and answer the following questions by choosing A, B, C, or
         D.I. Which of the following gases can only be obtained from the air?
                A. Oxygen.
                B. Carbon dioxide.
                C. Nitrogen.
                D. Argon.
               2. What happens when liquid air is heated?
                A. It remains unchanged.
                B. It turns into a gas.
                C. It tums into a solid material.
                D. It tums into another liquid.
               3. On high mountains when breathing is very difficult, you' would feel
                A. sick
                B. dizzy
                C. depressed
                D. weak
4. Why do people who go down a mine after an explosion take containers of compressed oxygen
with them?
                A There may be little air down there.
                B. They are for the miners trapped down there.
                C. The air down there is poisoned.
                D. In case of an emergency.
               5. What would happen if pure oxygen were supplied to an ordinary fire?
                A. It would burn much faster
               B. It would remain the same.
               C. It would die down.
                D. It would cause an explosion.
                Task The Discovery of the Dinosaur
Exercise: Listen to the talk and answer the following questions by choosing A, B, C, or D.
                I. When did man begin to know about the existence of dinosaurs?
                  A. In early historic times.
                  B. Two centuries ago.
                  C. In the early days of the 19th century.
                  D. In the days before recorded history.
2. When people saw large bones in the earth in early historic times, they thought those were bones
of_____
                  A. animals
                B. giants
                C. other people
                D. savages
                3. What else was Dr. Mantell interested in besides medicine?
                  A. Rocks.
                  B. Animals.
                  C. Travel.
                  D. Fossils.
                4. Where did Hrs. Mantell see the remains of a dinosaur?
                  A. In the stones to be used to build the house.
                  B. In the stones beside the house.
                  C. In the stones far away from the road.
                  D. In the stones to be used to repair the road.
                Section S Meet the Challenge
                Problems of Space Travel
                Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks in the following passages as you listen to the talk.
                  Air, or what is called______, surrounds the whole earth. It is made up of
                A__. The _______in the air which is most important to us is oxygen.
                So you have probably learned, we breathe this oxygen into_____. There it is
                _______ The blood and carried to all parts of our bodies, it is ____for us to have
         sufficient oxygen if we are to go on living.
                  The atmosphere rises above us to a height of__________one hundred miles.
                Such a______ of air has a good deal of weight At sea level, for example, the
                air presses upon us with a weight of about fifteen pounds to the________. If you
                hold out your hand and try to feel this weight you will be_______. You cannot
                feel it because it presses with the same weight from_______. If it only pressed
                  ________ , you would feel it But since it presses_________too, and from all
                sides, these pressures are________________.
                exercise 2: Answer the following questions in no more than five words.
                I. What happens to the oxygen which enters our lungs?
                _______________________
                2. What is the approximate height of the atmosphere of the earth?
                __________________
      3. What is the approximate pressure of the air at sea level?
      _________________
      4. Why must people breathe faster when they climb a high mountain?
      ________________________
      5. What causes the unpleasant feeling in the ears which some airtravelers
experience?
      ____________________
      6. When is this unpleasant feeling noticed?
      __________-
      Unit 9
      Current Affairs
      Section I Warm-up
      The coming Russian Arms Boom
      Exercise: You will hear a report about Russian arms sale. As you listen, answer the
following questions by circling True or False.
        I. Russian arms exports are likely to increase. True/False
        2. The sales of Rosvooruzheniye, a state-owned firm, reached $6
      million in 1997.True/False
        3. Russia's arms sales may overtake Britain and the United States. True/False
        4. Russia's fighter-aircrafts were mainly sold to some Asian countries. True/False
        5. India used to be the biggest customers for Russia's defense technology.
True/False
        6. Malaysia didn't order much Russian weaponry in t 995.True/False
        7. Indonesia signed a big contract with Russia in t 997.True/False
      8. Russian arms sales are booming partly because it's selling almost anything to
anybody.True/False
      9. Russia's old customers have been complaining about the high prices
      of its weapons.True/False
      10. In five years, Russian arms will be out-dated.True/False
      Section 2 Test Your Skills
      Task//': What Kind of a Car Do You Drive?
      Exercise: Listen to the talk and answer the following questions by choosing A, B,
C, or D.
      I. What does the speaker think of Henry Ford's standardization in making cars?
        A. It is still the most modernized method.
        B. People are wrong to prove that Ford was wrong.
        C. it was very advanced in the 191 Os but is out of date now.
        D. Black is still one of the most popular car colors.
      2. What is a typical "Sierra man"?
        A. A young and powerful man.
        B. A young and ambitious junior manager.
        C. A man who has fulfilled his career ambitions.
        D. A family man who likes sports,
      3. What is a typical "Galaxy man"?
                A. He pays more attention to his work than his family.
              B. He has not realized his ambition yet.
              C. He pays equal attention to his work and his family.
              D. He pays more attention to his family than his wore
              4. Which of the following makes aims at the rich and wealthy people?
              A. Ford.
              B. Volkswagen.
              C. Toyota.
                D. BMW.
              5. Who owned the car when it first entered a household?
                A. The eldest son.
                B. The wife.
                C. The daughter.
                D. The father.
              6. What kind of cars would attract women customers?
                A. Fast and economical.
              B. Powerful and economical.
              C. Reliable and economical.
              D. Colorful and economical.
              7. What was the name Rolls Royce associated with?
              A. Entrepreneurs.
              B. Aristocracy.
              C. Car-racers.
              D. Managers.
              Task Unexpected Questions in Job Interviews
              Exercise: Listen to the talk and answer the following questions by choosing A, B,
        C, or D.
              I. Why do companies increasingly ask applicants strange questions in interviews?
                A. To test the applicant's range of knowledge.
                B. To find out the applicant's IQ.
                C. To find out the applicant's true personality.
                D. To confirm the applicant's qualifications.
              2. What is the correct answer to the question in an aptitude test?
                A. A smart answer.
              B. A funny answer.
              C. An honest answer.
                D. A rational answer.
              3. When are aptitude tests often used?
                A. For important posts.
                B. For all sorts of jobs.
                C. For confidential jobs.
                D. For sports management
4. Some companies ask detailed questions about an irrelevant subject to test the applicant's ability
to
         A. think creatively
         B. give a quick response
         C. solve a particular problem
         D. guess the correct answer
       Section 3 Meet the Challenge
         Press Conference of
         Beijing's Bidding for the 2008 Olympiad
       Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks in the following passage as you listen to the dialogue.
         There has been an average annual increase of_____ in Beijing's revenue in the
past five years. There is a________ revenue increase in January 2001 than n January
2000. In 1996, the revenue of Beijing Municipality was RMB, and this figure doubled in
2000, reaching. _____ RMB, of which over_____ yuan can be used for infrastructure
construction in each fiscal year. It means that all the venues could be completed __ two
years' financial support from the government. That is only our guarantee capacity funding
from other sources. We hope that these projects will be financed more by sources from
the society, including______from oversea companies.
         Secondly, we have capability for construction. Beijing's total area under
construction for 1998, 1999, and 2000 was 64 910 000, 65 560 000, and ___square
meters respectively. The total completed floor space in 1998,
       1999, and 2000 was 18 210 000, 23 210 000, and square meters respectively.
This____ our great construction capacity. The total number of construction enterprises
with grade 4 certificates in 2000 reached________. With a total ofemployees. There
would be over I million construction
       workers in Beijing if the construction enterprises from outside Beijing are
       Therefore, the construction capacity is not a problem.
       Exercise 2: Answer the following questions in no more than five words.
       I. How many sports venues are needed to host the 2008 Olympic Games? How
many are available now? And how many need to be built?
       _________________
       2. What is the lOC requirement concerning the timetable for the construction of the
venues?
       _____________
       3. What kind of companies have been entrusted to make detailed construction
plans for the venues to be built?
       _________________
       4. Who will be responsible for the construction quality?

      5. How much will the permanent investment for the 37 venues amount to?
      _______________
      Unit 10
      Cultural Differences
      Section I Warm-up
      Rules in SpeaRin8
      Exercise: You will hear a talk on rules of speaking. As you listen,
      answer the following questions by circling True or False.
        I. Rules of speaking are usually studied in a formal way. True/False
        2. Some things about a language cannot be taught in textbooks.True/False
        3. The main point of this talk is that directness is characteristic of American
verbal interaction. True/False
        4. The three general topics of the talk are saying thank you," offering food, and
having a date. True/False
        5. The example of the Americans' use of thank you" is used in the
        introduction of the talk to illustrate that certain words and phrases
        are used differently in various cultures. True/False
        6. The speaker implies throughout the talk that one should learn
      the tacit and unwritten rules of speaking in a foreign culture in
        order to understand the people. True/False
        7. The brief interaction between the student and her professor is
      used to illustrate the teacher-student relationship.True/False
        8. The speaker implies that silence in conversations means disapproval
      and disagreement in American culture. True/False
      9. Americans will like a person who talks most of the time during a
        conversation.True/False
      10. The final point of the talk is that people from various cultures
        share common needs but express them differently. True/False
      Section 2 Test Your Skills
      Task 1: Awareness of Time
      Exercise: Listen to the following interview and answer the questions by choosing
A, B, C, or D.
      I. In the United States, people who arrive late for appointments may be considered
        A. impolite
        B. dependable
        C. lazy
        D. important
      2. The idea that "time is tangible" in American culture means
        A. time is a material object (such as a car)
        B. time cannot be wasted
        C. time is treated as a possession
        D. time passes quickly
      3. Office calendars and separate business activities illustrate the idea that
        A. Americans are poor at controlling their time
      B. activities are usually done "one at a time"
      C. the customer is not as important as the secretary
        D. Americans don't like to socialize in the office
      4. The American orientation toward the future might be demonstrated by
        A. a high standard of living
        B. presence of large urban areas
        C. people's lifestyles
         D. the limited role of tradition
       Task Awareness of Space
       Exercise: Listen to the following talk and answer the questions by choosing A, B,
C, or D.
       I. Winston Churchill's quote, "We shape our buildings and they shape us;' means
         A. we cannot live without buildings
         B. we should design good buildings
         C. the shapes of buildings determine culture completely
         D. the buildings we built have an effect on us
       2. What feature does the layout of most American homes reveal?
         A. Spaciousness.
         B. Multi-functions of one room.
         C. Complexity.
         D. Separateness of space.
       3. What is the point Donald Keene makes in his book Living Japan?
         A. The Japanese view of privacy is different from that of the West
         B. Privacy is only a Western concept
         C. Privacy is not important to the Japanese.
         D. The Japanese don't know what privacy is.
       4. What does an American usually do if he needs privacy?
         A. He uses his car.
         B. He shuts himself in a room.
       C. He keeps everything to himself.
       D. He turns to his close friend.
       Section S Meet the Challenge
         .Nonverbal communication
       Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks in the following passage while listen to the talk.
       Facial expressions carry meaning determined by________ For instance,
         the smile, which is typically an_______ of pleasure, has many functions. A
       woman's smile at a policeman who is about to give her______ does not carry
       the same meaning as the smile she gives to a young child. A smile may show
         _______, convey politeness, or _____ true feelings, _______ is
       conveyed by a grimace, which also signifies disgust or________ .. Surprise, shock,
       or disbelief can be shown by raising the . A given to a
       friend may mean "You and I have a secretor’s just kidding." Between a man and
       a woman, a wink______ flirtatious. Our faces easily reveal emotions and attitudes.
       Exercise 2: Answer the following questions in no more than three words.
       I. What would be a good alternative title for this talk?
       __________________
       2. Write down at least two categories of nonverbal communication mentioned
in!the talk
       3. In which part of the world does the American "OK" gesture convey obscene II
         meaning?
       4. In which country does the same gesture symbolize money?
                5. What are the three functions of smile?
                6. What does too little eye contact in a conversation probably indicate in American
                  culture?
                7. What do the "body bubbles" mean?
                8. When an American accidentally touches or bumps into another person, he or
                she may say,” Pardon me" or” Excuse me.” Why?
                Unit 11
                Crime
                Section I Warm-Up
                Causes of Crime
                Exercise: You will hear a dialogue. As you listen, answer the following questions
         by circling True or False.
                  I. The classical school of criminology was popular in the early 18th
                century.True/False
                  2. The classical school believed that "free will" is one of the major
                  sources of crime. True/False
                  3. According to the classical school, crimes should be prevented or
                  stopped by punishing the criminals.True/False
                  4. Anglo-Saxon criminal law was mainly based on the principle of
                the classical school of criminologyTrue/False
                  5. Generally, crime rates were not high in neighborhoods of the
                  working class. True/False
                  6. Shakespeare is quoted to explain a popular belief that man's
                  physical features explain his character.True/False
                7. The biological explanation of crime is a scientific one. True/False
                8. Many people believe that those who have very large ears and
                  long arms are born criminals. True/False
                9. According to Marxist view, the criminal justice systems in capitalist
                  countries protect the interests of the middle class.True/False
                10. According to the same theory, poor people may commit crimes
                because they have been exploited by the owner class. True/False
                Section 2 Test Your Skills
                Task1: Categories of Crime
                Exercise: Listen to the talk and answer the following questions by choosing A, B,
         C, or D.
                I. Which of the following is appropriate to describe professional theft?
                  A. Violent
                  B. Working part-time.
                  C. Cheating.
                  D. Uneducated.
2. The distinction between professional "heavy" crime and semi-professional crime is in
                  A. different means
                  B. different targets
                C. different areas
                  D. different abilities
                3. Semiprofessional criminals often act
                  A. in groups
                  B. with a partner
                  C. alone
                  D. well prepared
                4. Which of the following is true about "car strippers"?
                  A. They take items of property from cars.
                  B. They keep the stolen vehicles for themselves.
                  C. They sell the parts obtained from the stolen cars.
                  D. They are usually teenagers.
                5. What do "joy-riders" do?
                  A. They enjoy riding with car-owners and then steal their cars.
                  B. They take funny things from the stolen cars.
                  C. They make fun of car-owners by stealing their cars.
                  D. They drive the stolen cars for short-run pleasure.
                Task 2: Organizational and Occupational Crime
                  Vocabulary
                Exercise: Listen to the talk and answer the following questions by choosing A, B,
         C, or D.
                  Which of the following offenses belongs to organizational crime?
                  A. Theft.
                  B. Robbery.
                C. Embezzlement.
                D. Consumer fraud.
                2. Which of the following offenses belongs to occupational crime?
                  A. Violation of labor law.
                B. Some computer crimes.
                  C. Water pollution.
                  D. Unfair trade practices.
3. A study shows that motor-vehicle, drug, and oil refining industries contributed of all
manufacturing violations.
                  A. 40%
                  B. 60%
                  C. nearly 50%
                  D. more than 50%
                4. Why is safe-cracking decreasing?
                  A. Because business companies use fewer safes.
                  B. Because stealing through a computer is faster.
                  C. Because it is hard to get away with a safe.
                  D. Because companies no longer keep large sums of money in safes.
                Section 3 Meet the Challenge
Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks in the following passage as you listen to the dialogue.
                Well, the law is enforced by______, ranging from judges in the House of Lords
         and the superior courts to lay justices who, together with juries in certain cases, are
         responsible for deciding disputed cases. Courts are _______ by judges I and magistrates.
         Judges are_____ being appointed from the ranks of practicing barristers and advocates or
         solicitors. Lay magistrates in England and Wales, and justices of the peace in Scotland,
         are trained in order to give them_____ of the law, including the rules of evidence, and of
         the nature and purpose of sentencing& Lay magistrates are_____ on the law by
         magistrates' clerks. The Lord Chancellor appoints lay magistrates from nameslocal
         advisory committee. The two branches of the profession haveprofessional bodies: the Bar
         Council for barristers; and the Law Society for solicitors.
                Exercise 2: Answer the following questions with no more than three words.
                I. How many different legal systems are there in the UK?.
                ______________
                2. What are the major divisions of laws?
                ____________
                3. What are the past decisions of the courts called?
____________
4. There are no legal limits on what may be done by Act of Parliament except concerning
_________
Unit 12
Environment
Section I Warm-up

Exercise: You will hear a talk. As you listen, answer the following1 questions by circling True or
False.
 I. In 1849, Mr. Thomas Austin released 24 wild English rabbits on his
 land in Australia. True/False
 2. Within ten years, Mr. Austin had killed 20 000 rabbits. True/False
 3. Mr. Austin estimated there were still 10000 wild rabbits on or
 near his land.True/False
 4. Before 1900, rabbits were found everywhere in Australia.True/False
 5. The wire-mesh fence was very successful in keeping rabbits out.True/False
 6. In 1950, the Australian government officials estimated rabbits were
 eating 25 to 30 million sheep.True/False
 7. For a while, Australia was exporting 17 million rabbit skins a year. True/False
 8. Rabbits have less economic value than sheep. True/False
 9. The wheat bulb fly and other varieties of flies can be killed by
 poisons, but rabbits cannot.True/False
10. Some rabbits have been able to survive myxomatosis, a deadly
       virus used to kill them.True/False
       Section 2 Test Your Skills
       Task/: Pollution of Air
       Exercise: Listen to the talk on air pollution and answer the following questions by choosing
A, B, C, or D.
        I. How many tons of air is there in the world at least?
      A. 7 million. B. 7 billion.C. 7 trillion.D. 7 quadrillion,
        2. What does the speaker say about the air today?
        A. It is thinner than before.
        B. It is as pure as it used to be.
        C. It is worse than it was in the past.
        D. It is not breathable by human beings.
        3. How much carbon monoxide do the world's automobiles produce every day?
      A. 600 000 tons.B. 500 000 tons.
        C. 700 000 tons.D. 400 000 tons.
        4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a source of air pollution?
        A. Chemical plants.B. Automobiles.
        C. Food processing.D. Smelting factories.
        5. What do doctors believe is a contributing factor in lung cancer?
        A. Fog. B. Dust. C. Ash.D. Smog.
      6. Which of the following can absorb carbon dioxide?
      A. The ocean waters. B. Plants.C. The sun.D. Oxygen.
        7. How long will it take to add 6 billion tons of carbon dioxide to the air if the
      world's industrial areas continue to grow at the present rate? -
      A. 50 years. B. 100 years. C. 150 years. D. 200 years.
        8. What is the rising rate of the earth's average temperature?
      A. I or 2 degrees centigrade per 100 years.
      B. I or 2 degrees centigrade per 50 years.
      C. I or 2 degrees Fahrenheit per 100 years.
      D. I or 2 degrees Fahrenheit per 200 years.
        9. Under the greenhouse effect,
      A. sunlight can't pass through the air
      B. the heat from the earth can't get into outer space
      C. it's hard to forecast the weather
      D. carbon dioxide stays in the air
      I 0. If the temperature rose at the present rate, it would
      A. melt half the world's ice caps
      B. raise the sea level everywhere by about 13 meters
      C. be hot enough to cause deaths in many cities
      D. bring about a limited supply of land
      Task Pollution of the Water
      Exercise: Listen to the talk on water pollution and answer the following questions by
choosing A, B, C, or D.
      I. How much water is there on the earth?
        A. 368 million square kilometers.
      B. 3.2 kilometers.
        C. I 164 million cubic kilometers.
        D. I 230 million cubic kilometers.
        2. How has the water volume changed on the earth?
      A. The total amount has increased.
B. More water has gone into the rivers and lakes.
C. The total amount has remained more or less the same.
D. The proportion between sea water and fresh water has changed.
3. Which of the following is true about fish and marine mammals?
A. More salt-water fish are on the danger list than marine mammals.
B. There are more fish on the over-fished list than those on the danger list.
  C. The amount of freshwater fish has been decreased more than that of saltwater ones
D. The amount of salt water fish has been fresh I more that of freshwater ones
4. Which of the following is true about blue whales?
  A. They all weigh more than 100 tons and are more than 100 feet long.
  B. 14 000 of them are killed every year.
  C. There are more than 600 of them in the oceans today.
  D. They are bigger than all the other varieties of whales.
Section 3 Meet the Challenge
Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks in the following passage as you listen to the recording.
The____ is one of our most important means of knowing what is going
on around us. We are______ danger by sounds--by a siren or a rattling snake.
Sounds_______ to please us in music. Sound has a waste product, too,
of noise.
  Scientists, for several years, have been studying how noise_____ people
and animals. They are______ what they have learned, ______ are becoming
harder to find. Noise pollution--the crashing, squeaking, banging, hammering of
peopleis no_____ . It is______ that should be looked at carefully.
  Sound is______ in units called "decibels’ At______ 140 decibels people
feel pain in their ears. Automobiles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, airplanes, boats,
--all these things make noise, ______ not only our ears, but our
minds and bodies as well.
Exercise 2: Answer the following questions in no more than five words.
  I. Why is the sense of sound so important to us?
  _____________
2. How is sound measured ?
_________________
3. How will people feel when they hear sounds at a level of 140 decibels?
________________
4. Write at least three things that make noise.
  _________________
5. What do doctors who study noise believe?
  _________________
6. Give an example of occupational noise.
  ___________________
7. When do airplanes make great noise?
  ________________________
8. What vehicles cause the most problems in traffic noise?
  ________________
       9. Give two examples of outdoor noise.
       ____________________
       I 0. What are the things that cause indoor noise?
       ______________________
       Transcript and Key
       Unit1
       People
       Section I Excerpt from Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography
         My brother had, in 1720 or 1721, begun to print a newspaper. It was th~
       second that appeared in America. I remember his friends trying to persuade him
         not to attempt it, since it probably would not be successful. One newspaper was, inI
       their judgment, enough for America. He went on, however, and I was employed to
       carry the papers through the streets to the people.
       He had some clever men among his friends whose writings added to the success
         of the newspaper. These gentlemen often visited us. Hearing their conversation
       and their accounts of the approval their articles had received, I became excited am
 decided to write a piece of my own. But still being a boy, and suspecting that my
         brother would object to printing anything of mine, I wrote an article and left it
       unsigned. At night, I put it under the door of the printing house. It was found in the
       morning, and shown to his writing friends when they came to visit They read it an gave
their opinions. I had the wonderful pleasure of finding it met with their approval,
         and that, in their different ~uses as to the author, they named men of learning and
         imagination. I suppose that perhaps my writings were not as good as I then thought
         Encouraged by this judgment, however, t wrote and delivered in the same way
 several more articles which were also approved; and I kept my secret till I just about ran out of
ideas. When my brother finally found out, he was not exactly please Perhaps this might be one
cause for arguments that we began to have about this time.
       Though a brother, I was his apprentice and he considered himself my master.
       He expected the same services from me as he would from another, while I thought
         he asked’ too much of a brother. Our arguments were often brought before our
         father, and I guess I was either generally in the right, or else a better debater, because
       the judgment was usually in my favor. But I disliked my apprenticeship and wished
       or some opportunity to end it I sold some of my books to get a little money and,
       with the help of a friend, made arrangements for my trip with a captain of a New
       York ship.
         In three days I found myself in New York nearly 300 miles from home. I was
       but a boy of 17, without the least recommendation to or knowledge of any person
       in the place, and with very little money in my pocket
         Having a trade, and supposing myself a good worker, I offered my services to
       the printer in the place, old Mr. William Bradford, who had been the first printer in
       Pennsylvania before he moved to New York He could give me no employment but
       he said,” My son in Philadelphia needs an assistant and if you go there, I believe he
       may hire you."
       I. False 2. False 3. True 4. True 5. False 6. False 7. False 8. False 9. False
10. False
Section 2Task I The Early Life of Clara Barton
  Clara Barton was born on a farm in Oxford, Massachusetts, on Christmas Day,
182 I. She learned to ride horses almost before she could wall Though Clara was
a shy child, she had no fear of animals. But people frightened her, and when she first
went to school-away from her family--she was terrified. Her parents then decided
to educate her at home. Her two sisters were both teachers, and they helped her
to study at home until she was eleven years old.
  Then, her brother David had a bad accident He fell from the top of a barn and
was hurt Clara nursed him. She knew just how to make her brother comfortable;
she stayed with him day and night until he was strong enough to leave his bed. The
family was surprised to see the shy child became such an excellent nurse. Later, she
nursed one of the farm workers who had smallpox, a disease that could be spread
from one person .to another. Smallpox spread throughout the town and Clara
visited all the sick people, doing whatever she could to help them.
  When Clara was fifteen years old, she began to teach in the school near her
home. The children liked her very much, and for ten years Clara taught, She saved
her money so that she could go to Clinton, New York to the Liberal Institute school
there. More than anything else, she wanted to complete her education.
  When her family moved to Bordentown, New Jersey, Clara noticed that there
were many children of very poor families who, because they did not have. the money
to go to school, spent their time in idleness, standing on the streets, fighting, and
getting into trouble. Clara was disturbed by the sight of these children. She offered
a free school to them. She found an old empty building and began to teach six
children there. Within five weeks, six hundred children had come.
Task 2 George Gashing
  The American musician George Gashing once said:” My people are American;
my time is today." He believed that music should express the thought and feeling of
its own time in history
  Gashing was born in New York City in 1898, the second of four children. As
a boy he was restless, energetic and stubborn. He did not particularly like school,
and he was often in trouble.
In 1910 George began to study music with a piano. In 1912 he became the
pupil of Charles Habitué, who recognized George's genius and was to be the
most important influence in his development. Habitué gave George direction
and training and through Habitué’s influence George began to pay attention to
serious music and to go to concerts. Though his lessons included only classical
music, George's own compositions were popular songs. After Habitué’s death in
  1918, George began to work with Edward Killen, a Hungarian musician who became
his second most important teacher. Killen taught him musical theory and how to
write for the orchestra.
George made an attempt to play the piano on the stage, but this was unsuccessful.
  In 1919 George published a musical comedy, La, La, Lucile. The first of Grecian’s
  songs which has remained popular was written during this period.
      In 1924 the now world-famous Rhapsody in Blue was performed for the fist time. The
concert was a poorest success and brought weary& an6 fame to ~ composer.
      It has been played hundreds of times, by performers in many countries, and is known
      around the world. The Rhapsody made jazz respectable and has remained one of
      the most popular works in serious modern music.
        Grecian’s last serious work was ?orgy a,,dBess which was regarded as a true
      American opera. It tells a story about people who seem very real and who are
      shown in moments of great, emotion. The show ran for 120 performances, and was
      only moderately successful. Gashing did not live to see the triumph of the work
      that he considered his best creation. He died in 1937 at the early age of 39. He had
      brought a new language to serious music in America and had enriched American
      popular music with dozens of unforgettable melodies.
      3 Ford
      On July 30, 1863, Henry Ford was born to a family of farmers 'In the state o~
        Michigan. He was the eldest of six children. On the peaceful farm, quark from cities
      and stores, tools had to be made and repaired without outside help. Henry love make things.
Even when he was still a young boy, he could take a watch apart a put it together again. Soon he
was repairing the watches and clocks of all the neighbors, as well as those of his own fame
However, Henry did not want to stay in the country. After many disagreements
        with his father, Henry went to Detroit, the nearest large city. While working in
      Detroit he began to think about more efficient ways of making watches. He designed
        a machine that could make 2 000 watches a day--but he did not know how he
        would sell so many watches in Detroit and so he abandoned the idea.
      Only nine months after his arrival in Detroit, he had to give up city life because
      his father needed help on the farm. When he was only twenty years old, Henry built
      his first "farm locomotive." It was powered by a steam engine. He was able to move
      it forty feet from the barn, but he couldn't make it go further. After marrying Clara
      Bryant, he seemed to have forgotten about the "farm locomotive" and spent three
      quiet years in the country. But soon he was busy designing a startling new machine
      that would run under its own power and carry people. He called it a "horseless
      carriage."
        In September 189 t, the Fords put everything they owned into a wagon and left
      their farm for Detroit where he could get the necessary money to build his machine.
      the Detroit, Henry soon became Chief Engineer for the town electric company. At
      home, he spent all of his free time, as well as a lot of money, in a brick barn behind
      his house, working on his plan. In April 1893, the carriage was finally finished, and
      Ford tried to move it for the first time. It was not perfect, but it worked!
        Many other inventors were working with electricity, steam and other methods
      of making a practical automobile. But Ford continued to experiment with an engine
      powered by gasoline. Finally, in 1903, he built a car that was light Iowa to the ground
      and fast enough to race against other cars. He called his automobile the "999" after
      a famous express train and entered it in a three-mile race. It won, and its record of
      speed became known around the world. One week after the race, Ford was able to
      establish the Ford Motor Company.
  Henry Ford made his fortune through his business ability, as well as his skill in
invention. He established three rules for running his company: (1) bring the work
to the workman; (2) provide service after the sale; (3) always build your factory near
deep water. The first rule is seen in mass production, the manufacture of large
numbers of things that are just alike, each worker performing only on part of the
whole operation. Ford developed the assembly line method of production. Service
after the sale was insured by standardization, making machines of a definite size and
shape so that every one would be just like all the others and so that a certain part
would fit in its proper place in any of the machines. The assembly line and
standardization made possible the production of large numbers of cars in a short
time at Iowa cost. Ford followed the third rule by shipping material to his factories
by water, thus making the cost of transportation lower than it would have been by
railroad.
  The famous Model T Ford, the "Tin Lizzie," was first shown to the public in
1909. it was tall and awkward-looking but it was built to last, and to travel on almost
any kind of road. It had four wheels, a seat, a top, and a gasoline engine. As for
colors, Ford said, "You can have any color, so long as it's black" The production of
the Model T lasted for eighteen years. In 191 I, 35 000 cars were sold; in 1916, half
a million; and by 1927, the year when the last Model T was built, 15 000 000Tin
Lizzies had been sold throughout the world.
  On April 7, 1947, Henry Ford, the American industrial genius who made the
automobiles affordable to millions of ordinary people, died at the age of 83.
Unit2
Places
Section I Asking Directions
  (A is a woman and B is a man.)
  Ac Excuse me, please.
  B: Yes? Can I help you?
  A: Can you tell me where the post office is?
  B: Yes. It's only a few blocks from here. It's on the comer of 12th and Adams.
  A: Which way is that?
  B: Go straight up this street for two blocks.
  A: That will be 12th Street, won't it?
  B: That's right_ Tum left there, and go two blocks. That will take you to the post office.
  A: Thank you very much.
  B: rm going that way myself. I'll walk along with you, if you don't mind.
  A: No, not at all. That would be very nice.
  B: My name is Waiter Carpenter.
  A: How do you do, Mr. Carpenter My name is Sally Wilson.
B: Glad to know you, Mm. Wilson. Are you here in Newport on business?
A: No, I've just moved here. I've been here three days, but I don't know my way
  around yet
B: rm with the Newport Paper Company. rma salesman.
A: I'm a civil engineer, rm going to work for the city government.
      B: That sounds very interesting. Do you have a family, Mrs. Wils0n?
      A: Yes. My husband and I have two children. Our son is fifteen, and our daughter is
        sixteen.
      B: They will be going to high school, won't they?
      A: Yes, they will.
      B: Maybe they'll get acquainted with my children, then.have a son sixteen and a
        daughter fifteen.
      A: I hope so.
      B: Here's the post office.
      A: Thank you for showing me the way, Mr. Carpenter. It was nice to meet you.
      B: Nice to have met you, Mrs. Wilson. Good-bye.
      A: Good-bye.
      Section 2Task I The Tropical Rain Forest
      In jungles there is otten a thick undergrowth along the ground. It is so thick that
      in order to get through the jungle, men have to cut it with large knives. There are
        many huge trees, and large vines hang down from them so that their tops cannot be
      seen from the ground. It is quite dark there because the leaves and vines keep out
the sunlight This kind of jungle, called a tropical rain forest is found in many places near the
Equator.
      In these forests it is always hot and damp. Rain falls almost every day of the
      year, and the ground is never dry. There is no spring, summer, winter, or fall, but
      only a dry season and a rainy season. In the dry season, there is less rain, but there
      isnever a time when the rain stops altogether Nights and days are almost the same
      length throughout the year.
        The largest tropical rain forest in the world is in the great valley of the Amazon
      River in South America. This is not a region where it is easy for man to live, because
      of the thick jungles, the heat, the dampness, the millions of insects, and the poor soil.
      Nevertheless, there are people who live on this land, and who farm
        If you flew over the Amazon valley in an airplane, you would see clearings here
      and there. Most of these clearings are near rivers. Rivers are roads in the jungle.
      People can travel on them in boats from one place to another
      Task 2 Switzerland
        Switzerland is a small country in the middle of Europe, famous for its beautiful
      scenery, its unique banking facilities, and the excellence of its manufactured products,
      especially watches and clocks. The country is a federal republic and is officially known
      as the Swiss Confederation. Its total area is 15 940 square miles, and the population
      in 1995 was 6 905 000. It is bounded on the north by Germany, on the east by
      Austria and Liechtenstein, on the south by Italy, and on the west by France. The
      capital city is Berne.
        The people of Switzerland fall into four distinct groups, each speaking a separate
      language and generally following different religious practices: the German Swiss, the
      French Swiss, the Italian Swiss, and the Rhaeto-Roman Swiss. However, the good
      will that exists among them enables them to live and work together The statistics
      show that about 5 percent of the population was foreign-born. Nevertheless, the
existence of these separate groups, as well as the foreign-born population, has not
prevented the formation of a type of person that can be recognized as the typical
Swiss: rather short, with brown or blond hair, and dark or gray eyes. The Swiss are
known all over the world for their devotion to work, their efficiency, and their keen
business sense. They love to travel, and many of them live outside of Switzerland
without giving up their Swiss nationality. Now over 160 000 of them are living
abroad, mainly in France, Germany, Italy, and the United States.
  There are four official languages in Switzerland. German, in the form of the
Swiss dialec-L is spoken by about 72 percent of the population, and is spreading into
the French-speaking areas. French, the next most widely-spoken language, is used
by about 20 percent, mostJy in the neighborhood of Lake Geneva in the southwestern
part of the country and along the French border. Italian is spoken by 6 percent of
the population, almost exclusively in the southeast, next to Italy. Finally about I
percent of the population speak Romansch, a language derived from Latin, like Italian
and French, but different from them.
Section 3Bill's Visit to Washington
  Dear Ed,
  This is our last day in Washington. I think we have spent almost all of it in the
  car. There were a lot of places we wanted to visit
  The first place we visited this morning was the Arlington National Cemete~ tt
is across the Potomac River from Washington, in Virginia. After we had visited the
cemetery, we drove past the Pentagon, the famous building with five sides where
many military offices are. It is one of the largest office buildings in the world. It has
as many people in it as a small city. Then we came back into Washington and visited
  the Library of Congress. This is the largest library in the United States. I don't know
how many books it has, but I know it has a lot. It has several big reading rooms, and
  hundreds of people go there every day to study,
The Library of Congress is near the Capitol, which we saw on our first day in
  Washington. The Supreme Court Building is also nearby. We didn't have time to go
  inside these buildings today, but it was interesting to see them again from the outside.
  I took lots of pictures.
  This afternoon we drove to Mount Vernon, the home of George Washington.
It is a museum now. It took us about half an hour to drive out there on a nice new
  highway. I suppose when Washington lived there it took him all day to ride that far
on a horse. Mount Vernon is a beautiful old house on a hill that looks over the
Potomac River. You can walk through the rooms and see the kind of furniture they
used to have long ago. All the buildings at Mount Vernon are kept the way they
were when Washington lived there. You can see the tools they had. You can see
how all the farm work was done. It was really interesting. I think I'll write something
about it for history class when I get back in school this fall.
  ram writing this letter just before dinner. This evening we're going to a baseball
game.
  We're going to leave very early tomorrow morning. My father says we're going
to get up at four o'clock He wants to get started before the traffic on the roads gets
heavy. I don't know whether I can wake up that early or not They may have to take
me to the car while ram still asleep. We'll be home the day after tomorrow, and I'll
see you then. rill have lots of stories to tell you about our trip.
Sincerely,
  Bill
Unit3
Travel
Section I Heathrow Runways
British Midland Airway have called for more planes to be allowed to use Heathrow
  airport They've suggested a package of measures which would mean that another
  200 aircraft will be able to take off or land every day. But there's been a furious
reaction from people who live near the airport who say it would mean even more
noise and disruption.
  With passenger numbers expected to double between now and 2000, Britain
is already chronically short of airport capacity. Despite the possibility of a fifth
terminal, Heathrow will run out of space next year, and the experts agree a new
runway would be needed somewhere in the south-east within a decade. In the
meantime, British Midland say capacity at Heathrow could be increased by ten per
cent with what they call mixed operation. At present the airport has two parallel
runways. In the morning, airplanes will land on one of them, and take off on the
other, giving residents in Langford and Hatton some break from the noise. After 3
o'clock in the afternoon the situation is reversed, so those living in Cranford and
Stan well Moor get a bit of a rest With mixed mode operation, both runways would
be used for take-offs and landings, meaning all areas would be subject to constant
daytime noise. This method is already used at Gatwick with its single runway, and in
the States, and it's said to be no more dangerous than the existing system.
  Heathrow is a vital national asset It is a hub airport for Britain and if we don't
develop Heathrow vigorously and allow it to rise to its full potential, the traffic will
simply be taken away, not to other British airports but it will fly from Brussels or
Amsterdam or Paris.
  British Midland also want to increase capacity by cutting down on the interval
between planes, and by lengthening the working day by an hour. All this meets with
heavy local opposition.
  One of the local residents said, "We'll certainly go to the Minister and say that
he really should not consider this, inflicting this on the people round Heathrow."
They really do have enough to put up with already.
  And Michael Rainer has more to put up with than most. He's taken his fight
against aircraft noise to the European Court of Human Rights, for the farm he runs
near Colebrook is directly under the flight-path of Heathrow's northern runway. If
  British Midland get their way, he'll no longer get half a day's break from the worst of
the noise.
Mr. Rainer said, "It would affect our lives very seriously, and certainly something
that I would want to fight very hard to prevent happening:'
Today MPs from the Heathrow area met up to organize opposition to the
         British Midland proposals, and to ask the CAA to ignore them.
       One of the MPs said,"My constituents in Stanwell organize their day by that 3
       o'clock switch. Ifthey've got to go shopping, to visit friends, they do it at the noisy
       time of the day, and do their gardening and sit at home when it's quiet, and rm
       blowed if rm going to allow the profits of British Midland to be put before the sort
       of peace of mind of the residents of Stanwell."
         In the meantime,the Department of Transport is actively looking at the proposals
       but won't comment further. In the context of the 1990s, the government can't
       afford to ignore ideas like this; it's also a long way from giving them the go-ahead.
       Section 2Task I On the Beach in Puerto Rico
         (A is a girl and B is a boy)
       A: Do you really live here in Puerto Rico? You're lucky!
B: Yes, my family moved here from New York two years ago. The climate here is perfect
       k I certainly do envy you, Joe. I wish we could go swimming all the year round
         where I live. This is the most beautiful beach rve ever seen.
         B: The beaches on the other end of the island are even better.
         A: That's hard to believe.
 B: The nicest thing is that there aren't many people here. You have miles and miles of sand and
palm trees, all to yourself.
 A: The wonderful thing is having a beach right here in the city, just two blocks from your school.
         B: Have you taken any trips outside of San Juan yet?
         A: Not yet, but we're planning to.
         B: Be sure you go to the tropical rain forest It's very interesting.
         A~ Where's that?
       B: It's up in the mountains about an hour's drive from here. After you get there, you can
drive down the mountains to the other side of the island.
       A: What's the landscape like over there?
       B: It's comRletely different from here. It's almost a desert. It never rains there, but
       we get lots of rain on this side of the island.
       A: That doesn't sound very nicethe rain, I mean.
       B' Oh, it's not too bad. The rain always falls at the same time of day, about noon.
       The weather is always clear at night Everybody here has outdoor parties at ni~
       A: You're certainly making me envious. I'm going to hate to go home. It's freezing
       cold where I live, and there's about a foot of snow on the ground.
       B: That's what everybody says who visits Puerto Rico from the North.
       Task 2 Cameras Trap Sport ding Drivers
         More than 400 speeding drivers have been trapped by a spy camera in the
       center of Oxford, and thousands more across the county are now facing prosecution
       unless they keep to the speed limit.
         A 300 000-pound system of cameras designed to cut the number of accidents
       causing injury on Oxford shire’s roads is about to go live after extensive trials.
         Thames Valley Police revealed this week that a camera at traffic lights in Thames
       Street, Oxford had trapped hundreds of motorists.
         Its operation in conjunction with Oxford shire County Council will now be
      stepped up as a ring of spy cameras comes into action the length and breadth of the
      county. Motorists have already become familiar with the speed camera warning signs.
        Chief Superintendent Veterinary, the head of the Thames Valley Police Traffic
      Department, told The Oxford T/roes: "1 hope that speeding will become as socially
      unacceptable as is drinking driving. Some cameras are already working. We have
      had the equipment since April, and we have been evaluating the system. We are
      already starting to notice a fall in overall speeds, which is very encouraging:'
        According to police statistics, serious road accidents and deaths are costing the
      community 185 million pounds every year.
        Chief SuperintendentVinar added:” Our research shows that speed is the largest
      single factor which causes accidents. More than one third of all accidents are caused
      by speed."
        By the end of 1999 there will be 30 strategically placed cameras in Oxfordshire
      photographing speeding vehicles 24 hours a day. Some will be fixed at accident black
      spots but others are mobile and can be moved around the county by police officers.
      A computer system linked to the central ticket office and the magistrate's court
      will administer a system of fixed 40-pound penalty fines and three penalty points.
        However, drivers who are caught exceeding the speed limit by more than 25
      miles an hour will face automatic court appearances, and heavier penalties.
      Section 3Transport in the UK
      Travel Trends: Passenger travel in the U.I~ was 716 billion passenger-kilometers
      in 1998. Travel by car, van and taxi has doubled in the past 25 years, and air travel
        has also grown substantially. Travel by bus has experienced a steady decline since
      the 1950s, but recently bus patronage appears to have stabilized. Motorcycling,
        walking and cycling have declined in the last ten years. Rail travel has recently been
        growing strongly again after a period of decline in the first half of the 1990s, and
      travel on the various light rail systems is also rising.
      Travel by car remains by far the most popular mode of passenger travel,
        accounting for 86% of passenger mileage within Great Britain in 1998, compared
with 44% in 1958. Most freight is carried by road, which accounts for 8 I% of goods
      by tonnage and 65% in terms oftonneIkilometers. At the end of 1998 there were
        27.5 million vehicles licensed for use on the roads of Great Britain, according to the
Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency, which maintains official records of drivers and vehicles in
Great Britain.
        Roads: The total road network in Great Britain in 1998 was 371 600 kilometers.
      Trunk motorways accounted for 3'300 kilometers of this, less than I%, and other
        trunk roads for over 12 200 kilometers, or 3.3%. However, motorways carry 18% of
      all traffic, and trunk roads another 16%. Combined, they carry over half of all goods
        vehicle traffic in Great Britain.
      Standards: New drivers of motor vehicles must pass both the practical driving
      test and a separate written theory test in order to acquire a full driving license. In
      May 1999 the practical driving test was lengthened and made tougher, with the aim
      of improving the testing of candidates' ability to drive in modem traffic conditions. In
      1998, 1.22 million driving tests were conducted in Great Britain by the Driving
Standards Agency, the national driver test authority. Some 46% of drivers passed
the raising the number of holders of a car full driving license to about 31 million.
  The Vehicle Inspectorate is responsible for ensuring the roadworthiness of
vehicles, through their annual testing. It also uses roadside and other enforcement
checks to ensure that drivers and vehicle operators comply with legislation.
Road Safety: Although Great Britain has one of the highest densities of road
traffic in the world, it has a good record on road safety;, with the lowest road accident
death rate for adults in the European Union. In 1998, 3 421 deaths occurred in road
accidents in Great Britain, while there were 40 800 serious injuries and nearly 281 000
slight injuries. Since 1981-85 there has been a significant decline in deaths and
serious casualties, by 39% and 45% respectively, while road traffic has risen by 55%
in this period. Developments in vehicle safety standards, better roads, traffic-calming
measures such as road humps, legislation on seat-belt wearing and local safety initiatives
such as 20 mph zones have contributed to this long-term decline.
Unit 4
Free-time Activities
Section IPhilately in China
Almost any day of the week clusters of people in animated discussion can be
seen 'in font of the China National Stamp Corporation in downtown Beijing. They
are enthusiasts of stamp collecting, which has a long history in China.
  China's first stamp was issued in 1878. Organized philatelic activities began to
develop in China some 80 years ago. The first philatelic organization in the count~
the Divine Land Stamp Research Society of Shanghai, was established in 1922. The
Chinese Philatelic Society was set up in the same city in 1925.
  After the People's Republic of China was established in 1949, the Ministry of
Posts and Telecommunications established the China Philatelic Company to boost
stamp collecting, and in 1955 began to put out the magazine Philately.
  Philately was condemned during the "Cultural Revolution" as a "leisurely and
carefree hobby of the bourgeoisie," and even exchanging stamps through
correspondence was bracketed with espionage. Stamp collectors were attacked
and some philatelists imprisoned. The national magazine Philately was suspended
and the export of Chinese stamps to foreign collectors stopped.
  Philately began to flourish again after 1976. Philatelic organizations have been
founded or re-established since then in many cities. Groups have been set up in
some counties as well. These associations hold frequent local exhibitions and lectures
on stamp collecting. While the most noted philatelists in China are elderly people
who have built up stamp collections over many years, growing numbers of young
people are taking up the hobby. For example, The Children's Cultural Palace in
Shanghai has a group of 50 in an after-school philately class.
  One of China's best-known philatelists was the late Kiang Shebang who was
born in 1907 and died in 1980. For 60 years he had been collecting Chinese
stamps only. He entered international stamp exhibitions in Brussels, Lisbon and
Moscow, winning several medals.
  In 1979, China National Stamp Corporation held a major exhibit of stamps of
the People's Republic of China in Hong Kong. It drew 130 000 visitors. Another
exhibit at the National Art Gallery in Beijing, held in March 1980, displayed stamps
from the days of the Qing Dynasty, stamps issued in China's liberated areas in the
  1930s and 1940s, to the stamps of new China since 1949.
  The national stamp-collectors' magazine, Philately, resumed publication in January
  1980. In March and April, it conducted a poll involving some 60 000 philatelists in
China to select the best stamps of the 30 years of the People's Republic of China.
Chinese newspapers and magazines, radio and television and film studios devoted
more attention to philately than ever before.
section 2Task I Sports
The word "sports" generally means any physical activity that people do for
pleasure. There are two general types of sports. The first type includes games like
baseball, football, or track and field events, which are played by trained athletes. The
second type includes any kind of physical activity, such as swimming, hunting, or
fishing. The earliest known record of a formal athletic event is that of the games held
at Olympia, Greece, beginning in 776 B.C. Organized sport is a rather recent
development from the late nineteenth century onwards, but informal sports seem
to have had a place in the history of the whole world.
Modern sports may be put into five groups: athletics, ball games, war games,
work games, and transportation sports. Athletics includes all contests in which the
athletes match their skills in speed, jumping, and strength. The modem sports belonging
to this group include, among others, all the events of track and field, wrestling, weight-
lifting, swimming, diving, figure skating, and speed skating. Europeans usually use the
term "athletics" to mean track and field events only;, in the United States the word is
used to mean almost any physical activity that is also sport
  The term "ball games" means any game or contest in which some kind of ball is
used. Among the many popular modern ball games are: soccer, football, bowling,
tennis, golf, lacrosse, volleyball, baseball, and field hockey.
  Among the sports which originated in warlike activities are boxing, fencing, and
the target sports such as archery and shooting. They are called war games.
  Work games are not organized sports, and they are not popular everywhere.
Wood-chopping and log-rolling contests are popular at county fairs, and the rodeo
is a popular sport in certain places in North America. Hunting and fishing are still
common sports, and they are among the most popular recreational sports in many
parts of the world.
  Among the twentieth-century events of transportation sports are: auto racing,
horseback riding, skiing, cycling, and airplane racing.
1. track and field events, wrestling, weight-lifting, swimming, diving, figure skating,
and speed skating 2. soccer, football, bowling, tennis, golf, lacrosse, volleyball, and
field hockey 3. boxing, fencing, archery, and shooting 4. wood-chopping, log-
rolling, rodeo, hunting, and fishing 5. auto racing, horseback riding, skiing, cycling,
and airplane racing
Task 2 Popular Music
A: I've heard that one of your greatest hobbies is popular music. I also like pop
       music, but I don't know much about its historical development. Could you tell
       me something about it?
     B: Sure. The modern popular song is the end-product of a huge industry. Music for
       entertainment is manufactured, marketed and consumed just like any other
       product in present-day society. Just as other industries have developed from
       small-scale local production and consumption to modern mass-production, so
       has the popular music industry developed. In the medieval times, the only music
       specially written for entertaining people was provided by wandering minstrels
       who would perform wherever there was enough prosperity to keep them alive.
       In the early 1500s some Italian composers took a form of light-hearted street
       song, the frontload, and began making it into a musical entertainment more suitable
       for their rich and cultured patrons. The spectacular success achieved by Italian
       opera in the seventeenth century gave popular music a tremendous fillip. For
       the first time, music became known amongst a wide range of people in many
       countries instead of just locally as had been the case in the Middle Ages. The two
       traditions of popular music--music for the stage and sheet music for the home
       continued to make great strides in the late nineteenth century. Both became
       increasingly commercial.
     A: It is said that the radio had helped popular music sales, isn't it?
     B: Yes. The development of commercial radio expanded the market for pop music
       as dramatically as records had in the early twentieth century. People could buy a
       radio set and have free entertainment piped into their homes. The programs
       were paid for by advertising. As this vast capitalist entertainment industry is
     constantly searching for something new in order to increase its turnover, its
     successes reflect to a great degree the changes within society. For instance, the
     emergence of rock'n'roll and its hero, Elvis Presley in the mid-fifties, gave vigorous
     expression to the feelings of a new generation of youth. Rock'n'roll showed
     record-makers that a fortune could be earned simply by appealing to youth. -I~t~is
     they have done ever since, and the composition of the "TopTen" record charts is
     increasingly determined by the tastes of 13- and 14-year olds. The Beatles, for
     example, owed most of their early success to the very young.
     Section 3Why People Love Sports-Cars
     Ever since man invented the wheel, he has harbored a passion for speed and
     freedom. In the sports-car, he found both of these powerful forces entwined in an
     expression of beauty and style. Almost from the very dawn of the car's development
       it has offered these powerful inducements. The car has also given its owner a certain
       status and image, either real or imagined, that gives him or her a sense of identity
       and pride. A sports-car intensifies these values. In its form and function it evokes the
romance of speed and thrill of going fast It provides an expression of individuality.
       In its very being it implies success, style, even virility.
     It is largely the pursuit of these very human emotions and vanities that led to
       the birth and popularity of the sports-car. Of course, there is far more to the sports-
       car than its use as a badge of success and everlasting youth. Beauty, engineering
       excellence, and the satisfaction of driving a responsive and powerful machine will
often provide more than enough reason for owning one. To simply cast the eyes
over a beautifully styled sports-car can give a buzz of pleasure.
Likewise, the racing of the heartbeat as a driver pilots a thoroughbred sports-
car at speed across a mountain road is an experience that is impossible to put a
price on. Some of the more advanced sports-cars are able to deploy feats of control,
grip and speed that can only be described as sensational. The engineering elegance
  behind these feats is not to be overlooked, and sometimes modern technical
excellence has an innate beauty in itself. All of these things are powerful reasons
why the sports-car has survived and thrived.
  Logic rarely enters into the arena of sports-car ownership. Buying and owning
one is an affair of the heart; a purely emotive decision. It's clear that for as long as
the human species retains these primitive desires and emotions, the sports-car will
always be with us.
  Competition formed the structure around which sports-cars were based. It
led to cars being made faster, to handle better and to stop better, although almost
all sporting cars were still big, heavy and cumbersome until after the First World
War. Comfort did not really come into the equation until much later.
  The Great War brought with it some major advances in technology that would
eventually provide added sophistication and reliability to the sports-car. It led to a
golden era of the sports-car in which they became lighter, smaller, and more powerful.
As the Roaring Twenties progressed, some advanced engineering features were offered.
A decade later, we began to see sports-car gain in popularity as they became smaller,
cheaper and more readily available. As the 1940s led into the 1950s, a boom time
arrived for the sports-car.
  Unfortunately by the mid-1960s, the era of the affordable sports-car seemed
to be on the wane. Matters were looking even more grim for the sports-car
enthusiasts as the 1970s began with constricting safety legislation. The final blow for
the traditional sports-car market seemed to be the arrival of the hot hatchback in
the late seventies.
  It was at this time that Japan came to the rescueby re-inventing the sports-
car. Japanese sports cars showed that it was still possible to have affordable sports-
car fun, and it was clear that the sports-car's reprieve had come. Also at the tail of
the 1980s, the upper sector of the sports-car spectrum began to ascend when more
luxurious sports-cars started their rather futile quest for speed, which ushered in
the age of the super-car.
  The quest for the ultimate super-car is disappearing with the realization that
cars with that level of performance have no place on today's roads. Instead, a new
breed of talented, fun, and relatively cheap sports-car has arrived to re-assert the
place of the sports-car for the next decade as we approach the new millennium.
Unit5
Health and Care
Section I Cardiac Patients and Relatives
  A heart transplant programmed at Hare field Hospital in Middlesex is experiencing
  serious problems providing accommodation for the families of patients. Doctors
 encourage relations to stay with cardiac patients especially children, but some people
 are being forced to sleep in caravans or on hospital floors to be near their loved ones.
Five-and-half-year-old John Carr lives in Lanark shire. Four weeks ago he had a
heart transplant. His parents have left their home and their two-year-old son in
Scotland and they're having to stay in a caravan on the grounds of Hare field Hospital
to be near their son. Ten days ago, the one they'd been lent by a friend was stolen
 along with 1,000 pound worth of money and clothes. This is a replacement from a
 well-wisher. But on most nights Margaret Carr has to sleep on the floor of John's
 room because he gets frightened. In spite of the problems, they're convinced they
 should be with John.
 John's mother: It's part of John getting better. But as a mother I couldn't possibly be
in Scotland 400 miles away and with John down here, despite the fact that the
 nurses are very good. So we need to be here; we need to be together.
Reporter: Are you surprised that the hospital isn't able to provide you with any
 more permanent accommodation?
 John's mother: Not really because I think hospitals don't have the kind of money to
provide this type of accommodation and so the funding has to come from elsewhere,
 and it's sad that the money isn't there to provide it. I don't know that people are
aware of the need, perhaps that's the problem.
 Harefield now does two hundred heart operations a year, including transplants.
Doctors believe that patients' close family play a crucial role in their recovery.
 "Obviously we want them to feel as secure as possible. They're going through
very stressful times being inhospital, a lot of strangers, so the more things that they
have that make them feel secure and comfortable, the better, and siblings have a
very important role to play in that. Obviously the other thing is that the siblings
themselves suffer. I mean the patient isn't the only one that suffers; the patient
suffers, and the siblings, so if you can keep them all together, then it helps."
 Harefield needs accommodation for at least fifty families. It can only just cater
for thirty;, sometimes for up to three months at a time. Staff are now so concerned
they're planning to start an appeal to build more rooms.
 'We can't always provide accommodation for both parents, so often we have the
mother here and the fathers left at home. We have no accommodation for any siblings
at all so the family's invariably split Obviously it adds enormously to their stress?
 The appeal which is still being set up would need to raise two million pounds to
provide enough room for just eight families.
Section 2Task I Plague
 Since the beginning of time, people have been terrified of contagious diseases.
Today, it is AIDS, previously it was the plague, cholera, smallpox and tuberculosis.
 Tropical countries still suffer an alarming number of scourges, such as sleeping sickness
 and malaria, for which no complete cure has yet been found and which are often
fatal. No sooner does a cure emerge than another’ strain of the disease appears.
The word "plague” was the name given to any epidemic disease which claimed
 large numbers of victims. The first recognized plague epidemic occurred in 542.
The second pandemic occurred between 1346 and 1353. It started in India,
spreading to the Middle East and then Italy. In five years it killed 25 million people
throughout Europe: a quarter of the population. In Britain the population fell from
about 3 700 000 in' 1350 to 2 000 000 in 1377. The disease gradually died out.
However it persisted within Europe, reappearing in certain centres:Venice in 14.87,
Milan at the beginning of the 16th century where it claimed the lives of 190 000 of
the 250000 inhabitants, London in 1665, Marseilles in 1720. Doctors were powerless
to stop it, although they continued to carry out their duty at the risk of their own
lives.
  During the third pandemic in 1894, the plague bacillus of the rat, as well as the
human bacillus, was identified in Hong Kong by the Swiss-boom French bacteriologist
Alexander Erin, who had been sent by the Institute of Pasteur to study the disease
which had just broken out in China. In 1898 P. L. Simon identified the role played
by the flea in the transmission of the disease. In 1897Waldemar Huffiness developed
the first anti-plague vaccine.
  During the third pandemic which lasted for 50 years and killed 12 million people
in India between 1898 and 1948, there were only 91 cases recorded in Europe. It
was followed by minor epidemics in Algeria in 1930 and 1944. Today, the plague is
still endemic in several regions throughout the world. The early use of antibiotics as
soon as the disease is diagnosed has affected the outcome of the disease which is no
longer necessarily fatal. Despite this, 134 died of the plague in 1988.
Task 2 Lasers in Dentistry
  For many people, a visit to the dentist can be a traumatic experience. But a
Kent dentist has just taken delivery of a revolutionary laser which may do away with
the need for drilling, injections, and even pain. Sounds almost too good to be true.
  A visit to the dentist even today, however accomplished the chair side manner,
it can cut even the steeliest nerve down to size. It's estimated that only about thirty
per cent of people in Britain visit their dentist regularly. Many of those who don't
are put off by the drill, or the needle. So dentists welcome anything which can make
their life easier, and that's where this new dental laser comes in. The handful of
dentists who have this new technology are proclaiming a revolution./t can be used
to numb teeth, replacing the injection, and to vaporize decay in place of the drill.
Dentist: People, when they come to me, are always very, very nervous, and it's
mainly about the injection, and the pain from the drills. Now this laser, because it
vaporizes the decay with light pulses, we now don't need to use the slow speed drill,
so it cuts out all the vibration as a thing of the past. It's quite noisy, but there
shouldn't be any pain at all. Quite a dramatic sight. Now the actual light beam is
creating a hole in your tooth as it vaporizes the decay.
  The American-made laser is yet some way from being sufficiently developed to
replace drills and needles completely, but there have been some impressive spin-off
effects, such as the treatment of mouth ulcers and sensitive teeth."
Reporter: It's not as sensitive as it was, is it?
Dentist: No.
  OIL now that means that it's actually gradually desensitizing the tooth now.
  The high cost of the equipment, 35 000 pounds, means dentists will be charging
for its use, but in his surgery at Staple Hurst in Kent Peter Garrote is planning to make
it available to National Health patients. The cost--30 pounds a filling.
Section 3 Filling a Gap for the Homeless and Toothless
Once a week Ms Blamed Daly establishes a temporary dental clinic in the crypt
beneath St Martin's church in Trafalgar Square. She provides basic treatment to
  many homeless people who have not visited a dental surgery in years, and whose
teeth are often in appalling conditions.
The first patient is Bob, a fooling man in his fifties who used to be a boxer.
  Most of his front teeth are either missing or have been badly smashed, and he has
come to pick up a new set of dentures.
Ms Daly, who does not wear a white coat so as not to create barriers between
her and the patients, talks to him about his general condition, as well as asking
whether he has found a job and a place to stay. As he has been to the surgery
before, he feels he can trust Ms Daly, and appreciates her concern and advice.
  Unfortunately, the new dentures do not quite fit so Ms Daly says she will take
them home, make a few alterations, and then make a special journey back to St
Martin's the following day.
  Such commitment has earned her the respect of her patients. Many complain
that the rest of society largely ignores them or treats them with extreme caution.
Ms Daly feels that providing support and giving extra time to patients should be the
priority of every health worker irrespective of whether they are being paid.
  She moved to London from Dublin a couple of years ago, eager to pursue her
interest in community health. She receives a grant from the homelessness charity,
Crisis, which is best known for organizing a massive” open Christmas" for homeless
people in a disused warehouse in central London each year, but is increasingly pro-
viding support services for the homeless throughout the year.
  Each week Ms Daly visits a number of local community centers where homeless
people go, offering whatever dental care she can. Most places are even more basic
than the St Martin clinic, she says: 'TII usually have to clear away coffee cups and
cigarette ends before I can begin."
  Before establishing the mobile clinic--she carries all her supplies and instruments
on the underground--she visited many community centers in London to gain a
better understanding of the problems and conditions of homeless people, of whom
there are now thousands throughout the capital. "1 felt it was very important to get
to know them first and also to gain their trust," she says.
  As she does not have a dental nurse, Ms Daly has to perform a range of duties.
When she sees a new patient, she dictates their dental condition into a cassette
recorder and transcribes the tape at home. She also has to sterilize her instruments
at home.
  At all the community centers she displays notices telling people the days and
times she will be in attendance. She then operates a queuing system, as well as
making appointments--aiming to use the time as well as possible.
  The vast majority of her patients are men, their ages ranging from the early
twenties to the late seventies. Many have teeth in such bad condition--usually
caused by dietary problems or a complete lack of carethat they have become
afraid of visiting a normal surgery.
  Most have teeth broken or missing and many also have excessive plaque, tartar
and broken fillings. Another typical problem is dentures that are either badly fitted
or broken, resulting in the person having difficulty speaking or eating. Some people
she has seen have managed to survive with no dentures at all, accepting an unhealthy
mouth as one of the hazards of life on the street
Unit 6
Education
Section I survey on Ethnic Staff in British Schools
Ethnic-minority groups are seriously under-represented among the country's
teachers, according to confidential Government figures.
  Figures gathered over two years as part of a Government monitoring program
suggest that only 3.3 per cent of full-time teachers come from minority groups.
  This compares with an estimated 5.5 per cent of the population who come
  from ethnic minorities. The RunnymedeTrusL however, believes that minority groups
  make up 8 per cent of pupils in schools and that the proportion is rising.
  This week the Commission for Racial Equality accused the Government of lacking
political will to conclude Ks survey and publish the findings. So far, the program has
only obtained ethnic figures for two thirds of teachers. Ministers have refused to
  release the figures.
The survey was recommended in the 1985 Swann Report into
underachievement among black and Asian pupils. But the Depa~nnent for Education
still has no reliable picture either of teacher or pupil population, according to the
CRE The Swann Report said the lack of black and Asian teachers was a significant
factor in poor academic results.
  Under-representation is particularly acute in some areas. In Bradford, for example,
around one third of pupils are black or Asian and education officials think this may
rise to half by the year 2000. This is matched by less than I per cent of teachers.
  Eric Forth, the school's minister, has told Parliament that the figures are not
publicly available because the local authorities have not all yet replied.
  Phil Barnett, a CRE principal officer, said:” Ethnic monitoring is a cornerstone of
any equal opportunities' policy. We would want to see it enshrined in every aspect
of the DFE's guidance and work This should be established in the current Education
Bill and we will be seeking an amendment in the House of Lords to that effect."
  The lack of minority recruits to teacher training is a long-standing problem.
Figures are, again, hard to come by, but those supplied by the Graduate Teacher
Training Registry suggest that only 4.8 per cent of applications to post-graduate
courses came from minority groups in 1991 and 4.7 per cent of acceptances. This is
well below both applications and acceptances for higher education overall, suggesting
that teacher training is particularly unpopular.
  The Government's own recruitment organization,TASC--Teaching As a Career
--admits as much. Ks director, Jack Dodd’s, speculates that the experience of racism
in the classroom may deter potential applicants.
        The Higher Education Funding Council this week confirmed that it will be giving
      500 000 pounds to initiatives encouraging black and Asian graduates to enter teacher
      training.
        A number of universities and teacher-training colleges already run courses
      specifically to attract black and Asian applicants. At the university of North London,
      for example, 40 per cent of education students are from ethnic minorities--thought
        by the staff to be the biggest proportion in the country.
      This is the result of I 0 years' he’d work, says Dr. Greg Condor, dean of the
        education department. He urges caution against quick-fix solutions. Much of the
        university's success is based on its reputation among minority groups, who enter the
        course confident of a fair deal.
      section 2Task I A College Professor's Monologue
      I'm a college professor. As a communication specialist, I train students to
      become more sensitive and aware of interpersonal communication--symbolic
      behavior, use of words, as well as nonverbal behavior. I try to ignite symbols in your
        mind, so we can come to a point of agreement on language. This is an invisible
        industry. Since the Second World War we've had phenomenal growth. There are
        seven-thousand-plus strong teachers in this discipline.
        I'm high on the work because this is the way life is going to be persuading
      people. We're communicating animals. We're persuadable animals. It's not an unethical
        thing. Business communication is a very important field in our industry. We train
      people so they can humanize the spirit of both parties, the interviewer and the
      interviewee. In the first ten minutes of an interview, the interviewer has usually
        made up his mind. We find out the reasons. Through our kind of research we tell
        business: what you're doing is productive or counterproductive.
      Many Ph. Doss in the field of speech are now in business as personnel directors.
      I have good friends who are religious communicators. I had the opportunity to go
      with a bank in a southern state as director of information. I would have overseen all
      the interoffice and interoffice communication behavior--all the written behavior--
      to get the whole system smoother. And what happens? Profit. Happiness in job
      behavior. Getting what's deep down from them, getting their trust.
      Ronald Reagan used his people wisely and got the information he needed to
        help him: what kinds of behavior could be attracted to what kinds of messages. He had so
carefully softened the power of the press that it was being taken more lightly
      than ever before. That's why the Iran Gate case was so delicately brushed aside by
      the American people.
        Communications specialists do have a sense of power. People will argue it's a
        misuse of power. When we have so much control over behavior, we're distrustful.
        We must learn how to become humane at the same time.
      task 2 Indian Pupils Come Top
      A new survey has found that pupils of Indian origin are coming top of the class,
      and it concludes that parents should copy the Indian example of setting goals and
      offering more support In its widest-ever survey the Inner London Education Authority
      studied the results of twenty thousand pupils and found English, Welsh and Scots
     children did badly compared to those of Asian background.
     This final end-of-term report commissioned by Inner London Education
     Authority's (ILEA) research unit concludes that race and social class are still the two
     most dominant factors in determining examination results. Based on the exam
     results of sixteen-year-olds throughout the capital, the survey says that Indian children
     from predominantly middle-class backgrounds scored the best results, whilst those
     from the more socially deprived Bangladeshi, Caribbean and Turkish communities
     performed significantly less well. The survey also found that while Church of England
     schools did no better than county schools, students at Roman Catholic schools,
     where there was evidence of strong teacher and parental involvement, did better.
     While the survey stresses that Ilea’s policies have already led to increased achievement
     levels, it says continued improvement will depend on greater parental and teacher
     expectations coupled with improved students' self-esteem.
       The lesson to pass on to the boroughs is one that they should pass on to the
     government: they will need far more money to improve performance, to motivate
     teachers, to see that pupils have got the materials that they need to learn more, and
     that they get the extra help and support that the poorest city in the whole country
     needs, in order to provide the standards of education and reach the levels of attainment
     that parents living in London are entitled to expect for their children.
       One of the messages it has for schools is the need for them to work more
     closely with the parents to raise the parents' expectations. Very often you see, it will
     be not that the parents don't want their children to do well but that they don't know
     themselves that their children are capable of achieving, or what the school system is
     capable of providing for them, and so the schools have an educational job to do with
     the parents as well as with the children.
     section 3 Teacher Stress
       A report out today says rowdy pupils and aggressive parents are causing serious
mental and physical problems among teachers. The Health and Safety Commission
       says millions of pounds are lost each year because teachers can't cope with the
       increasing stress.
       The report claims that life in the classroom is leaving teachers as casualties. The
       numerous education changes in recent years coupled with aggressive pupils and
     parents, are blamed for a sharp increase in the pressures teachers face, leaving many
       unable to cope. It's something the profession has warned of. This east London office
     of the National Union of Teachers offers counseling for the many who ring for help.
       One of the tragedies of the situation is that we don't hear about the problems
     until they've gone really too far, when we're talking about trying to assist members
       as best we can who are heading for nervous breakdowns.
     Carole Shaw is one of those teachers who found the stress too much. She
     taught languages to eleven to sixteen-year-olds at an east London school, but a few
     months ago she resigned.
       Carole Shaw: "1 had various physical complaints, and in the end I had to take
     more and more time off world I think that there are just too many changes happening
       too fast, too many demands being made of people which I don't think are humanly
        achievable. I just don't think you can pay attention to them all and do justice to them?
      The report estimates ten per cent of teachers become seriously mentally or
        physically iii because of stress, with another thirty per cent suffering from less serious
        illnesses. The rues~ the Commission says, is absenteeism, reduced productivity, and
      teachers leaving the profession. The financial cost, it claims, runs into millions of
        pounds. The report guidelines are being sent to head teachers and local authorities,
        outlining programs they can run to cut classroom stress.
      one of the teachers: There's a lot we think, that is to do with management and we
      want to make stress a management issue. We want to wake up management at all
      levels to facing up to problems of stress.
        We think the government needs to look at the pace of the changes it's
      implementing. We think that teachers need to be' involved in the design of change at
      all levels, whether it's national level through their representatives in unions, or local
      authority level or school level. And we think the government does need to look at
      the grotesque under-funding of the education service.
        The Department of Education says it can't comment on the report directly as
      it hasn't seen it yet, but it says that teaching has always been a stressful and challenging
      profession, and that the short-term increased work-load for teachers will have long-
      term benefits for education.
        Unit 7
      Jobs and Oculus
      Section I Causes of Stress
      Job worries, followed by money troubles and anxiety about children, were greatest single
causes of stress, a survey by BUPA, the private health care group, said yesterday.
      The survey of 700 people throughout Britain discovered that concern about
      health caused nearly one in four people to become stressful, while one in eight said
      that their relatives were a source of stress.
      Men put worries about their job at the top of the list of stress factors.
      Women, on the other hand, were certain that it was their children who caused
      them the most concern. The irritating factors of modern life noisy neighbors, fear
      of crime and other people's cigarette smokeall came near the bottom of the list of
      stress-causing factors.
      But one in 20 people said Christmas and New Year were a major source of
      stress and a similar proportion blamed noise generated by traffic, airplanes and
      roadwork
      People said that they reacted to stress by becoming more irritable, impatient or
      .angry.
      Other effects included having difficulty in sleeping, becoming tired, getting
      headaches and being generally unhappy Some reacted by increasing their smoking,
      eating more or taking medication.
      The most popular solution to stress was talking to someone about it or trying
      to deal with the cause.
      Others said they went to bed, took a holiday or simply took a break from work
      Dr. Hugh The wall-Jones, BUPA group medical director, said the survey showed
       that the things which caused most stress were personal matters such as a job, income
       and family
       "While it is significant that more external factors such as noise, crime and
       commuting are adding to the aggravation of our lives, they are perhaps considered
         less contributory to stress because they are beyond our control and in a sense we
         have a higher tolerance often." But Dr Thalami-Jones said it was worrying that so
         many people ate or smoked more when they were under stress. "On top of being
       tired and irritable, these responses cannot help their general state of health and may
         become habits that are continued beyond the period of stress," said Dr. The wall
       Jones.
       section 2Task I Interviewing a Radio-TV Reporter
         (A is a man, B is a woman.)
       A: Who most influenced your decision to become a reporter?
         B: Both of my parents had a great influence upon my life and choice of career.
         Without trying to pick out a career for me they helped me learn those things
       that led me to it.
       A: How did they do that?
 B: My father always told me that an education was one of the greatest assets I could have, one
that would always stay with me. He used to tell me that readers were
         leaders and encouraged me to read all I could. As a result, I've always kept up
         with the newspapers, faithfully read news magazines, and learned to really enjoy
         books, all of which have been an invaluable help to me in radio and television reporting.
         Another thing my father repeated was that there was no reason to settle
         down and get married without getting a good start at life first When my friends
         were rushing to get married he would tell me I'd be better off if I got my education
       and a start in my work first. It must have been good advice for me, since I love
         both my work and my husband.
         My mother helped me in a much different way I had a tremendous inferiority
       complex because I used to have a birthmark that covered the right side of my
 face. I used to come home crying because kids would say things like,” Don’t play
 with her; you'll catch it" My mother would tell me the story of the Ugly Duckling&
         who grew up to be a beautiful swan. She often spent time reassuring me that I
       was not ugly, and that when the birthmark was removed I would grow away
       from these problems and become a beautiful swan.
         So I refused to let the children's teasing make me shy. I decided I was going to
         be something. I knew I could make people listen, could write interesting things,
         and be very funny. I learned to use these things to relate to people.
       Task 2 London Ballet Company to Close
         The London City Ballet, which has the Princess of Wales as patron, said today
       that it will have to shut down because it's run out of money The company says that
       sn spite of success at the box-office, the show won't go on after June unless the Arts
       Council comes to the rescue.
         Box-office receipts at the London City Ballet have never been better. Average
       audiences regularly fill eighty-five per cent of capacity and bring in 700 000 pounds a
year Business sponsorship raises another 500 000 pounds, but that still leaves a
shortfall of half a million pounds towards the company's annual cost of 1.7 million
pounds. The company says additional fundraising by patrons like the Princess of
Wales can no longer be relied on to make up the difference.
One of the directors of the company: This gap that's not met by fundraising is
getting wider and wider, and we feel that as directors, we just cannot go forward on
such a speculative basis, assuming that we can perform miracles and create this huge
fundraising source of revenue on an ongoing basis.
 This year the Arts Council gave the City Ballet 100000 pounds to perform in
places where the company would not normally visit because it wouldn't be economical.
Next year even that money will be cut to 89 000 pounds. What the thirteen-year-
old ballet company is asking for is an annual grant in addition to that used to offset
touring costs so that it can properly plan its future.
One of the directors of the company: Well, we're a highly successful touring ballet
company. We tour all over England, Scotland, and Wales. I think that if the company
folds there's going to be a huge gap left, and if the Arts Council goes to fund something
new, it's going to cost them an awful lot more money.
 A spokeswoman for the Arts Council said the Council's hands are tied by the
government She said if the company does close in June, it would be regrettable.
Section 3 Five-Stroke Rule Will Devalue the Art of Riding
From a jockey's point of view the issue of the whip is pretty distressing. There
are many peopleanimal lovers, trainers, former jockeys and members of the press
who like to portray jockeys as butchers who ride with the sole intention of winning
the race at whatever cost to the horse.
 Nothing could be further from the truth. We are, however, caught in a dilemma
because we believe that the correct use of the whip will make most horses at least
maintain their maximum effort--if not in some cases actually go faster. Yet using the
stick does at times cause limited damage to a horse.
Jockeys are just as concerned with the welfare of horses as the people who
attack us. We are told jockeys in the past did not hit horses as hard, or as often, as
modern ones. But when I looked after horses for my father as a lad, they sometimes
came home with weals on them, just as they do now, and they were sometimes hit
more than I 0 times, which is today's limits.
 There were trainers who, occasionally, asked for their horse to be hit if needed.
Nothing is different today, Some owners and trainers do not like to see their horses
hit, but others believe a lazy horse should receive a reminder.
 Unfortunately, I am serving the last day of a four-day suspension for marking a
horse at Taunton. I did not hit him excessively, nor with any more force than I have
hit any other horse this season. There is no doubt in my mind that without using the
whip as I did, I would not have won the race. I have to go out and ride every horse
better than my rivals. If I do not do so consistently, Martin Pipe could employ
another jockey.
 The stewards can fine and suspend me, but they do not employ me. If t do not
please the owner and the trainer, I would not be on the horse in the first place.
  The incident that cost me a suspension was in a small race at Taunton. Yet
Adrian Maguire showed in last year's Gold Cup that the guidelines on using the stick
go out of the window in a big race.
  Following the Cheltenham show-piece, the stewards had little option but to
suspend Maguire for four days, since he was found to have hit Cool Ground 20 times
from the second last fence.
  Yet had he not done so, the horse would not have won--a fact which lends
credence to jockeys thinking that the stick makes a horse go faster.
jockeys are bingo driven into ~ corner to defend the correct use of the stick
because some employees of the Jockey Club look upon us as butchers, thus creating
a wedge between the two parties instead of solving the problem. It has caused
further discontent and is damaging to the interests of racing.
The Jockey Club brought in the 10-stroke whip guideline, which I believe to be
good, as it has improved the standard of riding. However, the Jockey Club meets
next Monday to discuss reducing this to five strokes, because of pressure mainly
from the RSPCA. This is nonsense. It will devalue the art of riding.
  It is the whip itself that is wrong. Although there are rules on the length and
the width of the stick~ the material it is made from is more important
  I know the Jockey Club is looking into this. Felt-covered sticks are often used
but they are not the answer, because when it rains the felt soaks up the moisture
and the stick can be more, not less, severe than the conventional one.
  If a lightweight stick could be produced that would encourage a horse to maintain
its effort without hurting or damaging it all the parties would then be united in the
best interest of racing.
We jockeys could then concentrate on getting the best out of our horses.
  Unit8
....
Section I Plastics
  (A is a woman, B and C are men.)
A: I just can't help thinking of things made from plastics as imitations, as cheap sub- statute.
B: If by” cheap" you mean less expensive, then you're quite right For example, that
new watering can we bought for the garden.
A The Jockey Club brought in the 10-stroke whip guideline, which I believe to be
good, as it has improved the standard of riding. However, the Jockey Club meets
next Monday to discuss reducing this to five strokes, because of pressure mainly
from the RSPCA. This is nonsense. It will devalue the art of riding.
  It is the whip itself that is wrong. Although there are rules on the length and
the width of the stick~ the material it is made from is more important
  I know the Jockey Club is looking into this. Felt-covered sticks are often used
but they are not the answer, because when it rains the felt soaks up the moisture
and the stick can be more, not less, severe than the conventional one.
  If a lightweight stick could be produced that would encourage a horse to maintain
its effort without hurting or damaging it all the parties would then be united in the
best interest of racing.
We jockeys could then concentrate on getting the best out of our horses.
  Unit8
....
Section I Plastics
  (A is a woman, B and C are men.)
  A: I just can't help thinking of things made from plastics as imitations, as cheap sub-
stitutes.
  B: If by” cheap" you mean less expensive, then you're quite right For example, that
  new watering can we bought for the garden.
A: And I suppose sometimes they're even better.
B: Frequently, particularly when the properties of the material are adjusted, or
even created, to suit the specific requirements of the end product
A: What sort of properties?
B: The degree of rigidity or flexibility, for example; resistance to acids, insulating
qualities, ability to withstand sudden changes of temperature. Oh, the list is
endless because the plastics industry is being asked continually to recommend or
develop materials for such a wide variety of new uses.
A: Do they succeed?
B: More often than not. In fact, there are so many types of plastics with so many
unique properties, they frequently provide answers to unsolved engineering problems.
A: You talk so easily about unsolved engineering problems. I'd be more impressed
  with an examplebut a simple one.
B: As simple, perhaps, as your habit of leaving the refrigerator door partly open?
A: Well, the catch is broken.
B: Susan! It was repaired two months ago.
A: Oh, all right! I sometimes give it a push with my elbow and it doesn't quite close. So?
B: Well, somebody thought of making refrigerators without door-catches. Have
  you heard of polyvinylchloridcbetter known as PVC?
A~ Of course! The upholstery in the car, the kitchen floor tiles, the shower-curtains
  in our bathroom, they're all different types of PVC.
B: Well, that's what was used to solve this particular engineering problem: PVC,
  with a magnetic filler.
A: So, when the door is almost closed, magnetic attraction pulls it, keeps it tightly
  shut. That's very clever.
B: And it's cheaper to make.
A: And the refrigerator has a better door. Marvelous!
Section 2Task I The Gases in the Air
I Just as man has found great uses for the materials which he can dig up from the
ground, so, too, he has found important uses for the gases which he can obtain from
the air. Oxygen and nitrogen can be made from other materials, but they are usually
obtained from the air because air is so plentiful. Some of the other gases, such as
argon, can only be obtained from the air. The problem, of course, is to find a quick
and useful way of separating the gases in the air. Let's see how this is done.
  We remember how air can be made into a liquid. Ifthe liquid is warmed again,
it” boils" and turns back into a gas. Now oxygen does not boil away from liquid air
so easily as nitrogen. By careful arrangement of the boiling, it is possible to make the
nitrogen turn back into a gas later. In this way the oxygen and nitrogen are separated.
The other gases, such as argon, can also be obtained separately by very careful
arrangement of the boiling.
  We know that oxygen is necessary for the breathing of animals and plants, and
for burning. Only one-fifth of air consists of oxygen, but this is quite enough for all
ordinary purposes. Pure oxygen is used for special kinds of breathing and burning.
  High up above the earth air is not so plentiful. On the top of a mountain our lungs
would not take in as much oxygen at each breath as they would at the bottom, and, on
very high mountains like Mount Everest, breathing is so difficult that men have little
strength. Men who try to climb such mountains take with them small containers of
compressed oxygen. A pipe leads from the container to a kind of cloth which covers
the nose and moth. Then, when necessary~ oxygen can be turned on for breathing. In
the same way men who fly high in airplanes take a supply of oxygen with them.
  Sometimes an explosion takes place in a mine where men are digging for coal.
The men may be hurt by the explosion, and fallen rocks may stop them from getting
out. Further, much of the oxygen in the air may have been used up by the explosion.
Men who go down the mine to rescue them therefore take containers of com-
pressed oxygen.
  Air contains enough oxygen for the burning of a fire in a house or in a railway
engine. Pure oxygen would cause the wood or coal to burn so fast that it would be
wasted. When a very hot flame is needed for a special purpose, oxygen is provided
instead of air.
Task 2 The Discovery of the Dinosaur
  Without doubt people had seen dinosaur bones in the rock not only two
centuries ago but far back in time, probably back into the days before recorded
history when men throughout the world were still savages. But until the early days
of the 19th century men had looked at dinosaur bones without understanding what
they had seen.
  In early historic times, people believed that large fossil bones were the remains
of giants--a most natural idea among people who believed in strange old stories.
Indeed, some of the tales of giants may have been based in part on the discoveries
of large fossil bones.
  But by the beginning of the 19th century explanations for natural phenomena
were being sought. Intelligent people were no longer satisfied with tales that were
hard to believe. Things in nature must be explained according to natural laws. It was
the age of reason.
  ,5
  The first dinosaulo be properly described was discovered on a morning in
March, 1822, in Sussex, England. Dr. Gideon Mantel, a physician in the city of
Lewes, was an unusual man of wide interests. He was particularly interested in
fossils, and for some years had spent his spare hours in the countryside of southern
England, searching for the remains of extinct animals. His young wife accompanied
     him on many of his trips into the country, and thus she had gained some experience
     in looking for fossils.
       On this particular day Dr. Mantel drove some miles onside Lewes to attend to
     one of his patients, and his wife went along for the ride. While he was in the house
     of his patient, Mrs. Mantel walked up and down to pass the time, and in the course
     of her walk she saw some rocks that had been piled by the road, to be used for
     repairs of the surface. As she was looking at the pile she noticed in a rock an object
     that looked most unusual, something that had the definite form and the shining
     surface of a fossil. She picked up the piece of rock containing this and saw that the
     object was a fossil tooth. Of course, she showed it to her husband.
       It was a tooth quite different from any fossil that Dr. Mantel had seen before,
     and it aroused his curiosity So, during the following weeks he returned often to the
     country near where it had been found, and discovered not only more teeth like it,
     but also a number of fossil bones as well. All of these fossils were unfamiliar to them.
     section 3 Problems of Space Travel
       Today we are not content with flying through the air, even at jet speeds of more
       than four hundred miles an hour. We want to go farther and faster. We want to sail
     through outer space. We want to land on the moon. We know that we can do
       these things, but first we must solve many problems, and men are hard at work on
     them. You have probably read about men doing these things.
       One of the problems is the way people are made. We have lungs that are
       meant only to breathe air. That does not bother us as long as we stay where there
     is air to breathe; but if we put our heads under water, we have trouble, because we
     cannot breathe water We have to hold our breath, or else use something which
     brings us air from above the water's ~larvae.
     Air, or what is called the atmosphere, surrounds the whole earth. It is made up
       of a number of gases. The element in the air which is most important to us is
       oxygen. So you have probably learned, we breathe this oxygen into our lungs.
       There it is taken by the blood and carried to all parts of our bodies. It is absolutely
     necessary for us to have sufficient oxygen if we are to go on living.
       The atmosphere rises above us to a height of approximately one hundred
     miles. Such a thick blanket of air has a good deal of weight. At sea level, for
       example, the air presses upon us with a weight of about fifteen pounds to the
       square inch. If you hold out your hand and try to feel this weight you will be
       disappointed. You cannot feel it because it presses with the same weight from all
       directions. If it only pressed downwards, you would feel it. But since it presses
     upwards too, and from all sides, these pressures are equalized.
     The atmosphere has not the same density all the way up. The particles of the
     gases are much closer together at the bottom, near the earth, than they are high up.
       At sea level the air is denser than on a high mountain. If you climb a mountain, you
       notice this. You have to breathe faster and deeper to get enough oxygen into your
lungs. Your heart pumps faster too, in order to get enough oxygen to the vary parts of your body.
     When you take off in an airplane, you often have an unpleasant feeling in your
     ears. This is because, as you rise, the pressure of the air outside your head becomes
      less than that inside; the latter is due to the air which you have brought up with you.
      Unit9
      Current Affairs
      Section I The Coming Russian Arms Boom
      Coming soon to a theatre of war near you: a lot more Russian weaponry~--
      especially if you live in South-East Asia. Russian arms exports are likely to surge in
      2000, and again in 2001, as manufacturers deliver on the fat contracts they won in
      1999. Rosvooruzheniye, a state-owned firm which had a near-monopoly on arms
      exports until the final quarter of 1997, saw its order book rise from $6 billion at the
        start of the year to perhaps $10 billion at the end. Some of those orders' value of
Russia's arms sales overseas may well rise from about $4 billion in Russia ahead of
      Britain, and behind only America, as a global supplier.
        Russia's best-selling lines are its MiG and Sushi fighter-aircraft. India is traditionally
        the biggest customers for them, but they are also filling the Asian skies. Malaysia signed a
big order in 1995, Indonesia in 1997. Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines may follow. Russian
arms sales are booming partly because the Russian government is
        prepared to sell almost anything to anyone, in order to keep its arms industry alive.
        The Russian army can scarcely afford to buy anything at all. Russia is also willing to
        offer barter terms to developing countries, and to transfer the technology needed
for eventual local production under long-term contracts.
      The main problem for Russia is that its defense technology has made few big
      strides since the Soviet era. The advanced weaponry of these days is still competitive.
      But in five years' time it will be obsolete. New customers may also discover what old
      customers have long complained about: that Russian after-sales service is poor and
      expensive. So in 2000 the Russian arms industry will have to reinvest heavily in
      products and services if it wants the boom to la%
      Section 2Task 1 What Kind of a Car Do You Drive?
        "The public can have this car in any color they like as long as it is black" Henry
        Ford, the first of the world's great car makers, said those famous words back in 191 I.
        Since then everyone has tried to show that he was wrong. The development of the
        car economy has resulted in a move away from standardization. Manufacturers are
      increasingly targeting different groups in society and striving to come up with car
      that reflect their status and aspirations.
      Now marketing professionals often use car ownership as a kind of shorthand
      for different social or economic groups. Who is that” Sierra man?" Where does the
        "Galaxy man" come from? These definitions are based on makes of cars. They may
        sound mysterious, but to a trained eye they contain a great deal of information
      about lifestyle and personal beliefs.
        The” Sierra man” is a young junior executive. He is sales oriented, very ambitious
      and likes sports. He drives a large, powerful Ford Sierra. His older brother” Galaxy
man" has fulfilled most of his career ambitions. His home and family are the most
        important things in his life, so he drives a Ford Galaxy, an MPV.
      A Car is one of the most significant and expensive purchases that people will
      make in the course of their lives. So it should be no surprise when people take this
opportunity to make a more general statement about their indent
The ability to make these statements is naturally limited by spending power.
  Some car makers like BMW and Mercedes concentrate on the upper income ranges.
Others, like Ford, Toyota and Volkswagen develop large families of cars to cover
Ferment tastes ~h tile mass marl<et
  Originally, car ownership was limited to the head of the household, nearly
always the father. As women have become increasingly financially independent,
manufacturers have begun to produce cars for this market. Car companies are also
producing more models for younger single people.
  Manufacturers have shown great flexibility in satisfying these markets. One car
might be sold to women as reliable and economical. The same car can then be given
a more powerful engine and aggressive design and sold to "boy racers"--young men
in search of power and speed. The universal attractions of the cac freedom and
independence, appeal to both groups.
  Changes in the car industry also follow the rise and fall of different groups in
society. Rolls Royce, once considered the jewel in the crown of the British motor
industry was recently bought by BMW. For many years, the name Rolls Royce has
been associated with the highest pinnacle of success. But it was a kind of success
which was somehow out of date. It was associated with aristocratic values and
inherited wealth. Up until the 1950s BMW made motorcycles for the German
police. Then the company set out to build a car business based on an appeal to the
rising generation of self-made managers and entrepreneurs.
  This is far more in tune with modern thinking. Many people were sad to see
the sale of Rolls Royce to BMW. But it fretted in with one of the most significant social
trends in the Western world, namely the replacement of aristocracy by meritocracy
  In many ways the story of the motor industry is also the story of the 20th
century society, at least in Europe and the United States. As Asia grows richer, it is
also becoming an increasingly motorized society. Perhaps the tastes and ambitions
of Chinese and other Asian consumers will drive the motor industry into the 21 st
Century. If so, then please drive carefully!
Task 2 Unexpected Questions in Job Interviews
  The interview has been going on for about 20 minutes and everything seems to
be going well. Then, suddenly, the interviewer asks an unexpected question. "Which
is more important justice or mercy?"
  Job applicants in the West increasingly find themselves asked strange questions
like this. And the signs are that this is beginning to happen in China. These questions
are the result of a problem with the interview process.
  Employers want staff who are skilled, enthusiastic and committed. So these are
the qualities that any reasonably intelligent job applicant will try to show no matter
what his or her actual feelings are. In response, employers are increasingly using
questions which try and reveal the applicant's true personality.
  The question at the beginning comes from a test It is an attempt to discover
how people solve problems, rather than what they know. This is often called aptitude
testing.
        According to Mark Baldwin of Alliance, many job applicants in China are finding
      this type of questions difficult When a Chinese person fills out an aptitude test he or
      she tends to think there is a right answer, and they may well fail because they try to
      guess what the examiner wants to see.
        This is sometimes called the prisoner's dilemma. Applicants are trying to act
      rationally in their own interests. But they fail because they don't understand what
      the interviewer is looking for. Remember that in an aptitude te~ the correct answer
      is always the honest answer
        Psychology can offer important insights, but it is not an exact science. The way
      people respond in different situations can be the result of their cultural background
      as much as their personality. The way people respond to color, for instance, is very
      culturally specific. According to Mark Baldwin, several companies are now working
      on appropriate tests for China.
        Aptitude tests are often used for senior level jobs, where all the applicants are
      likely to have good qualifications. Some companies deliberately ask detailed questions
      about a completely irrelevant subject. This is to test the applicant's general knowledge
      and ability to think creatively. So an applicant for the job of financial controller might
      be asked how he would manage the Italian national football team, for instance, or
      would organize the rescue of a drowning child.
        This sounds like a tough challenge. But sometimes it can work out well. Justice
      and mercy are both very important. But sometimes what an applicant really needs
      is a piece of good lactic
      section 3 Press Conference of Beijing's Bidding for the 2008 Olympiad
        (Questions and Answers)
        Q: Is Beijing capable of building the 22 new sports venues?
      A: The total number of venues for the 2008 Olympic Games will be 37, among
        which 15 are currently available As Mr. Lou mentioned just now, 5 venues need
        improvement, 3 of which have been improved with the fund provided by the
        government During your inspection, you will visit the Olympic Sports Center,
      the Capital Indoor Stadium, the Worker's Stadium, the models and sites for the
        planned 14 venues and the additional 8 venues for the Olympiad to follow up.
        First of all, the funding of these projects will be guaranteed by the State
        Administration of Sports, Beijing municipal government, the governments of
      Beijing's Haidian, Fengtai, and Shunyi districts as well as the municipal governments
      obtaining, Qingdao, and Qinhuangdao. The leaders of the above-mentioned
      cities and districts have promised, in signed documents, to support the projects
        with sufficient government funding.
      There has been an average annual increase of 20% in Beijing's revenue in the
        past five years. There is a 25% revenue increase in January 2001 over that in
        January 2000. In 1996, the revenue of Beijing Municipality was 15 billion RMB,
        and this figure doubled in 2000, reaching 34 billion RMB, of which over 10 billion
      Yuan can be used for infrastructure construction in each fiscal year. It means that
      all the venues could be completed with only two years' financial support from the
government That is only our guarantee capacity without funding from the sources. We hope that
these projects will be financed more by sources from
       society, including investment from overseas companies.
       Secondly, we have sufficient capability for construction. Beijing's total area
       under construction for 1998, 1999, and 2000 was 64 910 000, 65 560 000,
       and 69 950 000 square meters respectively. The total completed floor space in
        1998, 1999, and 2000 was 18 210 000, 23 210 000, and 23 580 000 square meters
        respectively. This reflects our great construction capacity. The total number of
       construction enterprises with grade 4 certificates in 2000 reached I 771 with a
        total of 570 000 employees. There would be over I million construction workers
        in Beijing if the construction enterprises from outside Beijing are counted.
        Therefore, the construction capacity is not a problem.
       Q: Is there a detailed timetable for venue construction?
       A: The time table for venue construction will comply with lOC requirement for
        pre-event test; that is, all venues except the beach volleyball field will be completed
       18 months ahead of the Olympiad. Some will be completed and put to use at
        the end of 2004 and 2005. This arrangement has already taken into consideration
        the unexpected delays such as bad weather, industrial conflicts, or shortage of
        construction materials. According to Beijing's construction capacity and progress,
        the timetable spares enough time for delay factors. In order to complete these
        projects in proper time, we have added to the bidding report a detailed phasing
        for the designing and initial construction stage.
        We have entrusted six strong and experienced companies with the
        responsibility to make detailed construction plans for the venues to be built.
        Their plans will include evaluation of the tendering, project organization, scheduling,
        fund raising and financial management, etc.
       Q: Who will supervise the construction of venues?
       A: The Beijing Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games (BOCOG) will be
        responsible for the construction of all venues. Three existing venues for the
        Games have been rehabilitated. Together with the concerned departments of
        the municipal government the BOCOG will be responsible for the projects bidding,
        including design, construction, equipment installation, and monitoring. Foreign
        companies qualified for the projects are also entitled to bid for the projects.
        Project owners will be responsible for the construction quality, which will be
        guaranteed through project supervision. BOCOG and the competent
        departments of the municipal government will strictly supervise the projects to
        ensure that they can be completed on time.
        The permanent investment for the 37 venues will amount to I 531 million US
        dollars. In this budget, the possible inflation before 2008 has been taken into
        consideration. In case the expenses rise, the Beijing Olympic Bidding Committee
        will not bear the expenses exceeding the budget. The extra cost will be borne
        by the project owners and local authorities. The BOCOG and the competent
       departments of the Municipal Government will be jointly responsible for the
       coordination regarding the projects. For each project we will set a schedule,
       which will be statutory and included in the basic requirements for the
       tendering. So there will be no possibility of endless tendering that might
       hold back the construction. Should this happen, the government will intervene
       directly.
       Until
       Cultural Differences
       Section I Rules in Speaking
       Have you noticed how often Americans use the expression "thank you"? A
         customer, after paying $100 for a meal in a restaurant, says "thank you" to the
         person who hands him the bill. In response to "1 like the color of your car," an
       American might answer” thank you." For Americans, this expression is used as a
polite response to different kinds of favors and compliments, and is often automatic.
         In language there are tacit rules of speaking that, unlike rules of grammar or
         spelling, are not usually studied in a formal manner. These unspoken "rules" exist in
 every language but differ significantly from culture to culture. Acquiring a second
       language demands more than learning new words and another system of grammar.
         It involves developing sensitivity to aspects of language that are not usually taught in
       language textbooks.
       Compared with other languages, American English strongly emphasizes directness
       in verbal interaction. Many expressions exemplify this tendency:” Don’t beat around
       the bush,” Let’s get down to business," and "Get to the point” all indicate impatience
         with avoiding issues. If a son hesitates telling his father that he received a bad grade
         in school, his father might respond angrily with, "Out with it!" or "Speak up!"
       Directness is also seen when information is requested from strangers or from
         people who are not well known to you. For example, when passing a professor's
       office a student may say, "Excuse me, I'd like to ask you a couple of questions." Her
       professor may respond,” Sure; go right ahead. What's the, problem?" In this interaction,
       the student stated her purpose and the professor responded immediately Of course,
       there are limits to the degree of directness a person is allowed to express, especially
       with people of higher status such as teachers and employers.
         A frequently misunderstood area in American verbal interaction is that of
       extending, accepting, and refusing invitations. In English someone might say something
       that sounds like an invitation but that never results in an actual meeting with another
       person. Of course, there are invitations that require definite commitments when an
       appointment of a definite plan and a specific date, time and place is fixed.
         Many Americans interpret silence in a conversation to mean disapproval,
       disagreement or unsuccessful communication. They often try to fill silence by saying
       something even if they have nothing to say! On the other hand, Americans don't
       appreciate a person who dominates a conversation. Interrupting someone who is
       speaking is also considered rude in the United States.
         Individuals in every culture have similar basic needs but express them differently
       In daily life we all initiate conversation, use formal and informal speech, give praise,
       express disagreement, seek information, and extend invitations. Whereas directness
       in speech is common in the United States, indirectness is the rule in parts of the Far
       East. In parts of the Middle East a host is expected to offer food several times but in
       the United States he may make an offer only once or twice. The different modes of
       expression represent variations on the same theme. Each language reflects and
       creates cultural attitudes; each has a unique way of expressing human need.
       section 2Task 1 Awareness of Time
         A: How do the Americans treat punctuality?
       B: Promptness is important in American business, academic, and social settings.
         People who keep appointments are considered dependable. If people are late
       to job interviews, appointments, or classes, they are often viewed as unreliable
       and irresponsible. In the business world, "time is money" and companies may
         fine their executives for tardiness to business meetings. Calling on the telephone
         if one is going to be more than a few minutes late for scheduled appointments is
       considered polite and is often expected. Keeping a date or a friend waiting
         beyond ten to twenty-five minutes is considered rude. k How about deadlines for students?
       B: Respecting deadlines is also important in academic and professional circles. It is
         expected that deadlines for class assignments or business reports will be met.
         Students who hand in assignments late may be surprised to find that the professor
       will lower their grades or even refuse to grade their worlc
       A: How do the Americans arrange their time?
         B: Time is tangible to them: one can "gair~time," "spend time," "waste time," "save
       time," or even "kill time"! Common questions in American English reveal this
       concrete quality as though time were a possession. For instance,"Do you have
         any time?","Can you get some time for this?","How much free time do you have?"
 The treatment of time as a possession influences the way time is carefully divided.
         Generally, Americans are taught to do one thing at a time and may be
         uncomfortable when an activity is interrupted. In business the careful scheduling
         of time and the separation of activities are common practices. Visitors who
         "drop by" without prior notice may interrupt their host's personal time. To
       accommodate other people's schedules, Americans make business plans and social
         engagements several days or weeks in advance.
       A: it is said that the Americans are future-oriented. Is it because of their awareness of time?
       B: Yes. A future orientation, encompassing a preference for change, is characteristic
       of American culture. Society encourages people to look to the future rather
         than to the past. Technological, social, and artistic trends change rapidly and
         affect people's lifestyles and their relationships. Given this inclination toward change, it is
not surprising that tradition plays a limited role in American culture. High rates of change,
particularly in urban areas, have contributed to a focus on
       the future rather than the past or present. Many Americans believe that the
       benefits of the future orientation are achievement and progress which enable
       them to have a high standard of living.
       Task 2 Awareness of Space
         Winston Churchill once said, "We shape our buildings and they shape us" When
       we travel abroad we are immediately impressed by the many ways buildings, homes
       and cities are designed. The division and organization of space lend character and
       uniqueness to villages, towns and cities. The separation of space inside homes may
      also vary from' culture to culture. In most American homes the layout of rooms
      reveals the separateness and labeling of space according to function--bedroom,
      living room, dining room, playroom, and so on. This system is in sharp contrast to
      other cultures where one room in a house may serve several functions. In Japan,
      homes with sliding walls can change a large room into two small rooms so that a
      living room can also serve as a bedroom.
        Architectural design influences how privacy is achieved as well as how social
      contact is made in public places. The concept of privacy is not unique to a particular
      culture but what it means is culturally determined. For example, according to Donald
      Keene, author of Living Japan, there is no Japanese word for privacy. Yet one
      cannot say that the concept of privacy does not exist among the Japanese but only
      that it is very different from the Western conception.
        People in the United States tend to achieve privacy by physically separating
      themselves from others. The expression "good fences make good neighbors" indicates
      a preference for privacy from neighbor's homes. When the American wants to be
      alone he goes into a room and shuts the door--he depends on architectural features
      for screening. The English, on the other hand, lacking rooms of their own since
      childhood, never developed the practice of using space as a refuge from others.
      That is, they do not need to remove themselves physically from a group in order to
      achieve privacy
  Young American children learn the rule "knock before you enter" which teaches
      .them to respect others' privacy. Parents, too, often follow this rule prior to entering
        their children's rooms. When a bedroom door is closed it may be a sign to others
        sayin&"l need privacy," "I'm angry," or "Do not disturb... I'm busy." For Americans,
        the physical division of space and use of architectural features permit a sense of
      privacy.
      Section 3Nonverbal Communication
      Language studies traditionally have emphasized verbal and written language, but
      recently have begun to consider communication that takes place without words. In
        some types of communication people express more non-verbally than verbally. If
        you ask an obviously depressed person,” What’s wrong?", and he answers,” Nothing,
        I'm fine;' you probably won't believe him. When an angry person says,” Let’s forget
      this subject. I don’t want to talk about it any more? you know that he hasn't stopped
      communicating. His silence and withdrawal continue to convey emotional meaning.
        Nonverbal communication expresses meaning or feeling without words.
        Universal emotions, such as happiness, fear, and sadness, are expressed in a similar
        nonverbal way throughout the world. There are, however, nonverbal differences
        across cultures that may be a source of confusion for foreigners. For example, feelings of
friendship exist everywhere but their expression varies. It may be acceptable
      in some countries for men to embrace each other and for women to hold hands; in
        other countries these displays of affection may be shocking.
      What is acceptable in one culture may be completely unacceptable in another
        One culture may determine that snapping fingers to call a waiter is appropriate;
      another may consider this gesture rude. We are often not aware of how gestures,
 facial expressions, eye contact, and the use of space affect communication. In order
 to correctly interpret another culture's style of communication, it is necessary to
study the "silent language" of that culture.
Gestures refer to specific body movements that carry meaning. Hands can
 form shapes that convey many meanings: "That's expensive," "Come here,"" Go
 away," and "It's OK" can be expressed non-verbally using only hands. The gestures
 for these phrases may differ among languages. For example, the "OK" gesture in
 American culture is a symbol for money in Japan. The same gesture is obscene in
 some Latin American countries.
Facial expressions carry meaning determined by contexts and relationships.
 For instance, the smile, which is typically an expression of pleasure, has many functions.
 A woman's smile at a policeman who is about to give her a ticket does not carry the
 same meaning as the smile she gives to a young child. A smile may show affection,
 convey politeness, or disguise true feelings. Pain is conveyed by a grimace, which
 also signifies disgust or disapproval. Surprise, shock, or disbelief can be shown by
 raising the eyebrows. A wink given to a friend may mean "You and I have a secret"
 or’ Tm just kidding." Between a man and a woman, a wink can be flirtatious. Our
 faces easily reveal emotions and attitudes.
Eye contact is important because insufficient or excessive eye contact may create
communication barriers. It is important in relationships because it serves to show
 intimacy, attention, and influence. As with facial expressions, there are no specific
rules governing eye behavior except that it is considered rude to stare, especially at
strangers. It is, however, common for two strangers to walk toward each other,
make eye contact, smile and perhaps even say "Hi." The strangers may immediately
look away and forget that they even had any contact. This type of glance does not
mean much; it is simply a way of acknowledging another person's presence. In a
conversation too little eye contact may be seen negatively because it conveys lack of
interest, inattention, or even mistrust The relationship between mistrust and lack of
eye contact is stated directly in the expression,” Never trust a person who can't look
you in the eyes."
 Unconsciously, we all carry with us what have been called "body bubbles." These
bubbles are like invisible walls which define our personal space. The amount of
space changes depending on the interpersonal relationship. For example, we are
usually more comfortable standing closer to family members than to strangers.
Personality also determines the size of this space. Introverts often prefer to interact
with others at a greater distance than extroverts. Cultural styles are important too.
A Japanese employer and employee usually stand farther apart while talking than
their American counterparts. Latin Americans and Arabs tend to stand closer together
than Americans when talking.
 For Americans, distance in social conversation is about an arm's length to four
feet. Less space in American culture may be associated with greater intimacy or
aggressive behavior. The common practice of saying "Excuse me," or "Pardon me"
for the slightest accidental touching of another person reveals an American attitude
about personal space. Thus when a person's "space" is intruded upon by someone
      else, he or she may feel threatened and react defensively. In cultures where close
      physical contact is acceptable and desirable, Americans may be perceived as cold
      and distant
      Unit11
       Crime
      Section I Causes of Crime
 A: Crime is a serious problem in many countries. What do you think are the causes of
criminality?
       B: Well, there have been various schools and theories attempting to explain the
       reasons for crime. The classical school of criminology of the late 18th century,
       for example, believed that hedonism and free will were the sources of crimes.
      A: What does that mean?
       B: People of that time believed that all men, including criminals, act rationally and
      deliberately to avoid pain and seek pleasure. That is to say, the criminal makes a
      deliberate, rational, hedonistically oriented decision to engage in law-breaking. If
      this is the case, to deter him or others from crime, a suitable amount and kind of
      punishment must swiftly and surely be applied to wrongdoers to counterbalance
       the pleasure they get from criminal acts. In fact, the major outlines of Anglo-
      Saxon criminal law and procedure are still essentially consistent with classical
      arguments. Much demand for a return to punishment (including capital
      punishment), fixed sentences, and other classical approaches to crime control
      has been heard in the United States in recent years.
      A: It sounds a reasonable argument What are the alternative views on crimes?
      B: The cartographic or geographic school of criminology pursued the ecological
       facts of crime; that is, its members examined the distribution of forms and rates
      of crime among spatial areas. They focused on the relationship between economic
       conditions and fluctuations in crime and delinquent~ For example, in a study in
       Seattle, Calvin Schmidt examined 35 000 cases of offenses reported to the police
       and 30000 arrests. He found that certain criminal acts were heavily concentrated
       in the central business district of the city, whereas others were more common in
       other parts of the city. In general, illegal activities and criminal factors were most
       common in areas of Iowa social cohesion, weak family life, Iowa economic status,
       physical deterioration of property, high population mobility;, and various forms of
       personal demoralization.
      A: Is it true that some people are born criminals?
      B: That is an interesting field of the biological approach which held that biological
       factors determine human behavior generally. When one of Shakespeare's
       characters uttered the warning, "Yon Cassius hath a lean and hungry look; he
       thinks too much. Such men are dangerous," he was expressing the ancient and
       widely popular thesis that man's physical structure explains his behavior. Many
       people tended to believe that criminals have certain physical characteristics that
       could be identified such as facial asymmetry, eye defects and peculiarities, ears of
       unusual size, and excessively long arms. It was also believed that some people
       were born criminals. Of course, the biological explanation neglected social,
         economic, political and other important factors involved in crime.
       A: What about Marxist view on crime?
       B: According to Marxist arguments, exploitation of workers in capitalistic societies
       leads to widespread poverty and misery. In turn, these conditions produce a
       variety of criminality responses, including alcoholism, prostitution, and theft.
       The systems of criminal justice prevailing in capitalistic societies protect the
       exploitative interests of the owner class. Studies of economic influences on
       crime did show that lower-class groups have much higher crime rates than upper-
       class groups. There are many other factors of course. These are just some of the
       major theories in the long history to probe into the causes of crime.
       Section 2Task I Categories of Crime
       Today I'm going to talk about categories of crime. The first kind is professional theft.
       Professional thieves engage in a variety of nonviolent and frequently complex forms of
       property crime, usually involving some element of manipulation of the victim or victims.
         They exhibit a long period of training, complex occupational skills, and a shared set of
  occupationally oriented attitudes. Therefore they can be called professionals.
         Professional "heavy" crime and semiprofessional and unskilled predatory crime
       fall into the second and third categories. To be a "heavy" criminal means to be
         involved in lawbreaking acts where violence and threats of violence are used acrime
techniques. These crimes stand in contrast to professional theft, where cheating
         is a basic crime skill. However, the distinction between professional "heavy" crime
       and less sophisticated activities is actually one of degree rather than kind. Also, the
         dividing line between professional and semiprofessional offenders is somewhat
       arbitrary. On the whole, professional "heavies" reap large sums of money from their
       illegal activities and work at this occupation full-time. Semiprofessionals tend to be
         relatively unskilled, poorly paid for their criminal endeavors, and work at crime in
         many cases on a part-time basis. Many of these person~ of average intelligence, are
       from socially and economically deprived neighborhoods. Semiprofessional crime is
         usually crude and unsophisticated, lacking in planning, and carried on by offenders
         acting alone. Not surprisingly, semiprofessional predators rarely obtain "big score."
  Finally, I want to mention automobile theft and "joy-riding" as a separate category
         since it's a commonplace crime in Western countries. In the form of” car clouting,"
       cars are broken into in parking lots and elsewhere and items of property are stolen
       from them. Automobiles are also stolen by gangs of"car strippers" and car thieves,
       who either alter the identification markings and sell the stolen vehicles or who "strip"
       or dismantle the cars and sell the parts obtained from them. In the form of "joy:
       riding," the offenders steal the automobiles to provide short-run recreation rather
       than to deprive the owner permanently of his or her property. It's extremely common
       in the United States. Joy-riding theft is often carried on by persons from about 13 to
       20 years of age.
       Task 2 Organizational and Occupational Crime
         in today's lecture, I'd like to focus on a different form of crime, that is organizational
       and occupational crime. Organizational crimes are illegal acts of an individual or a
       group of individuals in a legitimate formal organization, which have serious physical
      or economic impact on employees, consumers or the general public. The
      organizational crime category is comprised of violations of government statutes and
      regulations. The offending corporations were responsible for a wide range of illegal
      acts, which fall into a number of broad groupings: environmental violations, financial
      violations, labor violations, manufacturing violations, unfair trade practices, water or
      air pollution, tax violations, etc. A study shows that law violations were not distributed
      uniformly across all manufacturing groups; rather, motor-vehicle, drug& and oil-refining
      industries contributed nearly half of all violations and 40 percent of all serious or
      moderately serious infractions. Consumer fraud is also a commonplace practice of
      some businesses. Since the principle of” let the buyer beware" has been dominant in
      merchandising relationships in the United States, business tradition has always
      maintained that the customer should protect himself from the merchant. A study
      shows that customers in some cases were often charged whatever the merchant
      thought he could obtain for his goods. Furthermore, the merchants often charged
      customers high prices for inferior quality items and sold them used merchandise that
      was supposedly new.
      If organizational crime is lawbreaking carried on in order to serve the interests
      of business organizations, embezzlement is its polar opposite, involving enemies from
      within engaged in subverting the organization. However, such crimes require
      professional or occupational skills. For example, some computer crimes, representing a new
form of embezzlement involve a computer technician or any other employee
      who uses computers to steal money from his or her employer. A large number of
      computer crimes of this variety have occurred in banks in recent years. We can call
      these lawbreaking acts "white-collar" or occupational crime in which a crime is
      committed by a person of respectability and high status in the course of his occupation.
        Styles in crime wax and wane. Car theft did not exist before about 1900
      because there were no automobiles to steal. Similarly, safe-cracking is a dying art,
      principally because businesses and other organizations now rarely keep large amounts
      of money in safes. By contrast, crime employing modem computers is a rapidly
      growing and major form of lawbreaking.
      Section 3Legal Systems in the UK
        A: Professor Smith, does Britain have a single legal system?
        B: The United Kingdom does not have a single legal system. Instead, England and
        Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland have their own systems, with considerable
      differences in law, judicial procedure and court structure. There is, however,
        substantial similarity on many points and a large volume of modem legislation
      applies throughout the UIC
        A: What is the major similarity in the three systems?
        B: Definitely it's the common distinction between criminal law and civil law. Laws
        can be classified as criminal or civil. Criminal law deals with wrongs affecting the
        community for which a prosecution may be brought in the criminal courts. Civil
        law is about deciding disputes between two or more parties--individuals,
        companies or other organizations--and for providing a means of legal scrutiny of
        the actions of public bodies. The purpose of civil proceedings is not to punish,
     but to obtain compensation or some other appropriate remedy, although in
      England and Wales the payment of damages may sometimes have a punitive
      element
     A: Is it true that the past decisions of the courts serve as binding rules?
     B: Many key areas of law have, over the centuries, developed through the decisions
      of the courts. This is known as the common law. The doctrine of binding precedent
      means that decisions of higher courts bind those courts lower down the court
      hierarchy. This ensures consistency of judicial approach. The common law can
      develop new rules, or modify existing ones, but judges generally take great care
      not to develop the common law in ways involving policy choices best left to
      Parliament whose statutes are the ultimate source of law. A court cannot declare
      a statute to be invalid, and a statute may reverse a decision by the courts with
      which Parliament disagrees. Parliament can repeal anAct, wholly or partly, replacing
      it with new provisions. There are no legal limits on what may be done by Act of
      Parliament, although a legal duty exists to comply with European Community
      (EC) law because of UK's membership of the European Union. For instance, the
      UK has to observe the European Convention on Human Rights, an international
      treaty containing a statement of some basic human rights, such as right to life,
      prohibition of torture, right to a fair trial, respect for private and family life, and
      freedom of expression and assembly.
     A: I'm often confused by some terms such as magistrate and justice, barrister and
      solicitor. Can you show me the differences between these terms?
     B: Well, the law is enforced by judicial officers, ranging from judges in the House of
      Lords and the superior courts to lay justices who, together with juries in certain
      cases, are responsible for deciding disputed cases. Courts are presided over by
      judges and magistrates. Judges are legally qualified, being appointed from the
      ranks of practicing barristers and advocates or solicitors. Lay magistrates in England
      and Wales, and Justices of the Peace in Scotland, are trained in order to give
      them sufficient knowledge of the law, including the rules of evidence, and of the
      nature and purpose of sentencing. Lay magistrates are advised on the law by
      magistrates' clerks. The Lord Chancellor appoints lay magistrates from names
      submitted by local advisory committee. The two branches of the profession
      have separate professional bodies: the Bar Council for barristers; and the Law
      Society for solicitors.
     A: Now I understand. Justice and magistrate are different terms for the judges of
Differed courts while barrister or advocate in Scotland and solicitor refer to the
      respective lawyers for these courts.
     B: You're right
      Unit12
     Environment
     Section I Rabbits Overran Australia
     A good illustration of an ecological upset comes from Australia. In 1859, Mr.
     Thomas Austin let 24 wild English rabbits loose on his land. At the time, they were
      probably the only rabbits in the whole country. Within ten years, Mr Austin had
         killed 20000 rabbits. Even so, he figured there were still 10000 on or near his land.
         Before 1900, this small army of rabbits had conquered half the continent. In a
         desperate attempt to keep rabbits out of Western Australia, the government of the
         state set about erecting a wire-mesh fence, at a cost of roughly $2 million. Before
         the fence was finished, some rabbits were already on the wrong side of it.
       In 1950, the Australian government officials estimated rabbits were eating as
 much food as 25 or 30 million sheep. Worse, their burrowing yearly turned thousands
         of acres of sheep-ranching land into a dust bowl.
       It is true that rabbits, like sheep, have economic value. For a while, Australia
       was exporting 70 million rabbit skins a year But the cash value of this export wasonly a
small fraction of the cash value of the wool and meat from 25 to 30 million sheep.
       Rabbits can be killed offwith poisons, just like the wheat bulb fly and a hundred
       other varieties of flies. But, just like the flies, they may also develop an immunity to
       poisons.
         Since 1950, millions upon millions of Australian rabbits have been killed off by a
       deadly virus called myxomatosis. But some rabbits have been able to survive the
       disease. What's more, their offspring seem to be immune to it So if Mr. Austin were
       alive today, he'd still be worried about the large number of rabbits on his property.
       The moral of the story is clear. People ought to think long and hard before
       introducing foreign animals into a country. Just as it often takes only a few grains of
       sand to tip the scales of a delicate laboratory balance, so it often takes only a few
       small animals to upset nature's ecological balance.
       Section 2Task I Pollution of Air
         Let's have a look at the earth's stock of air. As you can imagine, air is a hard
         thing to measure. Meteorologists can't agree on exactly how far up in the sky the air
       becomes so thin it ceases to be breathable by, and thus useful to, human beings.
         However, chances are that there are at least 7 quadrillion tons of air. This sounds
         like a lot, as indeed it is.
         Sad to say, not all of this air is as pure as it used to be. More and more of it is
       getting less pure by the day. The world's automobiles alone are pumping more than
       500,000 tons of poisonous carbon monoxide into the air every day. Other poisons
       are also constantly entering the air. These come not only from automobiles but
         from smelting factories, chemical plants, and other industries. Once in the air, some
         of the chemicals react with one another or with the sunlight and form new poisons.
         In addition, billions upon billions of specks of dust, bits of ash, and tiny flakes of
paint and varnish are rising hour by hour into the air. Most of them remain suspended
       for days and weeks, sometimes for years. Mingling with fog, they form the witches'
         brew we call smog. Many doctors now believe smog is a contributing factor in lung
       cancer and other diseases.
       Another impurity that may, in the long run, give people even more trouble is
         Carbon dioxide. Scientists tell us that in the past 200 years, more than 6 billion tons
       Of this gas have entered the air from smokestacks, car exhausts, and home females.
       They say that it will take only I00 years to add the same amount again if the world's
       industrial areas continue to grow at the present rate. This gas is being formed faster
that it can be: absorbed by the ocean waters or changed into carbon and oxygen by
plants,For this reason, much of it stays in the air.
One possible result of too much carbon dioxide in the air is what weather
call the greenhouse effect The gas allows the sunlight to pass through
the air to the surface of the earth. But the gas prevents the heat produced on the
surfer by the sun's rays from escaping into outer space. Hence the air is slowly
  getting warmer
Some scientists believe the earth's average air temperature is rising at a rate of
about one or two degrees Fahrenheit per I O0 years. Not much of an increase, you
  think? Yet, if the temperature rose at this rate for 200 years or so, it would be
  enough to melt half the world's ice caps and raise the sea level everywhere by about
  30 meters. That would be enough to drown many cities. It would reduce the
  already limited supply of land.
Task 2 Pollution of the Water
  Nobody knows exactly how much water there is on the earth. However, what
is known is that the oceans cover roughly 368 million square kilometers, or 70
percent, of the earth's surface and that their average depth is more than 3.2 kilometers.
So it looks as though there are well over I 164 million cubic kilometers of water in
the oceans alone. Add to this all the water in the earth's lakes, rivers and glaciers,
and underground, and the chances are that the total amount of water on the earth
is more than I 230 million cubic kilometers.
This is a huge amount of water. Unfortunately, not more than I or 2 percent
of it is fresh water. All the rest is either sea water--too salty for drinking or irrigation
purposes--or ice, locked into glaciers. And this small amount of fresh water is most
unevenly spread over the earth.
  The total amount of water in the world today is probably the same as it always.
has been. But the amount in any one place keeps changing. The ocean and the land
are continuously giving up great amounts of water to the air by evaporation. And
the air, somewhere or other, is continuously giving the water back to the oceans and
the land in precipitation. Some water, evaporated from the oceans, blows over the
land and falls as rain or snow. The rivers carry about the same amount of water
from the land back to the oceans. Ground water also plays its part in redistributing
the earth's water resources.
  Like the air and the land, the waters of the earth aren't as good as they used to
be. For one thing, many of them aren't as well stocked with fish. This is true of both
fresh and salt water. In the United States, more than twenty species of freshwater
fish have been badly over-fished. They are in danger of becoming extinct. In the
world as a whole, more than a hundred species offish and marine mammals are on
the danger list. Many more are on the over-fished list.
  One of the most important of those on the danger list is the world's largest
mammal, the blue whale. When fully grown, it weighs more than 100 tons and is
more than 100 feet long. During the 1930's, more than 14 000 blue whales were
killed every year. Today, probably not more than 600 are left in the oceans. At least
four other varieties of whales have been hunted almost out of existence.
         In addition, the quality of the water of the earth is not as good as it used to be.
       Hardly a lake in the inhabited world is as clean and pure as it was in the past. Many
       lakes are so unclean and impure that their waters are not f~ to drink or to swim in.
       They are even harmful to most forms of aquatic life.
         Many of the world's rivers and estuaries, or areas where rivers meet ocean
       tides, are also in danger of becoming dead bodies of water. Some of the rivers that
       pass through heavily populated areas are dead already.
       section 3 Noise Pollution
         The-sense of sound is one of our most important means of knowing what is
going on, around us We are warned of danger by sounds--by a siren or a rattling
       snake. Sounds serve to please us in music. Sound has a waste produ~ too, in the
       form of noise,
         Scientists, for several years, have been studying how noise affects people and
       animals They are alarmed by what they have learned. Peace and quiet are becoming
       harder to find. Noise pollution--the crashing, squeaking, banging, hammering of
       people is no joke. It is a threat that should be looked at carefully.
         ,Sound is measured in units called "decibels." At a level of 140 decibels people
       feel pain in their. ears. Automobiles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, airplanes, boats,
       factories, bands--all these things make noise. They bother not only our ears, but
       our minds and bodies as well.
         There is a saying about it being so noisy that you can't hear yourself think
       Doctors who study noise believe that we must sometimes hear ourselves think If
       we don't, we may have headaches, other aches and pains, or even worse, mental
       problems, Noise adds more tension to a society that already faces enough stress.
         But noise is not a new problem. In ancient Rome, people complained so much
       about noise that Julius Caesar stopped chariots from moving through the streets at
       night.
         Noise can be separated into a few general groups. The following examples are
       taken from hearings before the U. S. Senate Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution
       in 1970.
         Occupational NoiseFactory workers who always hear noise have poorer
       hearing than other groups.
         Aircraft NoiseAround airports or on air routes, the noise of airplanes taking
       off and landing causes the greatest complaints.
         Traffic NoiseAway from the noise of planes, traffic sounds break in on our
       peace and quiet. Trucks and motorcycles cause the most problems.
         Outdoor Noise--For people in the city, noise of buildings going up and
       emergency automobiles are the greatest problems. In the suburbs, barking dogs,
       playing children, and lawn mowers cause the problems.
         Indoor NoiseRadios, record players, and TV:, the sounds of plumbing, heating,
       and air conditioning are all noise to some people.
       There are two ways to cut down on the harm caused by noise, one is to cut down on the
amount of noise, the other is to protect ourselves against the noise we can’t stop. We cannot return
to the “good old days o peace and quiet, But we can reduce noise- of we shout loudly enough
about it.”

								
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