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									                                Classical Greece
                                         Chapter 5
                                       Pages 109-135
           Cultures of the Mountains & the Sea
                                           Sec 1
                                        Pages 111-14
                  Geography Shapes Greek Life
• Access to the sea links Greek Trade, travel, & economics to other
   – Became excellent sailors, trade was important due to lack of natural resources
• Mountains make overland trade & political unity difficult
• Lack of abundant resources spurs Greek expansion
• A mild Climate encourages an outdoor civic & cultural life
   – Temperature range from 48 degrees to 80 degress
   – Men spent most of their time in outdoor public events

     Geographical Effects of Greek Civilization
        Mycenaean Civilizations Develops
• Mycenaean develop a strong culture led by wealthy warrior-kings
   – Were among the Indo-Europeans who invaded many areas around 2000 B.C.
   – Lived in the main city in palace-forts
• They invade Crete & preserve & spread aspects of Minoan culture
   – Adopted their form of writhing & some religious beliefs
   – Also became interested in trade
• Mycenaean kings defeat Troy & become the dominant power in the Aegean region
   – 10 year war & where the famous Trojan Horse is part of.

     Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians
• After their civilization Collapses the Mycenaean are replaced by the Dorians
   – Sea raiders destroyed their palaces
• The Dorians have no written language & are less advanced than the Mycenaean
   – Greece went into decline and no written records exist from this period
   – Through spoken word, Greeks of this time continued to relate epic stories of their
• Homer Composes the heroic epics of Greek literature, The Lliad & The Odyssey
   – Both tell of the war w/Troy & an otherworldly journey home by a Greek hero
                             Warring City-States
                                         Section 2
                                       Pages 115-119
            Rule & Order in Greek City-States
• The Basic political unit in Greece is the polis, or city-state
   – Name given to Greek cities and villages surrounding them
• Each city-state is ruled by a monarchy, aristocracy, or oligarchy
   – Monarchy – ruled by king; Aristocracy- ruled by nobles; Oligarchy – ruled by
     wealthy merchants; Some city-states has a representative type of government
• A new type of army emerges, made of citizen-soldiers
   – Weapons made up of iron instead of bronze (too costly)
   – Soldiers from all walks of life ready to defend their homes

                 Sparta Builds a Military State
• Sparta develops into a military state, extending its power by conquering the
   – Made the Messenians helots, peasants forced to stay on the land and work the land
• An Assembly, council of Elders & ephors govern Sparta. Only ruling families &
  working class people are citizens
   – Two groups govern Sparta free adult males, elected officials who voted on major
     issues & council of Elders
   – Ephors carried out the law
• Education for Spartan boys centers on Military training. Both boys and girls learn to
  put service to the state first
   – Boys joined army @ 7 & went through a long period of training as soldiers
   – Women stayed home a work the farms & other businesses
           Athens Builds a Limited Democracy
• Athens avoids civil war by developing democratic rule, but only free men can be
   – Wealthy nobles & the poor people were at odd
• Solon reforms the legal system, the assembly, & trade buy neglects the peasants
   – Removed laws that the poor didn’t like
   – Made it possible for any citizen to join the assembly
   – Outlawed debt slavery
• Cleisthenes weakens the nobility & gives citizens more power
   – Made Athens a full democracy
   – Allowed citizens to admit laws for debate and passage

      Differences in living in Athens and Sparta
                  The Persian Wars
• In the first Persian War, the highly trained Greek armies defeat
  King Darius’s forces
• Ten years later the city-states are badly divided, Athens & Sparta
  rally to defeat Xerxes’ army & navy
• Victory over the Persians gives the Greeks renewed self-
  confidence & set the stage for Athens’ golden age
         Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age
                                     Section 3
              Pericles’ Three Goals for Athens
• Pericles helps create direct democracy, strengthens navy,
  beautifies Athens
   – Wanted to make Athens more democratic
   – Wanted to make Athens stronger
   – Wanted to make Athens beautiful

                           Greek Styles in Art
• Greek artists & sculptors create an idealized human form
   – Phidias created statue that contained gold & ivory and it stood 38 feet tall
• Order, balance, & proportion are standards of classical art
   – Faces showed neither laughter nor anger just serenity
   – Attempted to capture the grace and motion of the human body
                                Greek Drama
• The Greeks create dramatic tragedies & comedies
   – Tragedies covered pain and suffering
   – Comedies discussed & accepted criticism of their ideas, behavior, customs, politics
• The tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocies and Euripides focus on serious
  themes and a tragically flawed hero
• Comedies, such as those by Aristophanes, often used slapstick humor and
  satire to criticize Athenian life
            Spartans and Athenians Go to War
• Sparta & Athens begin the Peloponnesian War
   – Cause was Athenian expansion onto the island of Corcyra, which threatened the
     Spartan ally of Corinth
   – Sparta had superior land forces
   – Athens had a superior navy
• After 10 years of war Athens surrenders to Sparta
• Athens loses its empire, power, & wealth; and confidence in democratic
  rule declines
                 Philosophers Search for Truth
• Greek thinkers believe the universe & its laws can be studied &
• Socrates question the traditional Greek values & is condemned to death
   – Believe deeply in truth & justice
• In The Republic, Plato describes his ideal society – an oligarchy, not a
   – Society would be divided into three groups-farmers, artisans, warrior, & the ruling
   – The person in the ruling class with the greatest insight & intellect would be a

                Philosophers Search for Truth
• Aristotle's rules of logic are the forerunners o the modern
  scientific method
   – Method for arguing coding to rules of logic
• The ideas of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle shape European
  thought for centuries to come
                   Alexander- Empire Builder
                                    Section 4
                                  Pages 128-131
             Philip Builds Macedonia’s Power
• Philip II of Macedonia builds a powerful professional army and defeats
  his enemies
   – Invaded Greece and ended their independence
• He conquers a divided Greece but is murdered before he could invade
   – Killed at his daughter wedding by a former guards man.
• Alexander continues his father’s empire building
   – At age 20 proclaimed himself king
                     Alexander Defeats Persia
• Alexander first establishes control over the Greek cities & then invades
   – Destroyed Thebes, when they rebelled; sold survivors into slavery frightened by his
     cruelty, Greek cities give up the idea of rebellion
• Alexander military genius is evident in his defeat of the Persian forces
   – Smashed Persian defenses at Granicus; surprised them in Anatolia
• Although Darius III tries to negotiate, Alexander conquers Egypt & Persia
   – Crowned pharaoh & named a city after himself
                  Alexander’s Other Conquests
• Alexander extends his empire into Central Asia, hoping to reach the continent’s end
• His conquests end at the Indus Valley, and he dies pre paring to wage another
   – Not yet 33 years old
• Antigonus, Ptolemy, & Seleucus divided Alexander’s empire & rule as absolute
   – Antigonus became leader over Macedonia & Greece
   – Ptolemy took over Egypt and become pharaoh
   – Seleucus ruled that used to be the Persian empire
• Alexander conquests result in the blending of Greek & Persian cultures
              The Spread of Hellenistic Culture
                                     Section 5
                                   Pages 132-135
              Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria
• Greek, Egyptian, Persian, & Indian Influences blend to create Hellenistic culture
• Alexandria’s strategic site helps it become the greatest city in the Hellenistic world
   – Located on the western edge of the Nile ships docked in its harbor
• The city thrives as a major center of scholarship with its museums & library
   – Museum had rooms with works of art, a zoo, & a garden
   – Library held half a million scrolls of papyrus that contained everything known to
     the Hellenistic world
   – Became first true research library
                        Science & Technology
• Hellenistic astronomers develop theories that shape European thought for
   – Aristarchus stated the the sun was actually larger than the earth & the earth &
     planets revolved around the sun
• Euclid develops the science of geometry, and Archimedes’ laws serve as
  the basis for many mechanical inventions
   – Archimedes’s calculated an approximate value of pi, also invented the compound
     pulley to left heavy objects, device to raise water from the ground, and a catapult
                           Philosophy and Art
• Stoics seek to control desire and live in harmony with natural & divine
   – Thought that power and wealth could hurt a person’s moral well-being
• Epicureans seek to harmonize body & mind
   – People could rely only on what they learned from their five senses
   – Stated that everyone lives and mortal life and they should try to do thing in
     moderate ways, rather than to the extreme
• Hellenistic sculptors reject classical ideals & create more realistic works
                  Hellenistic Achievements
                   The Legacy of Greece

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