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Geologic

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					Karen Black
December 2, 2011

                  Geologic relationships of granitoid bodies in NW Turkey

1. Introduction

Purpose

       This summer, I conducted fieldwork in NW Turkey and collected samples from granite

plutons in order to better understand their tectonic evolution. I prepared for this work by

collecting maps of my field area from Google Earth and Google Maps. These consisted mainly

of road maps. I also used a paper geologic map.

       I would now like to create more useful and conclusive maps of my field area that can be

used in my thesis. These maps will effectively display the geology of my field area as well as

sample locations. I would also like to obtain DEMs of my field area to help interpret the

relationship between faults and granite plutons in my field area.

       It will be very helpful to have all of this information stored in a usable GIS that I can

manipulate as needed. I will also be able to create maps from the DEM that can be used to

analyze that interaction between faults and the granite plutons in the region.



Background

       Turkey is the amalgamation of numerous continental fragments that were sutured

together by the opening and closing of Tethyan Oceans. Currently, Turkey is undergoing

compressional tectonics in the east, strike-slip tectonics across the entire northern portion of the

continent, and extensional tectonics in the west. As the African plate collides with the Eurasian

plate, the Arabia platform collides with Anatolia in the west. A free lateral boundary in the west

allows for strike-slip tectonics to occur and for Turkey to escape laterally southwestward via the

North Anatolian Shear Zone. The retreat of the Hellenic Arc is believed to be caused by slab-

roll back that results in extension in western Turkey.
          Northwest Turkey is a complex region that contains geologic evidence of the suturing of

continental fragments followed by the current N-S extension and SW strike-slip movements.

There are multiple granite bodies in this region that were exhumed during the current

extensional regime. During my field season, I focused on collecting samples from three plutons

including the Kozak, Eybek, and Kestanbolu.



Objective

          The object of this project is to create a useable GIS that will be used to analyze the

geologic relationships of granitoid bodies in northwest Turkey. Data will also be used to analyze

the relationships of samples collected this past summer. The final products will be a geologic

map of my field area, a road map with granite outcrops, contours and sample locations, and a

hillshade and aspect map with granite outcrops and faults to help analyze the topography of the

region.



2. Data Collection

ASTER

          ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) Global

DEM v.2 data was obtained from NASA

(http://reverb.echo.nasa.gov/reverb/#utf8=%E2%9C%93&spatial_map=satellite&spatial_type=re

ctangle). This ASTER GDEM is a product of METI and NASA. ASTER data was sent to me via

e-mail Mark Helper because a NASA account is needed to download data from this website. I

needed two tiles to cover my field area and they are N39E026 and N39E027. This data is 30m

resolution and is in a zipped folder that contains metadata and a GeoTiff.
Geologic Map

        An online geologic map of Turkey with high resolution was hard to find. I scanned a

paper version of a geologic map with my field area and saved it as a .jpeg that could be opened

in ArcMap.



Roads

        An online file containing an accurate and complete set of roads in Turkey was hard to

find. During fieldwork, I found that Google Maps was very accurate with roads in my field area.

Therefore, I used a screen shot of Google Maps for roads of my field area for this GIS. I was

also able to find precise latitude and longitude coordinates for points on my screen shot that

could be used to georeference my roads screen shot.



Samples

        During field work, sample locations were recorded as waypoints on a handheld GPS

unit. These latitudes and longitudes were exported as an excel file that could be imported into

ArcMap.



3. ArcGIS

        Before any processing any data with ArcGIS, I first created a folder for my project on an

external drive. This folder contained the two unzipped ASTER files, the scanned geologic map,

screen shot of roads from Google Maps, and the excel table of my sample locations. I also,

created a geodatabase for the geologic map I would be digitizing titled “NWTurkey”. Also, I

created a folder titled ‘MyData’ to save anything I modified such as the ASTER files. I opened a

black ArcMap document and connected it to this project folder I created. I initially set the data

frame coordinate system to GCS_WGS1984 (Figure 3.1).
           Figure 3.1.
           The spatial reference of the data frame was set to GCS_WGS1984.




4. ArcGIS Data Processing

ASTER

       To process the ASTER data I dragged my two unzipped geotiff files from ArcCatalog into

ArcMap. These files were automatically projected in my document. In order to see the

elevation in documents I had to change the symbology of the layers (Figure 4.1). The

symbology tab is located under properties when you right click on the ASTER layers in the

Table of Contents (TOC). Symbology was changed to stretched with standard deviations of

n=2.
                                                             Figure 4.1
                                                             Screen shot of ArcMap and 2
                                                             ASTER data. Notice the line
                                                             in the middle separating the
                                                             two files.




       Because there are two ASTER datasets, the elevation scales are different for each file

and there appears to be a line between the two sets (Figure 4.1). Therefore, I used to the

Mosaic tool to create a new raster with the two datasets combined (Figure 4.2). The ‘mosaic to

new raster’ tool is located in Arctoolbox under data management tools, then raster, and then

raster dataset.




     Figure 4.2.
     Screen shot of ArcMap and
     one ASTER raster after
     using the mosaic tool
Geologic Map

        I loaded the geologic map into my ArcMap document by dragging the scanned map I

save as a .jpeg from ArcCatalog into my document. To georeference the map (Figure 4.3), I

turned on the georeference toolbar and also opened the link table. I used the ‘add control points’

tool to add six points to intersecting latitude and longitude lines on the geologic map in my field

area. I then changed the X Map and Y Map locations in the link table to the corresponding

latitude and longitude points on the map. I rectified the image, saved it in the ‘My_Data’ folder,

and opened the new georeferenced raster in ArcMap. In ArcCatalog, I defined the coordinate

system of the image to GCS_WGS1984, the same as the data frame.




                                                                   Figure 4.3.
                                                                   Georeferencing the geologic
                                                                   map by adding six control
                                                                   point in ArcMap.




Roads

        The screen shot of my field area that I took from Google Maps was loaded into ArcMap.

By right clicking on a point in Google Maps and choosing ‘What’s Here?’, Google Maps will give

the latitude and longitude of that location (Figure 4.4). In ArcMap, I georeferenced my roads

screen shot by adding four points. In the link table, I changed the X Map and Y Map locations to

precise latitude and longitude coordinates obtained from Google Maps (Figure 4.5). I then

rectified the image, saved it in the ‘MyData’ folder, changed the coordinate system of the image
to GCS_WGS1984 in ArcCatalog, and then loaded the newly georeferenced image into my

Arcmap document.




                                                   Figure 4.4.
                                                   Using Google Maps ‘What’s Here?’
                                                   tool to determine precise latitude
                                                   and longitude of map points.




    Figure 4.5.
    Georeferencing roads image in
    ArcMap with latitudes and
    longitudes obtained from Google
    Maps.




Clipping

       The ASTER, geologic map, and roads datasets exceed the extent of my area of interest

so, I needed to clip them. I added a polygon that encompassed my field area titled ‘Map_Area’

to my geodatabse (Figure 4.6). I then used the clipping tool located in ArcToolbox under ‘Spatial

Analyst’, then ‘Extraction’, and then ‘Extraction by Mask’ to clip the ASTER, geologic map and
roads rasters to my Map_Area polygon (Figure 4.7). These newly clipped rasters were

automatically added to ArcMap and saved in the ‘MyData’ folder. I now have ASTER data, a

geologic map, and a roads image that only cover my area of interest.




                                                               Figure 4.6.
                                                               Screen shot of Map_Area
                                                               polygon overlaying the
                                                               geologic map




    Figure 4.7.
    Clipped ASTER data to
    Map_Area polygon
Digitizing

        To convert my geologic and roads maps from

raster files to shapefiles, I had to digitize each raster. In

my NWTurkey geodatabase I created a new feature line

class named ‘roads’ and gave it the same coordinate

system as the dataframe: GCS_WGS1984. I also

created a new feature dataset titled ‘Geology’. Within

this dataset I created a new feature line class titled

‘structures’, a new feature point class titled ‘cities’, and a

new feature line class titled ‘contacts’. The ‘structures’


feature class has the domain of fault types which
                                                                 Figure 4.8.
contains the codes of faults and sutures. The ‘contacts’         Construction of code values for the Units
                                                                 domain of the contacts feature class .
feature class has the Domain Name of ‘Units’ that

contains the coded values of the following unit names unit names: volcanics, ophiolitic mélange,

undifferentiated metamorphic rocks, amphibolite, schist, granite, metagranite, marble,

carbonates, sediments, and continental clastics (Figure 4.8). I can now edit these feature

classes and digitize by geologic map (Figure 4.9).




                                                                                Figure 4.9.
                                                                                Newly created feature
                                                                                datasets and feature classes
                                                                                for digitizing the geologic
                                                                                map and roads image.
           To digitize the geologic map, I only

  displayed the geologic map layer and turned on

  the editor for the geologic map and contacts

  feature class. I then traced all contact lines in

  my research area while periodically saving my

  edits (Figure 4.10). I then repeated the same

  process to digitize faults and cities. I then built

  a topology for my contact lines (Figure 4.11) and     Figure 4.10.
                                                        Construction of code values for the Units
  fixed all errors until there were no more. I then     domain of the contacts feature class.

  made the contact lines into polygons

  representing all the rock types in my geologic map. I could then assign the unit name attributes

  to each rock type and then change the symbology for each rock unit. I also assigned the fault

  type attributes to each of my faults or sutures and adjusted the symbology (Figure 4.12). I then

  labeled the cities, converted them to annotation and adjusted and edited their names.




Figure 4.11.
Screen shot of ArcMap with
Topology rules (above) and
generated topology (right).
The pink lines and boxes
were errors I had to correct.
                                                                 Figure 4.12.
                                                                 Screen shot of contact lines
                                                                 converted to polygons.
                                                                 Polygons were assigned unit
                                                                 names and appropriately
                                                                 symbolized.




       To digitize the roads layer, I only displayed the roads rater and turned on the editor for

the roads feature class (Figure 4.13). I then traced all roads in my area of interest while

periodically saving my edits.




                                                                 Figure 4.13.
                                                                 Digitizing roads in editing
                                                                 mode.




       I also wanted to be able to display just the granite bodies in some of my maps. To

separate these from the other rock units I used the ‘select by attribute’ option from the ‘selection’

menue. I adjusted the layer to ‘RockUnits’ and the method to ‘create new selections’ I then set

up my query to select the units that were equal to granites (Figure 4.14). This way only the

granite would be highlighted. In the TOC, I right clicked on the ‘rockunits’ layer and chose the

‘exportdata’ option. I set it to export only the selected features and saved this within my
geodatabase as ‘granitebodies’ (Figure 4.14). Now I can display only the granite rock units from

my geologic map to be displayed on other maps I make.




                          Figure 4.14.
                          The ‘Select by
                          Attributes’ tool
                          (left) used to
                          select only granite
                          rock units that
                          could then be
                          exported (right).




Sample Locations

       To add my sample locations I used the ‘Add XY data’ option to upload the Excel table

(Figure 4.15) with my latitude and longitude coordinates. I then adjusted the symbology for the

samples and labeled the features by ‘identity’, the sample names. I then converted the labels to

annotation by right clicking on the data set in the TOC. When the labels were converted, I was

then able to move them independently to more appropriate locations in the document.




                                            Figure 4.15.
                                            Excel spreadsheet
                                            (left) of GPS
                                            sample locations
                                            imported into
                                            ArcMap by the
                                            ‘Add XY Data’ tool
                                            (right).
ASTER Processing continued

       To further process my ASTER data I first changed the coordinate system of my data

frame to WGS_1984_UTM_Zone35N. I then created I00m contours of the ASTER data by

using the ‘contour’ tool in ArcToolbox (Figure 4.16). It is located under ‘Spatial Analyst’ tools

and then ‘surface analysis’. I then labeled the contour lines.




                                                                   Figure 4.16.
                                                                   Contour lines
                                                                   produced from the
                                                                   ASTER data by
                                                                   using the ‘contour’
                                                                   tool.




       I also produced a hillshade and aspect map (Figure 4.17). To create a hillshade and

aspect map I used the ‘hillshade’ and ‘aspect’ tools located in ArcToolbox. These are located

under the ‘Spatial Analyst’ tools and then ‘surface analysis’. My input rasters were the ASTER

data and the output rasters were saved in the ‘My_Data’ folder.




                                                                    Figure 4.17.
                                                                    Hillshade map generated
                                                                    by using the ‘hillshade’
                                                                    tool located in ArcToolbox
                                                                    as seen on the left side of
                                                                    the image.
5. Data Calculations

       I wanted to be able to compare the surface area of my three plutons. To do this I went

to the properties tab of my ‘sampleplutons’ layer in the TOC. I then added a new field titled

‘Area’. This new field is then available in the attribute table of this data layer. By right-clicking

on the ‘Area” column a ‘calculate geometry’ tool is available. This tool can be used to calculate

the area of the plutons in units of square kilometers (Figure 4.18).




             Figure 4.18.
             The ‘Select by Attributes’ tool (left) used to select only granite
             rock units that could then be exported (right).




Surface Area of Plutons

                         Pluton                        Surface Area (km2)
                         Kozak                                 494
                         Eybek                                  96
                         Kestanbolu                            129
6. Data Presentation

Geologic Map

       The geologic map (Figure 6.1) displays active faults, suture zones, geological units, and

sample locations of my field area. I can use this map to examine location of samples within the

pluton area as well as the proximity of faults to the granite plutons.




                             Kestanbolu                        Eybek
                             Pluton                            Pluton




                                                                    Kozak Pluton




             Figure 6.1. Finalized geologic map of field area in northwest Turkey.
Aspect Map

       The aspect map (Figure 6.2) simultaneously shows the direction and degree of slope for

the terrain of my field area. The faults and sample locations in this area are also included.




             Figure 6.2. Aspect map of field area and associated faults. The large island
             in the bottom left corner is the Greek island of Lesbos, not associated with the
             field area. .
Hillshade Map

       The hillshade map (Figure 6.3) provides a 3D effect of visual relief for my field area.

This is useful to better analyze the location of my granite plutons with respect to active fault in

the area. It is also, useful in analyzing the terrain around faults.




                            Kestanbolu                        Eybek
                            Pluton                            Pluton




                                                                       Kozak Pluton




           Figure 6.3. Hillshade map of field area with granite bodies and associated
           faults. Various lineament patterns can be seen throughout the area. This may
           be a result of N-S extension and SW strike-slip motion. The large island in the
           bottom left corner is the Greek island of Lesbos, not associated with the field
           area.
Contours Map

       The contour map (Figure 6.4) displays the topography of the region through contour

lines. This map also, contains the granite plutons and sample locations.




                            Kestanbolu                         Eybek
                            Pluton                             Pluton




                                                                    Kozak Pluton




            Figure 6.4 . Contour lines of the field area with granite plutons.
Field Map with Granites and Roads

       This field map (Figure 6.5) is useful in displaying the roads around the granite plutons in

my sampling area. This map also displays the location of my collected samples with respect to

the roads. Contour lines are also, displayed.




          Figure 6.5. Field map of area of interest that includes contour lines, roads,
          granite bodies, and locations of samples collected.

				
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