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					                                             Internet Basics: The Internet
What Is The Internet And Why Should I Become A Part Of It?
     The Internet is revolutionizing and enhancing the way we as humans communicate, both locally and around the globe. Simply
put, the Internet is a network of linked computers allowing participants to share information on those computers. You should want to
be a part of it because the Internet literally puts a world of information and a potential worldwide audience at your fingertips.
Internet History:
     The Internet's roots can be traced to the 1950s with the launch of Sputnik, the ensuing space race, the Cold War and the
development of ARPAnet (Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), but it really took off in the 1980s when the
National Science Foundation used ARPAnet to link its five regional supercomputer centers. From there evolved a high-speed
backbone of Internet access for many other types of networks, universities, institutions, bulletin board systems and commercial online
services. The end of the decade saw the emergence of the World Wide Web, which heralded a platform-independent means of
communication enhanced with a pleasant and relatively easy-to-use graphical interface.
Internet Activity:
    The information superhighway is literally buzzing with activity as Internet pipelines pump out all manner of files, movies, sounds,
programs, video, e-mail, live chat, you name it. Yet amid all this activity there are always two key players in every transaction: a
server and a client.
     Servers are computers with a 24-hour Internet connection that provide access to their files and programs. These can be but
        are not limited to educational institutions, commercial companies, organizations, government or military organizations,
        Internet access providers and various other computer networks of all sizes.
     Clients are software programs (and the people on remote computers using the software!) used to access files on a server
        (typically, a Web browsing program such as Netscape Navigator or an e-mail program such as Eudora).
    Servers are typically located and organized by IP address and domain.
     An IP address (IP stands for Internet Protocol) is a specific set of numbers referring to a server's exact location on a network.
        Most domains have their own IP address, for instance, 192.41.20.33 is the IP address of my server at webcurrent.com. You
        can type those numbers in to get there, but the domain is easier to remember. An IP address also leaves your fingerprints
        wherever you "surf" on the net. Each modem connection typically is designated a specific IP address at Internet providers
        (this number typically changes dynamically as users log in), so you never really surf the net anonymously. You can be traced
        to a point.
     A domain is part of the server's official name on the network, an alias for the less descriptive IP numbers.
     http://www.google.com
     Domains are organized by type of organization (a three-letter suffix) and by country (a two-letter suffix which defaults to the
        U.S. if no suffix is specified). You can tell a lot about a server by looking at its domain name.
         http://www.google.com
         Here are some typical organizational suffixes: com=commercial, edu=educational, gov=government, int=international,
             mil=military, net=network, org=organization.
         Here are some country codes: au=Australia, at=Austria, be=Belgium, br=-Brazil, dk=Denmark, jp=Japan, nz=New
             Zealand, ru=Russian Federation, uk=United Kingdom, ch=Switzerland.
Internet Issues:
     Emerging technologies and especially this communications revolution we are witnessing also bring with them new issues relevant
to safety, privacy, security, decency and netiquette. Please familiarize yourself with these issues and your responsibilities as you
become a member of the Internet society at large.
      Safety. I cannot stress this section enough. Please visit these links and educate yourself and your children before you allow
          them to go online. Be wary of giving out your name, address or telephone number and tell them never to release this
          information to strangers! Above all, supervise your children while they surf! Don't assume public access Internet stations at
          public libraries are child-safe. Some are. Many are not. Seek out filtering and blocking software options. Some Internet
          service providers offer filtered access, with national providers such as MayberryUSA growing in number. These sites have
          good advice for parents:
           FBI Library - A Parent's Guide to Internet Safety
               http://www.fbi.gov/publications/pguide/pguidee.htm
           America Links Up: A Kids Online Teach-In
               http://kids.getnetwise.org/americalinksup/index2.html
           SafeKids.Com
           SafeTeens.Com
           Smart Parent.Com
           KidShield.com
           Yahooligans' Internet Safety Tips for Children
               http://websearch.about.com/od/safesearch/a/yahooligans.htm
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              www.Safe4Kids.ca
              CyberAngels.Org
              Bess the Internet Retriever and N2H2
               http://tp011790.tripod.com/issues.htm
          Privacy. Don't post or write anything you wouldn't mind anyone else seeing. Remember your information is not secure nor is
           your e-mail necessarily private. It's supposed to be, but that isn't always the case. Also, never EVER send your credit card
           number via email. If you're ordering something online, be sure the web page you are entering data into is served from a
           secure server (https://... more on this in the next section). Helpful links:
               The Electronic Privacy Information Center
               VeriSign - website security and digital ID certificates
               Thawte - digital certificate services
         Security. To enhance security, many networks have encrypted, secure transmission methods that include site certificates. Be
          sure you are using one of these methods if you are entering secure information, such as a credit card number at a mail-order
          catalog's website. Better yet, call them with this information if you are at all wary of security. There are also virtual banks,
          online escrow and checking systems and other Web developments emerging to deal with this issue.
     Decency, Filters, Censorship. Unfortunately this revolution in accessing information means that not all information on the
Internet is suitable for everyone. While many servers maintain standards of decency and refuse to allow any indecent material on their
computer network, still many others do not, or worse, some exist solely for this purpose of allowing such material. Others oppose the
material but not the principle of free speech. Look for this to be a hotly contested issue for some time. More and more, though, the
loudest voices are those seeking protection for the innocent against Internet crime, including protection of children from access to
pornography.
     Computerized search engines that enhance our ability to find information also unfortunately make it all the more easy for children
and adolescents to find information you may not want them to find. There are software programs available designed to filter out
unwanted or indecent information from your computer. These programs include Surf-Watch, Net Nanny and Cyber Patrol. Please
visit their Web sites for more information. In addition, Web designers and content providers are seeking ways to self-regulate
themselves and rate sites with regard to appropriate content as a means of circumventing the need for censorship laws.
      Surf Watch
      CyberPatrol "To Surf and Protect"
      Net Nanny Ltd.
      Visit the Electronic Frontier Foundation to find out more about a grassroots effort to preserve intellectual freedom and protect
          privacy on the Internet. This site is packed with many useful Internet topics.
Netiquette:
     All cultures and societies have standards of conduct and customs. There are many good resources for you to read online. The
important thing is to take some time and read up on network etiquette so you can be a responsible, well-informed member of cyber-
society.
     Typically, if you remember to be courteous and respectful of others on the network, you'll be fine. General do's and don'ts
typically include but are not limited to:
      Do become familiar with and obey all the rules/use policies of your local network.
      Don't send someone large files they didn't request; don't send e-mail en masse (spamming).
      Don't SHOUT (as anything typed in all capital letters appears),
      Don't visit an FTP site as an anonymous user during that site's busy time or main business hours.
      Do read any readily available FAQ (frequently asked questions) sheets for newsgroups and websites before posting a
          question that may have already been answered.
      Do use your e-mail address to identify yourself at anonymous FTP sites.
      Don't use vulgar, rude or disrespectful language at any time.
      Do be aware of potential differences in cultures internationally.
      Don't camp out - this means don't log in and just leave your connection idle if you're not using it. Sign off and free up one of
          your provider's modems for someone else to use. While many Internet services provide users with "unlimited" Internet
          access, this generally means unlimited "use" not idle access.
Internet Access:
    The best news of all with the explosive growth of the Internet and its accompanying revolution in human communications is this:
Most anyone anywhere can access the Internet and thus any Internet file in the world via a simple local telephone connection with no
long-distance fees. We are no longer separated by distance. Period.




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Internet Basics: The World Wide Web
  What is the World Wide Web and why is everyone talking about it?
      Web History: Just as all roads in the Microsoft Windows empire lead to Bill Gates, the vast network of the World Wide Web can
be traced essentially to the vision of one person, Tim Berners-Lee, now director of the World Wide Web Consortium. In 1989,
Berners-Lee proposed a communications model to transcend differences in computer platforms and thus more easily share information
available via the Internet. Berners-Lee was then a researcher at CERN, a research laboratory for particle physics in Geneva,
Switzerland. His motivation was to find a way for CERN members to share information worldwide. In this link at c/net, Berners-Lee
tells how a broader social revolution he originally envisioned is starting to take place through Web technology.
      The Web makes use of a standard communications protocol, HyperText Transfer Protocol (http://), and a standard presentation
language, HyperText Markup Language (HTML). These standards allow users to view the same Web page whether they have a
Windows machine, a Macintosh or UNIX-based system, or another platform. Although Web pages may have minor differences in the
way they appear, the information contained within them is the same. HyperText covers much more than text files, however, and can
include images, audio, video, order forms, mini programs or voice e-mail, and the list is growing!
      There are also other technologies now in use and we will speak of them later.
      Web Terminology: You've already learned some key Web words. "HyperText" is probably one of the most important concepts to
understand regarding Web technology. Hypertexted documents are those linked together in non-linear ways, often from many
different locations. The Web is formed by these links among documents. Web designers and content providers use HyperText Markup
Language (HTML), a system of placing different style , location or behavior tags on text, to define their relative appearance in a Web
browser and link these documents together. I’ve provided a glossary of some other terms you will likely come across while accessing
the Web and its larger parent, the Internet.
      Web Browsers: A Web browser is a software program you can use to access files on the World Wide Web. Netscape Navigator
and Microsoft's Internet Explorer are the most often used, but other browsers include Mosaic, Lynx, Opera, iCab, and those specific to
certain online services.
      The look of the Web pages you access will depend on the features your browser supports as well as your monitor's screen
resolution and bit depth. Most browsers support Java, JavaScript, cookies, frames and tables. Some do not. As new standards become
prevalent in the HTML language of Web designers, more browsers will support more file behaviors, enhancing the look and
uniformity of Web pages. For now that is still in flux, with Netscape and Microsoft one-upping each other with new and amazing Web
tags and plug-in technologies unique to their own browsers.
      Here are some tips that make web browsing more enjoyable:
      Update your browser software regularly! It's free, after all. Newer versions tend to have more plug-ins pre-installed, more
robust Java and JavaScript capabilities and in general more stability. How can you tell which version you are using? Windows users
can use the "properties" command from the menu bar to see. Mac users, just open your browser and select "about" your program under
the Apple menu.
      Screen resolution: How a website appears in your browser also depends on your available screen resolution and color depth.
Low resolutions such as 640x480 and WebTV screens typically show only a portion of a web page at a time. Imagine seeing a close-
up of only the top left quadrant of a newspaper page, for example, with the page close to your face. Higher resolutions have the
advantage of showing you more of the page at a time but it also makes all the items appear smaller, making text harder to read. (Hold
a newspaper at arm's length, to continue our example.) Change your screen resolution to the highest possible (In Windows, go to
start... settings... control panel... display... settings; on a Mac go to apple menu... control panels... monitor or monitors & sound to
see/modify your configuration).
      Browsing Through a Web Site: These descriptions are here to help you understand what you see within your Web browser
program and how to maneuver within it with the following basic commands:
      Web pages are often composed of hypertext links (also called hot links) to other documents or two other spots within the same
document. Generally, when you see text in a different color and/or underlined (this is a preference you can set, too) you will know that
it is a hotlink. Sometimes (not always) visited links will be a different color from unvisited ones. (You can set your preferences here
too.)
      URL or Location or Net site: The Web address of the document you are viewing or seeking, ie. http://www.yahoo.com , is the
Uniform Resource Locator or address for the default opening home page for the Yahoo! Internet catalog. Open URL or "open
location" means "go to this Web document on this server at this location." The specific name of the document is at the end of the
URL, and information in front of it describes to the computer the path it must take to reach the document. If no specific document is
named at the end of an URL, the computer will default to a set name, such as "index.html" and either show that document or. if the
server allows, a list of the contents of the last directory in the path.
      When you are viewing files locally on your computer, your own computer works the same way as a server by following paths to
the file you are seeking. So it is important to be familiar with the way the files and directories are nested and arranged on your
computer. You can customize this to some extent to suit your own organizational preferences. You will notice this more as you visit
more URLs and see how other webmasters are organizing the files on their servers.
      Open File or "open local" means to open a document stored locally on your hard disk.
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     "Save As Text" means to save the text parts of the document.
     "Save As Source" means to preserve the document's HTML tags so that you can view it the same later in a Web browser (minus
any images, which you can also save to disk but to display properly the image must be placed on your hard disk in the same path as
defined in its HTML tag. The images in this file would not display properly you you move them out of the "images" directory because
I have defined their path in the HTML coding. The browser will display a little broken image icon or a question mark to indicate there
is supposed to be something there but the file is not in the location specified.)
     While I'm on the subject of images, you can always turn off the display of images in your browser for really quick page loading.
But many Web designers use image maps (illustrations with hotlinks) on their sites and you will miss these as well. Most designers
will also include text hotlinks that are the same as those in the image maps for use in this case. You will know an illustration has a hot
link in it if your cursor changes to a pointing finger when you pass over key areas.
     "Back" and "Forward" buttons take you to the previously cached or next cached documents and can preserve form information
you've type in. The "stop" button halts a page from loading and is helpful if you're tired of waiting for large image files to load.
     "Home" defaults to a home page of your choice. You can set this URL yourself although most browsers default to their corporate
URL.
     "Refresh" or "Reload" accesses the freshest version of the document available from the server and prevents you from seeing an
older cached version.
     Most Web pages also have a signature at the bottom with credit information and a record of the document's URL and the last time
it was modified.
     Once you visit a site you like, you can "bookmark" the page or add it to your "favorites" or "hotlist" (different Web browsers call
these files by different names), so that you don't have to type in its URL each time you want to visit it.
     Organizing your bookmarks is time well spent but I also have come across several useful Web URL utilities. Internet Explorer
keeps a handy list of the last thousand places I've been (you'll be amazed how fast those files mount up. This is also useful if you are
curious about the last few pages your kids or their friends at your house have been viewing). Many people also offer their bookmarks
over the Web. You can save these files as source and import them into your bookmarks for more bookmarks than you'll ever need.
     You can also use the find or search button to find or advance to specific text. This is particularly helpful with lengthy documents
that require a lot of scrolling.
     Sometimes you may want to view the HTML source of a document or find out more information about that document. In
Netscape "document source" and "document info" commands supply this information. This is especially helpful if you would like to
try to develop your own Web page and you want to learn how it's done.
     At the bottom of the Web browser is a status bar. This generally displays communications with servers and other server
messages, such as "contacting host" or "loading file." Sometimes the status bar can have little messages in it programmed in by a Web
designer. This is done with special Web scripting applications, one is known as Java and another is Java Script. Both of these scripting
languages provide additional capabilities for Web designers and programmers and ultimately more fun for you as a Web visitor.
     Another trick to keep in mind is right mouse button magic (or if you use a Mac mouse, just click and hold the mouse button
down). This often brings up a new menu list of items, among the most helpful to me is "new window with this frame" and "add to
address book (in e-mail)."
     If your program crashes while you are online (and it will occasionally): Stay calm and accept this as a fact of Internet life. The
technology is changing rapidly and many programs have to work together when you are browsing the Web. If your mouse button is
frozen, try force-quitting the program with keyboard commands. If the freeze remains, you may have to restart your computer. Turn
off the power and wait at least 30 seconds for the hard disk fan to spin down. If you have an external modem, turn its power off and
then turn it back on. Login again and relaunch your browser. Immediately go to options, network options and clear your disk and
memory caches. You may want to increase the size of your cache.
     Another common error over which you have no control is a 404 File Not Found error. It simply means the document you
requested via an URL doesn't exist on the server. This is likely to happen either because the document has been moved by the
webmaster or its URL has been mistyped by you. Remember that many servers are UNIX-based machines and are case-sensitive to
file names. Thus if you type an URL requesting the file "Index.html", it won't find it if the file name is actually "index.html".
Remember to be careful to type in the URLs exactly as they appear with no spaces. This is another reason a bookmarks file is so
valuable. It alleviates all that typing and the potential for error in URLs.
     Some errors seem to make no sense and I believe many of these are simply the result of net congestion or your computer's RAM
being maxed out or fragmented.
     Web Interactivity: One of the most exciting things about the Web is that it offers two-way communications. You may be alone
in a room on your computer, but you are never alone on the Web. Web telephony and video conferencing are emerging technologies,
but interactive forms provide another way of sending information back and forth, and Web pages are becoming increasingly more
dynamic depending on who accesses them at what time and with which browsers and whether you've been there before or not (as
"cookies" can establish) Web servers can construct HTML documents on the fly from form input. An excellent example of this is a
message board system. You can post a message and the computer can take that data and construct a new Web page on the spot with
the use of a cgi (common gateway interface) script.
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     Searching the Web: There are many search engines and catalogs available to help you find what you're looking for on the Web,
which is also populated by numerous "spiders" and "robots" moving from server to server scanning HTML documents, gobbling up
words and digesting them as databases. My favorite online directory is Yahoo!, and if an initial search of the Yahoo! directory doesn't
tell me what I need, I click from there to a link to Alta Vista or Excite or WebCrawler, which send out spiders to catalog text
contained within documents. There is an art to refining your searches that can best be learned through trial and error. Yahoo! has
helpful search options. Also helpful: software managers that search a myriad of directories, catalogs and robot-generated databases.
     Push-Me, Pull-You: "Push" technology is a hot Web topic for online marketers and information providers hoping to put their
message on your desktop. As a Web browser-person, you "pull" the information you want from servers by clicking on the topics
and/or ads you're interested in. In "push" technology, the information comes to you. An example of this is the wildly successful
www.youtube.com.
     Emerging Technologies and Plug-Ins: Many Web sites are pushing the envelope in terms of media development, but you won't
be able to enjoy this technology unless you've downloaded and installed the necessary plug-ins (usually easily available free
downloading via the net) or helper applications, which are software programs designed to launch a specific type of file. A plug-in is
designed to launch the file within your browser window. A helper application is an external program that displays a file outside your
browser window.
     Netscape and Explorer come preloaded with many helpers, but you'll also have to download some plug-ins yourself and more are
being developed daily. There are more than 200 plug-ins available. Be sure to check out these technologies: Real Audio and Video,
Shockwave, Quciktime, Acrobat Reader, etc.
Internet Basics: Downloading Files and Programs
    Set up a "downloads" area: The first step here is to create a new folder or directory on your hard drive entitled, simply,
"downloads." This file can reside anywhere you like. I keep mine on the "desktop" where I can easily find the new things I get. Some
people also find it helpful to put the "download" directory at the root level of their c: drive.
    With a downloads directory, you'll always know where your new files are. Sometimes it's not always that easy to identify a file
such as "nsn30.exe" as the new Netscape browser you just downloaded, but if it's in your "downloads" directory you're more likely to
be able to guess which file it is.
    Scan for Viruses: You should either have a virus detection software program running in the background (Norton Antivirus is a
good program) or you can download any of a number of freeware or shareware virus detection programs.)
    Most viruses do not infect your computer until you launch a program, but with the Web increasingly supplying us with little mini-
applet applications and such, the potential for downloading a virus off a simple Web page is increasing. And your scanning software
won't always detect the latest viruses. Be smart and learn to make backups a habit. You live longer and you'll have fewer wrinkles!
    Look at File Formats: You need to be able to recognize the file formats of files you will be downloading so you'll know what to
do with them once you have them. Typical formats include the following extensions:
     .sea or .exe - These files are self-extracting or will launch when you click them.
     .sit, .zip, .tar, .hqx, .bin - These are compressed files (compressed so they don't take so long to transfer) for which you will
         need a file decompression program to access. These programs are discussed below.
     .mov, .mpeg, . (a video file), .au, .aiff, .wav (sounds), .txt (text), .midi (sound).
    Compression Utilities: And since most files are transferred via the Internet in compressed format, you'll need a file
decompression utility to inflate them. A similar Windows utility called WinZip is also a good decompression program.
Internet Basics: E-Mail
     Setting Up: To make your e-mail program work effectively, you'll need to spend some time setting up your preferences or
arranging the options you prefer.
     Your Internet service provider will give you the names for your SMTP and POP mail servers, but you'll need to enter your login
user id and your password (you can usually tell your browser to save the password so you won't have to type it in every time). These
specifications must be typed in exactly right for your e-mail program to work.
     You can also fill in your return e-mail address and the name of your company organization if you like, and you can reference a
signature file, which is nothing more than a small text file appended at the bottom of each e-mail message you send out. A signature is
not required, but can be helpful. In these preferences you will also tell the program how often to check your mail, how to organize
your mail, whether to save copies of the messages you save, and other options.
     I have seen many people make unsuccessful attempts at sending e-mail to someone only to discover they had inaccurately typed
in the recipient's e-mail address or had not properly configured their e-mail preferences. Take some time to set up frequently used
addresses in your program's address book. (Use the right mouse button in Netscape to automatically enter the person's e-mail address
into your address book while you're reading their message.) Use the re:mail button to reply to a message you're reading and the e-mail
address and subject will be accurately and automatically entered for you.
     Parts of an e-mail message: E-mail messages always have a header, and you can configure your program to display all header
information, minimal header information, or typical header information. The header usually includes the to: and from: addresses, a
subject and any cc: , forwards or attachments. It is helpful if you always list a subject in your message. Many people group their mail

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by subject thread, and if you click the "reply to" button while reading their message your e-mail message will already have their reply-
to address and subject pre-inserted.
     Your e-mail address will be determined by your Internet provider but it typically is:
                                             youruserid@yourserviceprovider.domain
      Attaching URLs and files: You can send someone another Web page by providing its URL or a file or program on your local
computer (especially nice for sending relatives a photo of the kids, etc., as long as the files are compressed and aren't too big. Long
unannounced E-mail downloads are not welcome and some mail servers won't accept attachments above a certain size. To attach a
file, you usually click on the paper clip icon (or click the command attach file), then you browse within your computer windows to
select the file you want to send. That file is then uploaded to your e-mail server with your e-mail message and later downloaded by the
message recipient. Text files from most any word processing program are usually always viewable if you save them first as plain
ASCII text. Otherwise, your recipient may not have the appropriate program or file translator to view the file. When in doubt, cut and
paste the text into your e-mail message or check to be sure your recipient can view the file type you send.
    Helpful link: Netdictionary, (http://www.netdictionary.com/index.html) over 400 definitions of words drawn from
Standard Internet English including technical terms, hacker slang, and acronyms.
     Anonymous FTP: FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is another way files are transmitted via the Internet. You can also reach FTP
        sites via the Web. An anonymous FTP site usually allows only a certain number of anonymous users to connect and retrieve
        its files at one time. It typically is a database for many software programs and files.
     Applet: Java-enhanced objects or mini programs that can travel with a Web page to perform a special function
     Archie: A tool for finding files at FTP sites.
     ASCII Text: American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A file with only standard "text" characters.
     Bandwidth: How much data can pass through an Internet pipeline at one time.
     Baud Rate: The rate of data transfer, usually in reference to modem speed. Modems usually transfer data in bits per second.
     BBS: a bulletin board service. Many private or corporate BBSs existed before the explosive growth of the Web. Many Web
        sites offer a form of BBS in which visitors can post messages and have threaded "conversations" by topic.
     BinHex: a Mac file converted from binary ()nontext) to ASCII text for tranporting via e-mail.: a binary compressed file
        (Macintosh)
     Bit: A binary digit. The smallest unit of data. A group of 8 bits makes one byte.
     Bitmap: A pattern of pixels used to display an image.
     Browser: A software program used for viewing Web documents. Some browsers are Netscape Navigator, Microsoft's
        Internet Explorer, NCSA Mosaic, and Lynx.
     cgi-bin: A directory on a server that typically holds various executable cgi scripts necessary to process forms and perform
        other types of interaction in a client-server transaction.
     Client: A software program on your computer (and YOU as the user of the program) that connects to a computer server to
        retrieve information.
     Client-Side: Action or interpretation that takes place on the client side of a client-server transaction. Client-side image maps,
        for instance, allow your browser to interpret defined hotlinks on an image rather than sending the coordinates to a Web server
        for interpretation.
     Cache (rhymes with trash): Your computer's short-term memory that allows it to temporarily store Web files for faster repeat
        access to those files. Remember: Trash (delete or clear) your cache often!
     Cookie: A persistent HTTP cookie is a Netscape enhancement in which a packet of information is sent to your browser via a
        server-side script, giving the webserver you are visiting a "memory" of the choices you make or information you input while
        viewing a Web page. When you visit again, the cookie lets the webserver "remember" you. Cookies have expirations and can
        be helpful at shopping or registration sites, for instance, and have many other uses.
     Domain, Domain Name: Category of server (.com=commercial, etc.) , official Internet name for a server. Also, Domain
        Name Service (DNS) , a directory system that looks up various servers by host name and IP address. There are also virtual
        domains which allow for alias names on the same server.
     Download: To retrieve a file from another computer.
     E-Mail: Electronic mail. A means of exchanging messages and/or small files with others via the Internet. Netscape Navigator
        and Internet Explorer have built-in e-mail capabilities; Eudora is another good e-mail software program.
     Encryption: Encoding messages so they are illegible to outside viewers. Especially helpful for security in Web commerce.
     FAQ: A FAQ sheet presents a list of frequently asked questions (and answers!) by topic. Be sure to look for these and read
        what's available before you seek help elsewhere.
     File Extension: the second part of a file name which designates its file type. In DOS file names and extensions are limited by
        the 8/3 rule or 8 characters per name and 3 characters per extension. It's helpful to know file extensions when using helper
        applications in your browser or when downloading or decompressing files.
     Flame: A mean-spirited e-mail or newsgroup message. Flames violate proper Internet conduct. See also, spam.
     FTP: File Transfer Protocol. A means of retrieving computer files, but also a means of uploading files to a server. FTP sites
        are generally special sites for downloading files. Most allow only a certain number of people to be connected at one time.

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           You may have to make several attempts to reach a busy FTP site. Many FTP sites are now Web-based, which means you can
           reach them via your browser. You can FTP your files and update your Web site from home through an Internet Service
           Provider with the help of FTP programs including Fetch for Macintosh and CuteFTP for Windows. Netscape Navigator also
           has some built-in FTP uploading capabilities.
          Freeware: Files and programs offered into the public domain for your free use and distribution. Shareware requires a small
           fee. Other variations: T-shirtware, postcardware, e-mailware.
          GIF: a Graphics Interchange Format image used primarily for solid color inline artwork.
          GIF Inflation: A process in which compressed .gif images inflate in your browser's cache. This can cause your browser to
           crash sometimes if you are visiting a Web site with lots of images or if your cache is too full. You can never have too much
           RAM or a big enough cache for Web browsing.
          Gopher: An information retrieval system created by the University of Minnesota. Many gopher sites are now Web oriented.
          Home Page: a Web document's opening page. Also, the default page for your Web browser.
          Host: A computer providing Internet access or serving files.
          Htx: A file extension for a compressed Mac file
          HTH: Popular abbreviation in discussion groups for "hope this helps."
          HTML: HyperText Markup Language, the dialect of Web documents. Web pages are actually a combination of several files
           such as text, images and display instructions. HTML tags tell the browser how to display them all together.
          HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol of the Web.
          Hypertext: a term to describe non-linear writing in which you follow associative paths. The foundation of the Web.
          Images, Image Maps: Graphic parts of a Web document, mostly in .gif or .jpeg format. Images sometimes load onto your
           screen like a Venetian blind. These are called interlaced images and give the appearance that they are loading faster. An
           image map is an illustration or image with defined hotlink areas.
          IMHO: popular abbreviation for "in my humble opinion."
          IP: Internet Protocol. IP Address: the specific numerical Internet location of a server.
          IRC: Internet Relay Chat, allows real-time "talking" via the Internet.
          Java and Javascript: two separate computer program scripting languages, each of which enhances functionality of Web
           documents.
          JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group, developers of the JPEG format for compressed image files. Used primarily for
           photographs and other continuous tone images.
          Listserv: an automated mailing list allowing discussion among members by topic. There are specific rules for subscribing
           and unsubscribing to a listserv.
          LAN: local area network, two or more computers connected via a cable.
          LocalTalk: Apple's built-in LAN system for the Macintosh.
          Login: the process by which you identify yourself to a host computer, usually with a user ID and a password.
          Lurkers, lurking: Those who read maillist or news group discussions without contributing to them. It's a good idea to lurk
           awhile before you post a message. This is not a derogatory term on the Internet.
          MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions: the Internet standard for transferring files other than text, such as audio,
           video, images, etc., via e-mail.
          Mirror Site: A server that has the same files as another server to distribute the load and offer more convenient geographic
           paths to clients.
          Modem: A modulator-demodulator, which allows your computer to send and receive data via telephone lines.
          Moderator: the person in charge of a mailing list or news group who reads all messages to be sure they are appropriate
           before posting them to the group.
          MPEG: Motion Picture Experts Group, developers of a compression format for video files.
          NCSA: National Center for Supercomputing Applications, producers of much public domain software for the Internet and
           scientific community. Creators of the NCSA Mosaic Web browser software.
          Netiquette: Proper network etiquette.
          News Group: A threaded discussion by topic on the Usenet network.
          Newsreader: A program that helps you read news groups, similar to e-mail. Built-in on Netscape Navigator. The news
           groups you can access will depend upon those supplied by your Internet access provider.
          NNTP: Net news transport protocol that governs Usenet news.
          Offline: Actions taken while not connected to another computer or network. Typically you can compose e-mail or view local
           files while being offline.
          Online: Being connected to another computer or network.
          Page: On the Web, the name of a document.
          Plug-In: A mini program that enhances your browser; a hundred or more are available. Be sure you set these: Shockwave,
           RealAudio, and Quicktime.
          POP: Post Office Protocol for e-mail retrieval and storage.

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          Post: To send a message to a mailing list or news group discussion, to put up a Web page.
          PPP: Point to Point Protocol used for Internet connectivity. Your Internet connection will likely be via a dial-up PPP
           account.
          Protocol: A language syntax for computers.
          Public domain: software or files you can use or distribute freely.
          Quick Time: An Apple technology for multimedia data.
          Robot: an automatic text-indexing system that visits servers and indexes their contents. Helps create vast searchable
           directories.
          Root directory: the topmost directory on a computer.
          .SEA Self-Extracting Archive, a compressed filed format for Macintosh.
          Server: A computer that makes its files available to a client via a network.
          Server-side, server-side includes: Action or interpretation on the server side of a client-server transaction. For instance, a
           cgi script residing on a server can create HTML documents on the fly from form data, display a graphical odometer or page
           counter or redirect your browser to a particular Web document based on the type or version of software you are using.
          Shareware: software that may be freely distributed and tried out, with a small fee payable to the author for those who want
           to keep the program and use it. Be honorable. Pay your shareware fees.
          Signature: a text file that can be automatically appended to your e-mail messages.
          .Sit: A file extension for a compressed file (Stuff-It Archive)
          Smileys: A collection of typographic symbols used to simulate expressions. :)
          SMTP: Simple Mail Transport Protocol for e-mail.
          snail mail: Paper mail.
          Spamming: sending hundreds of inappropriate postings to a Usenet newsgroup or mailing list. Violation of Internet
           netiquette.
          System Administrator: the person who runs a host computer or network.
          T1: A high-speed network link on the Internet.
          T3: An even higher network link... very big backbone connection.
          TCP: Transmission Control Protocol and the basis for Internet traffic. It works with IP to ensure that packets of information
           travel safely on the Internet.
          TCP/IP: the protocols on which the Internet was founded.
          Telnet: a remote terminal emulation program that allows you to login and access a remote computer.
          Thread: a group of messages that share the same subject or topic.
          Timeout: the amount of idle time allowed before a connection will discontinue.
          TIA: Popular abbreviation for thanks in advance.
          UNIX: a popular if cryptic computer operating system. Many Web servers are UNIX-based.
          Upload: To send a file to another computer.
          Usenet: network for news group discussions.
          User id: The name you use to login to another computer.
          UUENCODE: a program that encodes binary (nontext) files for distribution via e-mail.
          Veronica: an information agent that searches gopher databases.
          Virus: A computer code that damages computer data and/or programs.
          WAIS: Wide Area Information Servers, a searchable group of full-text databases.
          Webmaster: The person in charge of a server and the documents contained on it. Derived from the term "postmaster."
          World Wide Web: The newest and most ambitious Internet protocol. Responsible for explosive Internet growth in the
           1990s.
          Worm: a program that infiltrates a computer system and copies itself many times, filling up disk space.
          .Zip: a common Windows file extension for a compressed ZIP file.




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                                                   The Internet Explorer Screen
     Title Bar                                                                                                            Window Control Buttons
                 Forward and Back Button             Address Box                   Google Search Box                         Menu Bar
                                 Google Tool Bar               Window Tabs (IE7)                          Standard Toolbar




             Hyperlinks




                                                                                                                              Scroll Bar




                                                                                                 Status Bar




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Entering a web address
    Just as every residence has a unique street address, every webpage has its own web address. That address is called the Uniform
Resource Locator (URL). For example, the URL for the Microsoft main website is http://www.microsoft.com.
    If you know the URL for a page, you can type it directly into Internet Explorer:

            In the Address box, type the URL.
            1. Click the Go button or press ENTER to go to
                 the website.
            2. You don't have to type http://. For example,
                 you can type www.microsoft.com and Internet
                 Explorer will fill in the rest.
            3. To quickly enter a URL ending in ".com", type
                 the part between "www." and ".com" and then                              Use the Address box to type URLs
                 press CTRL+ENTER.
Basic Navigation
 Using links.
     Most webpages have dozens or even hundreds of links. To get from one page to
another, click any link. However, figuring out which things on a page are links isn't
always easy. Links can be text, images, or a combination of both. Text links often appear
as colored and underlined, but link styles vary among websites.
     To test whether something is a link or not, point to it. If it's a link, two things happen:
      The mouse pointer changes to a hand with a pointing finger.
      A URL appears in the status bar of your web browser. This shows the website
         you'll go to if you click the link.
   Using the Back and Forward buttons.
                      As you go from page to page, Internet Explorer keeps track of your
                trail. To get back to the previous page, click the Back button. Click the
                Back button several times to retrace your steps even further. After you've
clicked the Back button, you can click the Forward button to go forward in the trail.               Pointing to a link changes the mouse pointer and
                                                                                                     displays the webpage's URL in the status bar
   Using the History Menu.
     If you want to get back to a page you've visited in your current session, but want to avoid
repeatedly clicking the Back or Forward buttons, use the Recent Pages menu. Click the arrow next to
the Forward button, and then select a page from the list.
     Searching the web
     With billions of webpages out there, finding the information you need would be impossible if
you had to browse through each one. Fortunately, there's another way. You can use a search engine
to find the pages that are most relevant to words or phrases that you specify.
     Major web search engines include Google, Yahoo! Search, MSN Search, AOL Search, and
Ask.com. You can search the web directly from any search engine's site. Or, to save the step of
navigating to the search site first, you can use the Search box in Internet Explorer, shown here:
     Before you use the Search box for the first time, choose a default search provider—the search
engine Internet Explorer uses each time you search. If you do not choose a search provider, Windows
Live Search is used. (Your computer manufacturer might have set up a different default search
provider.) See Change or choose a search provider in Internet Explorer.




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   Saving Favorite Webpages
     When you discover a website that you'd like to return to regularly, save it as
a favorite in Internet Explorer. That way, when you want to return to the
website, you can click it in your Favorites list, without having to remember or
type its web address.
      To save a webpage as a favorite
      1.    In Internet Explorer, go to the webpage you want to save as a favorite.
      2.    Click the Add to Favorites button     , and then click Add to
            Favorites.
      3.    In the Name box, type a name for the webpage, and then click Add.
      To open a favorite
      1.    In Internet Explorer, click the Favorites Center button     .
      2.    Click the Favorites button if it is not already selected.
      3.    In the Favorites list, click the webpage that you want to open.

      If you have a lot of favorites, you can organize them into folders. See Managing your Internet Explorer Favorites.
   Using The History List
      To see any webpage you've visited in the last 20 days, you can use the History list:
      1. In Internet Explorer, click the Favorites Center button.
      2. Click the History button if it is not already selected.
      3. In the History list, click a day or week, and then click a website name. The list expands to show individual webpages that you
          visited on the website.
      4. Click the webpage that you want to open.


   Opening Multiple Webpages (IE 7)
     At some point, you'll find yourself wanting to open a second (or
third or fourth) webpage without closing the first one. To meet this need,
Internet Explorer lets you create a tab for each new page you want to
open. You can use the tabs to switch quickly between pages, and you can
even view all of your pages at once.
     To open a webpage on a new tab, click the New
Tab button:
     After you click the button, a blank page opens on
a new tab.
   Switching Between Pages (IE 7)
     Now you can open any webpage by typing a
URL, using the search box, or choosing from your
Favorites list or History list. Once you have
multiple pages open, click the tabs to switch
between pages.
     To see all of your open webpages at once,
click the Quick Tabs button       . You'll see
miniature version of each webpage. Click one to
switch to that page.




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          Composing and Sending an Email Message in Outlook Express or Windows Mail
                                                Step by Step Screenshot Walkthrough

1. Click the Create Mail button in the Outlook Express/Mail
    toolbar.


2. Click in the To: field.
           Start typing the name of the person you want to email.
           If Outlook Express automatically completes the name, press
            Return.




3. If Outlook/Mail cannot complete the name, type the complete
    email address of the recipient instead.

           To send your message to multiple recipients, separate them by
            commas or by semi-colons
           You can also use the Cc: field to send carbon copies of your
            email. The Cc: field is used in exactly the same way as the To:
            field.




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4. Type a short and meaningful subject in the Subject: field.
           Adding a meaningful Subject: line to your messages is important to give
            the recipient an idea of what your mail is about.
           You should try to keep the Subject as short as possible, however.
           Email clients can only display a limited number of characters for the
            subject in mailbox display. While this depends on the user's settings, you
            can safely assume that about 40 to 60 characters should be displayed.
           Overly long Subject: lines not only irritate the email client, they probably
            also puzzle the recipient who expected a short summary, not the whole text
            of your message in the Subject.
5. Type your message.
           Click in the message body area.
           You can use rich HTML formatting to spice up the text. You ought to
            avoid using HTML formatting in email as many email servers reject such
            mail message or mark them as spam.




6. Click Send.




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                                           How to Set Up Outlook Express/Windows Mail
    Before you can use Outlook Express to send and receive e-mail, you need to set up an account. You can have more than one
account—for business, online shopping, and so on—and each person who uses your computer may have their own, completely
separate account. Outlook Express gracefully handles it all.
   Start Outlook Express
There are many ways to start Outlook Express, but here's a sure-
fire way to find and start it.
     1. Click the Start button.
     2. Point to All Programs.
     3. Click Outlook Express.
These first three steps are shown in the image at right:

      4.    If asked whether you'd like to open this particular
            account automatically every time you start Outlook
            Express, click Yes (if you do) or No (if you don't).

    If you don't want to be asked this question again, click to
check the Always perform this check... box.

      5.    Check When Outlook Express starts, go directly to my Inbox.

    Outlook Express directs all incoming mail to the Inbox, so it makes
sense to bypass this opening page.
    If you don't see the list of folders and contacts on the left, click
Layout on the View menu. Click Contacts and Folder List to check them,
and then click OK.

     Quick start. You'll notice that when you use Outlook Express
regularly, Windows XP will put the Outlook Express icon on the Start
menu (along with other programs you've used recently). In that case, just
click the Outlook Express icon in the Start menu to open the program.




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   Set Up an Outlook Express E-Mail Account
    The Internet Connection Wizard makes short work of setting up your online mailbox by walking you through each step for every
e-mail account you set up.
    1. Before you get going, make sure you know your email address along with the following information. (You may need to
         contact your ISP, Internet Service Provider, to get it.)
      First, information about the e-mail servers:
            The type of e-mail server you use: POP3 (most e-mail accounts), HTTP (such as Hotmail), or IMAP
            The name of the incoming e-mail server
            For POP3 and IMAP servers, the name of the outgoing e-mail server (generally SMTP)
      Second, information about your account:
            Your account name and password
            Find out if your ISP requires you to use Secure Password Authentication (SPA) to access your e-mail account—yes or no
                is all that's required.
      2. Start Outlook Express, and on the Tools menu, click
           Accounts.
               If the Internet Connection Wizard starts up
                automatically, skip ahead to step 4.
      3.    Click Add, and then click Mail to open the Internet
            Connection Wizard.
      4.    On the Your Name page of the wizard, type your name as
            you want it to appear to everyone who gets e-mail from you,
            and then click Next.
                Most people use their full name, but you can use any
            name—even a nickname—that people will recognize.
      5.    On the Internet Explorer Address page, type your e-mail address, and then click Next.
      6.    On the E-mail Server Names page, fill in the first block of
            information that you gathered from your ISP in step 1, and then
            click Next.




      Internet Connection Wizard's E-mail Server Names



                 Note: If you chose HTTP as your incoming e-mail server—as
            for a Hotmail or MSN account—this wizard page changes slightly
            so you can identify your HTTP mail service provider.




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      7.    On the Internet Mail Logon page, type your account name and
            password.




      Internet Connection Wizard's Internet Mail Logon

                 Note: If you're concerned about break-ins to your e-mail,
            click to clear the check in the Remember Password box.
            You'll then be prompted for the password each time you send
            or retrieve mail.

      8.    Click Next, and then click Finish.
               You're ready to send your first e-mail!
     Unsure if your new e-mail account is working? Send an e-mail message to a friend. If they get the message, your account is ready
to roll! But if you run into problems setting up your account, Outlook Express offers help. Search for troubleshooting topics from
Contents and Index on the Help menu.
   Set Up a Web-based E-Mail Account
    The e-mail that you get in a Hotmail account and other Web-based accounts is not stored on your hard disk, but is kept on the
account-provider's computer. That's what makes it possible to access your account from any computer in the world over the Internet.
Here's how you set yourself up.
    1. Go to the Web site and follow the setup instructions—for example, http://www.hotmail.com/ for Hotmail.
      2.    Set up Outlook Express to use the account, by following the instructions above in Set up an Outlook Express e-mail account.
   If you share your computer with someone else, take advantage of Fast User Switching. A feature of Windows XP, it lives up to its
name by enabling you to switch among users on a single computer without closing any programs you are running or logging off.
    To turn Fast User Switching on, open User Accounts in Control Panel. Click Change the way users log on or off. Make sure
        the Use Fast User Switching box is checked.
    Then, to switch users, click Start, click Log off and then click Switch User. On the Welcome screen, click the user account
        you want to switch to. That's it!
   Close Outlook Express
      In closing, Outlook Express works just as all other Windows programs do.
       On the File menu, click Exit.
            Tip: For a fast way out, press ALT+F4.




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                                                     The Outlook Express Screen




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                                           An Introduction To Web Searching
                                           (Using Google.com as an example)
The Basics of Google Search
      To enter a query into Google, just type in a few descriptive words and hit the 'enter' key (or click on the Google Search button) for
a list of relevant web pages. Since Google only returns web pages that contain all the words in your query, refining or narrowing your
search is as simple as adding more words to the search terms you have already entered. Your new query will return a smaller subset of
the pages Google found for your original "too-broad" query.

Choosing Keywords
   For best results, it's important to choose your keywords wisely. Keep these tips in mind:
             Try the obvious first. If you're looking for information on Picasso, enter "Picasso" rather than "painters".
             Use words likely to appear on a site with the information you want. "Luxury hotel dubuque" gets better results than
                 "really nice places to spend the night in Dubuque".
             Make keywords as specific as possible. "Antique lead soldiers" gets more relevant results than "old metal toys".

Automatic "and" Queries
    By default, Google only returns pages that include all of your search terms. There is no need to include "and" between terms.
Keep in mind that the order in which the terms are typed will affect the search results. To restrict a search further, just include more
terms. For example, to plan a vacation to Hawaii, simply type:

Automatic Exclusion of Common Words
     Google ignores common words and characters such as "where" and "how", as well as certain single digits and single letters,
because they tend to slow down your search without improving the results. Google will indicate if a common word has been excluded
by displaying details on the results page below the search box.
     If a common word is essential to getting the results you want, you can include it by putting a "+" sign in front of it. (Be sure to
include a space before the "+" sign.)
     Another method for doing this is conducting a phrase search, which simply means putting quotation marks around two or more
words. Common words in a phrase search (e.g., "where are you") are included in the search.
     For example, to search for Star Wars, Episode I, use:
                                           Star Wars Episode +I ~ OR ~ “Star Wars Episode I”

Capitalization
    Google searches are NOT case sensitive. All letters, regardless of how you type them, will be understood as lower case. For
example, searches for "george washington", "George Washington", and "gEoRgE wAsHiNgToN" will all return the same results.

Word Variations (Stemming)
     Google now uses stemming technology. Thus, when appropriate, it will search not only for your search terms, but also for words
that are similar to some or all of those terms. If you search for "pet lemur dietary needs", Google will also search for "pet lemur diet
needs", and other related variations of your terms. Any variants of your terms that were searched for will be highlighted in the snippet
of text accompanying each result.

Search By Category
     The Google Web Directory (located at directory.google.com) is a good place to start if you're not exactly sure which search
keywords to use. For example, searching for [ Saturn ] within the Science > Astronomy category of the Google Web Directory returns
only pages about the planet Saturn, while searching for [ Saturn ] within the Automotive category returns only pages about Saturn
cars. Searching within a category of interest allows you to quickly narrow in on only the most relevant pages to you.




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Advanced Search Made Easy
     You can increase the accuracy of your searches by adding operators that fine-tune your keywords. Most of the options listed on
this page can be entered directly into the Google search box or selected from Google's Advanced Search page.
     Additionally, Google supports several advanced operators which are query words that have special meaning to Google.

" + " Searches
     Google ignores common words and characters such as "where" and "how", as well as certain single digits and single letters,
because they tend to slow down your search without improving the results. Google will indicate if a common word has been excluded
by displaying details on the results page below the search box.
     If a common word is essential to getting the results you want, you can include it by putting a "+" sign in front of it. (Be sure to
include a space before the "+" sign.)
     Another method for doing this is conducting a phrase search, which simply means putting quotation marks around 2 or more
words. Common words in a phrase search (e.g., "where are you") are included in the search.
     For example, to search for Star Wars, Episode I, use: “Star Wars Episode +I”

" - " Searches
    Sometimes what you're searching for has more than one meaning; "bass" can refer to fishing or music. You can exclude a word
from your search by putting a minus sign ("-") immediately in front of the term you want to avoid. (Be sure to include a space before
the minus sign.)
    For example, to find web pages about bass that do not contain the word "music", type: “bass –music”

" ~" Searches
     You may want to search not only for a particular keyword, but also for its synonyms. Indicate a search for both by placing the
tilde sign ("~") immediately in front of the keyword.
     For example, to search for food facts as well as nutrition and cooking information, use: “~food ~facts”

Phrase Searches
    Search for complete phrases by enclosing them in quotation marks. Words enclosed in double quotes ("like this") will appear
together in all results exactly as you have entered them. Phrase searches are especially useful when searching for famous sayings or
proper names.

"OR" Searches
    Google supports the logical "OR" operator. To retrieve pages that include either word A or word B, use an uppercase OR between
terms.
    For example, to search for a vacation in either London or Paris, just type: “vacation london OR paris”

Domain Restrict
    If you know the website you want to search but aren't sure where the information is located within that site, you can use Google to
search only that domain. Do this by entering what you're looking for followed by the word "site" and a colon followed by the domain
name.
    For example, to find admission information on Stanford University's site, enter: “admission site:www.stanford.edu”

Numrange Searches
     Numrange can be used to specify that results contain numbers in a range you set. You can conduct a numrange search by
specifying two numbers, separated by two periods, with no spaces. Be sure to specify a unit of measure or some other indicator of
what the number range represents.
     For example, you might conduct a search for DVD player $250..300 or 3..5 megapixel digital camera. Numrange can be used to
set a range for everything from dates (Willie Mays 1950..1960) to weights (5000..10000 kg truck).
     For Instance: “DVD player $250..350”

Other Advanced Search Features
            Language: specify which language you would like your results returned in.
            Date: restrict your results to the past three, six, or twelve months.
            Occurrences: specify where your search terms occur on the page - anywhere on the page, in the title, or in the url.
            Domains: search only a specific website or exclude that site completely from your search.
            SafeSearch: Google's SafeSearch screens for sites that contain this type of information and eliminates them from
               search results.



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Interpreting Result:
Each letter is a link to that
element's definition:
A. Top Links
     Click the link for the Google service
       you want to use. Search the web, look
       for images only, browse Google Groups
       (Usenet discussion archive), or search
       for products with Froogle.
B. Google Search Button
     Click on this button to submit another
       search query. You can also submit a
       query by hitting the 'enter' key.
C. Advanced Search
     Links to a page that enables you to
       restrict your search if necessary.
D. Search Field
     To enter a query into Google, just type
       in a few descriptive keywords. Hit enter or click on the Google Search button for your list of relevant results.

E. Preferences                                                          J. Text Below the Title
     Links to a page that enables you to set search                         This text is an excerpt from the returned result page
         preferences, including the default number of results                   showing your query terms bolded. These excerpts let
         per page, the interface language, and whether to                       you see the context in which your search terms
         screen results using our SafeSearch filter.                            appear on the page, before you click on the result. If
F. Statistics Bar                                                               Google expanded your search using its stemming
     This line describes your search and indicates the                         technology to include variations of your search terms,
         number of results returned as well as the amount of                    those words will also be bolded.
         time it took to complete your search.                          K. URL of Result
G. Tip                                                                       This is the web address of the returned result.
     Information that will help you search more                        L. Size
         effectively, based on the query you've just conducted.              This number is the size of the text portion of the
         Will help you learn more about Google's unique                         found web page. It is omitted for sites we have not
         special features and point to tools that can save you                  yet indexed.
         time and effort.                                               M. Cached
H. OneBox Results                                                            Clicking the cached link will enable you to see the
     Google includes many sources of specialized                               contents of the web page as of the time we indexed it.
         information and those that appear most closely                         If for some reason the site link does not connect you
         related to your search are included at the top of your                 to the current page, you can still retrieve the cached
         search results. We call these "onebox results" because                 version and may find the information you need there.
         they don't require you to enter your search in a                       Your search terms are highlighted on the cached
         special place. Any Google searchbox will trigger                       version.
         them. Typical onebox results include news, stock               N. Similar Pages
         quotes, weather and local websites related to your                  When you select the Similar Pages link for a
         search.                                                                particular result, Google automatically scouts the web
I. Page Title                                                                   for pages that are related to this result.
     The first line of the result is the title of the web page         O. Indented Result
         found. Sometimes, instead of a title there will be a                When Google finds multiple results from the same
         URL, meaning that either the page has no title, or                     web site, the most relevant result is listed first with
         Google has not indexed the full content of that page.                  the other relevant pages from that same site indented
         We still know it's a good match because of other web                   below it.
         pages – which we have indexed – that have links to             P. More Results
         this returned page. If the text associated with these               If there are more than two results from the same site,
         links matches your query, we may return the page as                    the remaining results can be accessed by clicking on
         a result even though its full text has not been                        "More results from..." link.
         indexed.


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                                             The Essentials of Google Search
    Doing a search on Google is easy. Simply type one or more search terms (the words or phrase that best describe the information
you want to find) into the search box and hit the 'Enter' key or click on the Google Search button.
    In response, Google produces a results page: a list of web pages related to your search terms, with the most relevant page
appearing first, then the next, and so on.
  Choosing search terms
     Choosing the right search terms is the key to finding the information you need.
     Start with the obvious – if you're looking for general information on Hawaii, try Hawaii.
     But it's often advisable to use multiple search terms; if you're planning a Hawaiian vacation, you'll do better with vacation Hawaii
than with either vacation or Hawaii by themselves. And vacation Hawaii golf may produce even better (or, depending on your
perspective, worse) results.
     You might also ask yourself if your search terms are sufficiently specific. It's better to search on luxury hotels Maui than on
tropical island hotels. But choose your search terms carefully; Google looks for the search terms you chose, so luxury hotels Maui will
probably deliver better results than really nice places to spend the night in Maui.
  Capitalization
    Google searches are NOT case sensitive. All letters, regardless of how you type them, will be understood as lower case. For
example, searches for george washington, George Washington, and gEoRgE wAsHiNgToN will all return the same results.
  Automatic "and" queries
    By default, Google only returns pages that include all of your search terms. There is no need to include "and" between terms.
Keep in mind that the order in which the terms are typed will affect the search results. To restrict a search further, just include more
terms. For example, to plan a vacation to Hawaii, simply type vacation hawaii.
  Automatic exclusion of common words
     Google ignores common words and characters such as "where" and "how", as well as certain single digits and single letters,
because they tend to slow down your search without improving the results. Google will indicate if a common word has been excluded
by displaying details on the results page below the search box.
     If a common word is essential to getting the results you want, you can include it by putting a "+" sign in front of it. (Be sure to
include a space before the "+" sign.)
     Another method for doing this is conducting a phrase search, which simply means putting quotation marks around two or more
words. Common words in a phrase search (e.g., "where are you") are included in the search.
     For example, to search for Star Wars, Episode I, use:
     Star Wars Episode +I ~ OR ~ "Star Wars Episode I"
  Word variations (stemming)
     Google now uses stemming technology. Thus, when appropriate, it will search not only for your search terms, but also for words
that are similar to some or all of those terms. If you search for pet lemur dietary needs, Google will also search for pet lemur diet
needs, and other related variations of your terms. Any variants of your terms that were searched for will be highlighted in the snippet
of text accompanying each result.
  Phrase searches
    Sometimes you'll only want results that include an exact phrase. In this case, simply put quotation marks around your search
terms.

    Phrase searches are particularly effective if you're searching for proper names ("George Washington"), lyrics ("the long and
winding road"), or other famous phrases ("This was their finest hour").
  Negative terms
     If your search term has more than one meaning (bass, for example, could refer to fishing or music) you can focus your search by
putting a minus sign ("-") in front of words related to the meaning you want to avoid.
     For example, here's how you'd find pages about bass-heavy lakes, but not bass-heavy music: bass -music
     Note: when you include a negative term in your search, be sure to include a space before the minus sign.




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Google Web Search Features
    In addition to providing easy access to more than 8 billion web pages, Google has many special features to help you to find
exactly what you're looking for.
                • Cached Links                                             • PhoneBook
                View a snapshot of each page as it looked when             Look up U.S. street address and phone number
                we indexed it.                                             information.
                • Calculator                                               • Search By Number
                Use Google to evaluate mathematical                        Use Google to access package tracking
                expressions.                                               information, US patents, and a variety of online
                • Definitions                                              databases.
                Use Google to get glossary definitions gathered            • Similar Pages
                from various online sources.                               Display pages that are related to a particular
                • File Types                                               result.
                Search for non-HTML file formats including                 • Site Search
                PDF documents and others.                                  Restrict your search to a specific site.
                • Froogle                                                  • Spell Checker
                To find a product for sale online, use Froogle -           Offers alternative spelling for queries.
                Google's product search service.                           • Stock Quotes
                • I'm Feeling Lucky                                        Use Google to get stock and mutual fund
                Bypass our results and go to the first web page            information.
                returned for your query.                                   • Street Maps
                • Local Search - New!                                      Use Google to find U.S. street maps.
                Search for local businesses and services in the            • Travel Information
                U.S. and Canada.                                           Check the status of an airline flight in the U.S. or
                • News Headlines                                           view airport delays and weather conditions.
                Enhances your search results with the latest               • Web Page Translation
                related news stories.                                      Provides English speakers access to a variety of
                                                                           non-English web pages.
                                                                           • Who Links To You?
                                                                           Find all the pages that point to a specific URL.


                Cached Links
                     Google takes a snapshot of each page examined as it crawls the web and caches these as a back-up in
                case the original page is unavailable. If you click on the "Cached" link, you will see the web page as it
                looked when we indexed it. The cached content is the content Google uses to judge whether this page is a
                relevant match for your query.
                     When the cached page is displayed, it will have a header at the top which serves as a reminder that this
                is not necessarily the most recent version of the page. Terms that match your query are highlighted on the
                cached version to make it easier for you to see why your page is relevant.
                     The "Cached" link will be missing for sites that have not been indexed, as well as for sites whose
                owners have requested we not cache their content.

                Calculator
                    To use Google's built-in calculator function, simply enter the calculation you'd like done into the
                search box and hit the Enter key or click on the Google Search button. The calculator can solve math
                problems involving basic arithmetic, more complicated math, units of measure and conversions, and
                physical constants. Try one of the sample expressions below, or refer to our complete instructions for
                help in building your own.
                    These sample queries demonstrate the utility and power of this new feature:
                               5+2*2
                               2^20
                               sqrt(-4)
                               half a cup in teaspoons
                               160 pounds * 4000 feet in Calories




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Definitions
     To see a definition for a word or phrase, simply type the word "define," then a space, and then the
word(s) you want defined. If Google has seen a definition for the word or phrase on the Web, it will
retrieve that information and display it at the top of your search results.
     You can also get a list of definitions by including the special operator "define:" with no space between
it and the term you want defined. For example, the search [define:World Wide Web] will show you a list of
definitions for "World Wide Web" gathered from various online sources.

File Types
     Google has expanded the number of non-HTML file types searched to 12 file formats. In addition to
PDF documents, Google now searches Microsoft Office, PostScript, Corel WordPerfect, Lotus 1-2-3, and
others. The new file types will simply appear in Google search results whenever they are relevant to the
user query.
     Google also offers the user the ability to "View as HTML", allowing users to examine the contents of
these file formats even if the corresponding application is not installed. The "View as HTML" option also
allows users to avoid viruses which are sometimes carried in certain file formats.
     Overall, the additional file types provide Google users a wider view of the content available on the
World Wide Web. And Google has plans to keep expanding the range of file types available over time.

Shopping
     If you search for products using Google, you may see relevant product search information and links
displayed at the top of your search results. These product search results are linked to the sites of merchants
who participate in Shopping, Google's product search service. These results are not advertisements, as
participation in Shopping is completely free to merchants.

I'm Feeling Lucky
     The "I'm Feeling Lucky™" button takes you directly to the first web page Google returned for your
query. You will not see the other search results at all. An "I'm Feeling Lucky" search means you spend less
time searching for web pages and more time looking at them.
     For example, to find the homepage for Stanford University, simply enter Stanford into the search field
and click on the "I'm Feeling Lucky" button. Google takes you directly to " www.stanford.edu", the
official homepage of Stanford University.

Local Search
     Google Local enables you to search the entire web for just those stores and businesses in a specific
neighborhood. Include a city or zip code in your search and Google displays relevant results from that
region at the top of your search results.

News Headlines

     When searching on Google you may see links at the top of your results marked "News". These links
connect you to reports culled from numerous news services Google continuously monitors. The links
appear if the terms you enter are words currently in the news and clicking on them will take you directly to
the service supplying them.

PhoneBook
     Google has added the convenience of US street address and phone number lookup to the information
we provide through our search box. You'll see publicly listed phone numbers and addresses at the top of
results pages for searches that contain specific kinds of keywords.
     To find listings for a US business, type the business name into the Google search box, along with the
city and state. Or type the business name and zip code. Entering the phone number with area code will also
return a complete business listing.
     To find listings for a US residence, type any of the following combinations into the Google search
box:
                first name (or first initial), last name, city (state is optional)
                first name (or first initial), last name, state


Ff48fac0-8ebe-4b0f-87ea-639b7771774c.Doc                      Page 23                                            9/22/2009 7:47:00
                            first name (or first initial), last name, area code
                            first name (or first initial), last name, zip code
                            phone number, including area code
                            last name, city, state
                            last name, zip code
                  If your query results in business and residential listings, both categories will be listed for your
              convenience.

              Search By Number
                   Parcel tracking IDs, patents and other specialized numbers can be entered into Google's search box for
              quick access to information about them. For example, typing a FedEx tracking number will return the latest
              information on your package. Other special search by number types include :
              • UPS tracking numbers                                        • Telephone area codes
              example search: "1Z9999W99999999999"                          example search: "650"
              • FedEx tracking numbers                                      • Patent numbers
              example search: "999999999999"                                example search: "patent 5123123"
              • USPS tracking numbers                                       Remember to put the word "patent" before your patent number.
              example search: "9999 9999 9999 9999 9999 99"                 • FAA airplane
              • Vehicle ID (VIN) numbers                                    registration numbers
              example search: "AAAAA999A9AA99999"                           example search: "n199ua"
                                                                            An airplane's FAA registration number is typically printed on its
              • UPC codes                                                   tail.
              example search: "073333531084"                                • FCC equipment IDs
                                                                            example search: "fcc B4Z-34009-PIR"
                                                                            Remember to put the word "fcc" before the equipment ID.

Similar Pages
     When you click on the "Similar Pages" link for a search result, Google automatically scouts the web for pages that are related to
this result.
     The Similar Pages feature can be used for many purposes. If you like a particular site's content, but wish it had more to say,
Similar Pages can find sites with similar content with which you may be unfamiliar. If you are looking for product information,
Similar Pages can find competitive information so you can make direct comparisons. If you are interested in researching a particular
field, Similar Pages can help you find a large number of resources very quickly, without having to worry about selecting the right
keywords.
     The more specialized a page is, the fewer results Google will be able to find for you. For example, Similar Pages may not be able
to find related pages for your personal home page if it does not have enough information to authoritatively associate other pages with
yours. Also, if companies use multiple URLs for their pages (such as company.com and www.company.com), Similar Pages may
have little information on one URL, but lots on the other. In general, however, Similar Pages works well for the majority of web
pages.

Site Search
     The word "site" followed by a colon enables you to restrict your search to a specific site. To do this, use the
site:sampledomain.com syntax in the Google search box. For example, to find admission information on Stanford's site, enter:

Spell Checker
     Google's spell checking software automatically looks at your query and checks to see if you are using the most common version
of a word's spelling. If it calculates that you're likely to generate more relevant search results with an alternative spelling, it will ask
"Did you mean: (more common spelling)?". Clicking on the suggested spelling will launch a Google search for that term. Because
Google's spell check is based on occurrences of all words on the Internet, it is able to suggest common spellings for proper nouns
(names and places) that might not appear in a standard spell check program or dictionary.




              Ff48fac0-8ebe-4b0f-87ea-639b7771774c.Doc                        Page 24                                                           9/22/2009 7:47:00
Stock Quotes
     To use Google to get stock and mutual fund information, just enter one or more NYSE, NASDAQ, AMEX, or mutual fund ticker
symbols, or the name of a corporation traded on one of the stock indices. If Google recognizes your query as a stock or mutual fund, it
will return a link that leads directly to stock and mutual fund information from high quality financial information providers.
     Look for the link for your ticker symbol query (e.g. "SUNW") at the top of your search results. If you search on a company name
(e.g. "Sun Microsystems"), look for the "Stock Quote:" link on the final line of Google's result for that company's homepage
     Google's financial information providers have been selected and ordered solely on the basis of their quality, based on factors
including download speed, user interface, and functionality.

Street Maps
      To use Google to find street maps, enter a U.S. street address, including zip code or city/ state (e.g. 165 University Ave Palo Alto
CA), in the Google search box. Often, the street address and city name will be enough.
      When Google recognizes your query as a map request, it will return links from high quality map providers that will lead you
directly to the relevant map. These map providers have been selected solely on the basis of their quality. Please note that Google is not
affiliated with the map information providers that are used.

Travel Information
    To see delays and weather conditions at a particular airport, type the airport's three letter code followed by the word "airport." For
example, San Francisco International Airport updates can be found by searching for "sfo airport."
    To check the status of a U.S. flight, type the name of the airline followed by the flight number. For example, to see the status for
United Airlines flight 134 search for "United 134."

Web Page Translation
    Google breaks the language barrier with this translation feature. Using machine translation technology, Google now gives English
speakers access to a variety of non-English web pages. This feature is currently available for pages published in Italian, French,
Spanish, German, and Portuguese.
    If your search has non-English results, there will be a link to a version of that page translated into English.




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                                            Six Steps To Computer Security
    If you're worried about the security of your computer and your data, these six simple steps that will help you protect and secure
everything you've worked so hard to store on your computer.
Use an internet firewall
     If you don't use a firewall, attackers can find and attack your computer within 15 minutes of connecting to the internet. If you use
an "always-on" form of internet access, such as cable modem or DSL, you should install a firewall and keep it up to date.
     Firewalls come in two forms: hardware and software. A hardware-based firewall is usually a router, or a personal computer that's
been tweaked to act as a firewall to the rest of your home network. Today, however, many internet firewalls used in the home or small
office setting are software-based. These firewalls can be acquired from a third party, such as Zone Labs' ZoneAlarm. Or they might
already be built into your operating system, such as ICF (Internet Connection Firewall) or Windows Firewall in Microsoft Windows
XP, depending on which service pack you have installed.
   Update your computer's operating system
      Once you have the firewall in place, keep your computer's most fundamental software -- its operating system -- current by
applying the most current software updates. Failure to do so leaves your computer extremely vulnerable because flaws in operating
systems are usually well-known and targeted by hackers and crackers.
     If you use a current Windows operating system, such as Windows XP, you can use the Windows Update feature to manually
download and install updates from the Microsoft Windows Update website. To automatically download updates now and in the future,
enable the Automatic Updates feature by clicking Start > Control Panel > Security Center.
   Make the most of your antivirus software
     An antivirus software program helps protect your computer against most viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and other malicious
code. Many new computers come with antivirus software already installed. However, antivirus software must be updated regularly,
which usually requires a subscription from the software manufacturer. If you don't have a current subscription for your antivirus
software, your computer is vulnerable to new threats. Therefore, you should install antivirus software, use it, and keep it current.
Updates are usually available at least once a week.
    After you've installed your antivirus software, configure it to check all existing files, incoming and downloaded files, email
messages, and attachments. Set the "check for updates" schedule for a daily check.
   Prevent spyware, adware, and spam
      Many websites and freeware software tools spy on users and report activities to third parties who, in turn, use that information to
send you spam emails by the hundreds. If you surf the internet, your computer will get spyware and adware. If you share files or do
instant messaging, you'll get spyware and adware even faster.
     The best defense against spyware and adware is not to download it in the first place. To protect your computer from downloading
potentially dangerous programs:
      Download programs only from websites you trust
      Read all security warnings, license agreements, and privacy statements associated with any downloads.
      Never click Agree or OK to close a window. Instead, click the red X in the upper-right corner of the window or press Alt+F4
         on your keyboard to close a window.
      Be cautious about using "free" music and movie file-sharing programs, and be sure you clearly understand all of the software
         packaged with those programs.
      To minimize spam, consider these options:
          Ask your ISP (internet service provider) to verify that they're running some type of spam and antivirus scanner.
          Set up email filters within your email client (such as Outlook Express, Eudora, and others). Some spam filters mark
              email that appears to be spam by placing ***SPAM***in the subject line. Others put the term X_SPAM or a similar
              header in the mail format area. You can set up filters to find these messages and move them to a separate inbox for you
              to delete at your leisure.
          Use third-party products, such as Cloudmark Safety Bar, SpamAssassin, and Bayesian Mail Filter, that automatically
              remove known spam and place the messages in a separate inbox for you.
   Choose a reputable pop-up blocker
     You should install a pop-up blocker, such as the Google toolbar or StopZilla, on your browser or use an alternate browser
(Mozilla, Firefox, or Opera) that has a pop-up blocker built in. You should avoid freeware tools from non-reputable vendors. Many
freeware tools have spyware in them. They advertise that they do one thing that you need, but behind the scenes, they contain
programs that can harm your computer.
    Tip: If you're running Windows XP with Service Pack 2, enable Pop-up Blocker in Internet Explorer. You can do this by clicking
Tools > Pop-up Blocker > Turn on Pop-up Blocker.


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     The best way to stop pop-ups is to never allow them to install themselves on your computer in the first place. You can do this by
staying away from questionable websites, and never downloading and installing files from non-reputable sources
   Physically safeguard your computer and files
     Last but not least, make sure that your computer and the data that it contains are physically secure.
    Make backup copies: To make your backups easy and quick to perform, organize all of your documents and data files in logically
named folders. You can then quickly copy everything to Zip drives, CDs, or DVDs, or use a backup program or backup service
    Keep your backup copies secure: Store your backup media offsite: with friends or family, in a safety deposit box, or online with a
reputable backup service.



                                           Tips for Avoiding Viruses and Spam
     The explosion of Windows viruses and spam has been headlines daily for weeks now. Together, they'll cost U.S. businesses $23
billion this year. It certainly seems as though these problems have grown well beyond the nuisance stage.
     What's so upsetting is that there's not a rescue in sight. Not a single short-term anti-spam proposal, technological or legal, holds
up under close scrutiny, and Windows viruses are coming thicker, faster and nastier. The SoBig virus alone devastated 30 percent of
small businesses, and it's not done yet; yet another version of it is supposed to erupt today.
     There's no sure-fire block against spam or viruses, but here are a few routines can significantly reduce your exposure. Yes,
everything you're about to read is common knowledge, but apparently not common enough; millions of people could have avoided the
SoBig virus.
  Windows Viruses
          Most viruses arrive as e-mail attachments. Avoid opening them, especially if they come from strangers, and especially if
           they're applications (their names end in .exe).
          On the other hand, be aware that some viruses forge their return addresses, substituting your friends' (culled from your e-mail
           address book) or even your own. Examine the wording: does it really sound like (for example) your mom?
          Microsoft is frantically patching the many security holes in Windows, but it says that a big part of the problem is that you, the
           customers, aren't downloading and installing its patches promptly. Visit www.microsoft.com/security/protect for step-by-step
           instructions for your version of Windows.
          Particularly if you have a broadband connection like D.S.L. or cable modem, get yourself a firewall. That's a box that goes
           between your PC and the wall, or a piece of software like the one built into Windows XP, to keep out hackers' virtual fingers.
           (Of course, turning on firewall software may kill your ability to share files or printers on your office network. You can re-
           open the so-called ports that you've just shut down, but it takes some technical foraging to do so. To find a list of software
           firewalls for your Windows version — and to find out how to re-open the ports you need — see
           www.microsoft.com/security/protect/firewall.asp.)
          Buy anti-virus software and a subscription to keep it up to date. This advice pains me, because I hate to see McAfee and
           Symantec getting rich off of our vulnerability and pain (few companies generate so many unsolicited complaint letters in my
           e-mail box). But painful times call for painful action.
          As Mac and Linux fans are fond of pointing out, neither SoBig nor any of the other well-publicized viruses affect non-
           Microsoft operating systems. (They're not necessarily less technologically vulnerable; it's just that so far, Windows has
           served as a much bigger, juicier target for the software terrorists who write viruses.
  Spam
     Every anti-spam technology flags some legitimate e-mail as spam and vice versa. Unfortunately, if you're already getting too
much spam, there's not much you can do to back out; the genie is out of the bottle.
     And where did the spammers get your e-mail address? Probably from you. Spammers have software robots that scour Web pages,
online forms, chat rooms, and message boards, looking for e-mail addresses to copy.
     By far the most effective anti-spam technique, then, is to sacrifice your existing, polluted address. Use it only for public places
online. Make up a second, clean address that you use exclusively for e-mail. Give it out only to individuals you trust. (My published
address, pogue@nytimes.com, is hopelessly overrun by spam. I have a private one, too, but if you think I'm going to print it here,
you're outta your mind.)
     Protect your clean address in two ways. First, beg your friends not to send it around in their mass-mailed joke mailing lists.
Second, avoid simple name-or-noun addresses like Daisy21. They may eventually get guessed by "dictionary attacks" — special
software that tries combining numbers with common names and words, sending out spam to every combination it invents until it finds
a working address.
     In the modern era, we can no longer assume that society will hold itself together because the individuals in it generally self-police
themselves (a point made very well by, for example, suicide bombers). At this point, it certainly appears that the spam and virus
problems will get worse before they get better.

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    In the meantime, here are your options: suffer in silence; follow the steps above; get a Mac or a Linux box; or unplug and move to
the Amish country.
                                               Top 10 Spam-Fighting Tips
If you have an e-mail address, it's just about impossible for you to eliminate spam completely. However, there are steps you
can take to reduce that pesky, unsolicited commercial e-mail. Here are my 10 favorite methods for hitting spam where it
hurts.

"Spam": The word alone strikes terror in the hearts of e-mail users (although not necessarily in lovers of the processed pork luncheon
meat by the same name, and to which this columnist bears no ill will). It has no manners, knows no boundaries, and takes no
prisoners. It makes you wring your hands in frustration, shake your fist with rage, and wear out your DELETE key and finger.

What is spam?
    No one I talked to is really sure what the letters in "spam" stand for:
     spam: Stupid Pointless Annoying Mail?
     spam: Stymieing Practice of Altering Minds?
     spam: Scrambled Pieces of Asinine Marketing?
    Actually, it stands for nothing — it's just unsolicited e-mail (commercial or otherwise) that comes to your Inbox in droves. How it
was named "spam" is debated in countless newsgroups and Web sites on that oracle of misinformation we call the Internet. In other
words, no one is really sure.

How can I avoid spam?
    While you can spend lots of your hard-earned cash on spam blockers, spam butchers, spam SWAT teams, spam sharpshooters,
and spam spammers, you can also take a few steps yourself to reduce your daily spam rations. Ready? Let's get crackin'.

Method #1: Use Outlook to manage junk e-mailers
   Microsoft Outlook® and Microsoft Outlook Express offer two basic ways to help you cut down on your spam intake:
    Add senders to the junk e-mail list. You can add whole domains this way, too.
    Create rules that can recognize spam, such as a rule that flags or deletes e-mail messages with certain words in the subject
       line or body of the message.

         You can also create rules to color-code these messages (instead of deleting them automatically), so that they're easily
         recognizable in the Inbox. That way, if your Great-aunt Bessie sends you e-mail that for some reason has the words "HOT
         HOT HOT" in the subject line (one can only speculate why: pies? Great-uncle Sol? vinyl seats in the Buick?), it won't get
         deleted until you see it first.
     To learn how to add senders to the junk mail list or how to create rules, press F1 for Help in Outlook or Outlook Express.

Method #2: Avoid replying to the sender
     When you reply and type REMOVE in the subject line, this is a great way to let spammers know that yes, your e-mail address is
up, running, and being used right now. It's like waving a white flag that says, "I read unsolicited e-mail. Please send more."
     The best way to "opt out" of a spammer's mailing list is to pretend you never received the e-mail message. Put your hands over
your ears and sing, "La-la-la-la...I can't HEAR you!" (No one likes to be ignored.)

Method #3: Alter your e-mail address when you post it
     You might post your e-mail address sometimes to a newsgroup, chat room, or bulletin board. But you don't have to post it
correctly. The funky term for this is "munging" your address. This means adding a character, number, or symbol (or two) that has to
be taken out for your address to work (for example, "cr@bby@mi(rosft.com"). It really throws those automatic "address harvesters"
(yikes, what a term!) off balance, and they just slink away from whence they came.




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Method #4: Don't give out your primary e-mail address
     Create a "disposable" Web e-mail address (such as one from an MSN® Hotmail® account) that you can give when registering for
free software or shareware, or even when ordering from a company online. In fact, Hotmail can help you avoid getting spam.
     I like to give my primary address to friends and family, and then I have another one I use when I'm ordering some new rhinestone
glasses or hair coloring.

Method #5: Make use of laws against spam
     While anti-spam laws have not been enacted yet on the federal level, many states have adopted some sort of anti-spam legislation.
A few examples:
      Colorado The Colorado Junk E-mail Law prohibits the sending of unsolicited commercial e-mail that uses a third party's
          Internet address or domain name without permission, or contains false or missing routing information.
      Washington It is illegal to send a commercial e-mail message that uses a third party's domain name without permission;
          that contains false or missing routing information; or that contains a false or misleading subject line.
      North Carolina It is illegal to send unsolicited bulk commercial e-mail containing falsified routing information, if the
          sender thereby violates a provider's policies.
     While it's hard to know what to do with a piece of spam even if your state has laws against it, there is new legislation each year.
Contact your senators and representatives to let them know how you feel about spam and ask them to oppose spam and to support
legislation like the "Can Spam Act," which will help deter the practice of spamming. Eventually, if there is to be some peace in this
world of e-mail, spammers will be prosecuted and you will stand victorious!
      Look up your state's spam laws

Method #6: Don't post your address on your Web page
   Again, you can munge it or not post it there at all. Then those nasty spam weevils can't find you.

Method #7: Review Web sites' privacy policies
    I know that you're an Internet expert and that you can blaze through those online forms at lightning speed. But slow down, Cha-
Cha, and make sure that you're checking all the privacy options you need to check. Sometimes these are hard to find, but they're there.
And sometimes there is more than one box to check. Some sites assume the right to share your information; responsible sites will give
you a way to opt out.

     An example:
          Let's say that you're in the process of purchasing a fabulous new pair of rhinestone glasses. You've filled out all the pertinent
     information: Size, style, shipping and billing info, and an e-mail address to receive the order confirmation. Now before you click
     the "place order" button, look around.
          Are there any check boxes or tiny form fields on that page that are checked to indicate that you're fine with this company
     selling or giving away your e-mail address to "responsible" parties? Make sure you uncheck (or check, whichever the case may
     be) where necessary. In fact, backtrack through the pages and make sure you didn't forget to indicate your "don't-you-dare-sell-
     this-e-mail-address" preference.

     And here is a tip:
          Even if you did all the right things and found all the sneaky little boxes, make sure you check those boxes again if, for some
     reason, you have to backtrack through the form. Sometimes sneaky vendors will set the pages to go back to the default setting,
     thereby tripping you up again. Good grief, it takes such vigilance, doesn't it? (Yes, but it's worth it.)

Method #8: Don't list yourself in Internet directories
    This is a tough one. If you're in the regular phone book, chances are you're in one of the big directories such as BigFoot,
AnyWho, InfoSpace, Switchboard, and Yahoo!. Look yourself up, and there you'll be. There is probably a place to add your e-mail
address (for free, can you believe it?), but my advice is: Don't.

Method #9: Ditch that clever profile
    From an informal poll I took among friends, they told me that after they cleared their profile from a certain Internet service
provider (that shall not be named), the amount of spam they received was drastically reduced.




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Method #10: Do not forward chain e-mail
   This is my favorite one, and I'm pretty sure I've lost some friends after telling them to cease and desist. Here's a good example:
    On NPR's Morning Edition last week, Nina Totenberg said that if the Supreme Court supports Congress, it is in effect the end
       of the National Public Radio (NPR), NEA & the Public Broadcasting System (PBS)...."

   Sound familiar? This is a hoax. Don't forward it to friends. Your first clue is that Nina's last name is misspelled. Not familiar?
You don't listen to public radio? OK, here is one for you:
    My name is Bill Gates, and I need your help...

     It's a pretty good bet that if you don't know Bill Gates, he won't be sending you any sort of e-mail, because chances are he doesn't
need your help. He's never even sent me e-mail. (I'm still waiting. I still have hope.)
     Some others I've received concern needles in theater seats, free software from my boss, free cases of champagne, free trips to
Disney World, a request for money for a little girl dying of a tropical disease, the Hawaiian good luck totem, caution using cell phones
at gas stations, and my personal favorite: a virus warning about e-mail messages with "How to give a cat a colonic" in the subject line.




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