9 2 Kingdoms and Binomial Nomenclature by w88nz3


9.2 – General Rules and Binomial
Warm Up 01.24.07

   Who is credited with the modern
    system of classification?
   Who created the first reported system
    of classification?
General Rules #1

   Each group on one level of the
    hierarchy may be divided into several
    groups on the lower level.
    – The Kingdom Animalia is divided into ~20
      phyla and each phylum is divided into
      classes and each class into several orders
      and each order into several families and
      each family into several genera, etc, etc,
General Rules #2

   Each group in the hierarchy has
    various characteristics that all levels
    under the group possess.
    – The Phylum Arthropoda contains
      organisms that have an exoskeleton and
      jointed legs.
    – There are exceptions sometimes – you
      will see the words “most” and “almost”
General Rules #3

   Each level of the hierarchy can be
    divided into smaller units before
    reaching the next lower level.
    – Prefixes:
        “sub” (below)
        “infra” (below)

        “supra” (above
The Kingdoms
   Linnaeus had 2 kingdoms (plants and
   In the 1860’s, Ernst Haeckel added the
    kingdom Protista (including bacteria, protists
    and sponges)
   1956 – Herbert Copeland made the bacteria
    their own kingdom Monera
   1969 – Robert Whittaker created a separate
    kingdom for fungi - Fungi
Five or Six Kingdom
   Kingdom Eubacteria:
    – Most abundant organisms, unicellular
      prokaryotes, contain peptidoglycan in its
      cell wall
   Kingdom Archaebacteria
    – Prokayotes, no peptidoglycans in their cell
      wall, also called extremophiles
Five or Six Kingdom
   Kingdom Protista
    – Algae and protozoans, autotrophic and
      heterotrophic, mobile and stationary,
      unicellular and colonial, eukaryotic
   Kingdom Fungi
    – Heterotrophic, feed on decaying matter,
      unicellular or colonial
    – Includes mushrooms, molds, mildews,
      yeasts and rusts
Five or Six Kingdom
   Kingdom Plantae
    – Huge range in size, most are autotrophic
      (photosynthetic mostly), some are
      heterotrophic (mistletoe), usually sessile
      (stationary), has true tissues
   Kingdom Animalia
    – Hetertrophic, eukaryotic, multicellular
      organisms, most have ability to move
      during at least part of their life cycle.
Scientific Names

   Common names make it difficult to
    identify an organism – the way around
    this is to use its scientific name
   For each organism, there is only one
    scientific name
   Also, some common names refer to
    more than one animal
    – “Gopher” can be a frog, snake, turtle,
      salamander, or 50 different rodents!
Binomial Nomenclature

   Carolus Linnaeus developed a two
    name system called Binomial
    – People use this system to name
      themselves! Katie Korn (2 names)
   Linnaeus decided to use Latin because
    it was an accepted universal language
    of learning and was unchanging.
Genus-Species Names

   Scientific name includes its genus and
    species name
    – Ex. Homo sapiens
   When handwritten, you underline a
    genus-species name and capitalize
    only the genus name
    – When typing, italicize it.

   A group of similar organisms
    – For some organisms, the genus name
      and the common name can be the same
          Ex. Paramecium
   The species name tells us which
    specific organism of a particular genus
    is being described

   A species can have a large group of
    similar but different members
    – Canis familiaris is the dog – there are
      many varieties of domestic dog
    – Purebreds (collie, Irish setter, English
      bulldog) and crosses (peekapoo – a
      poodle and a pekingese, and a
      labradoodle – a poodle and a labrador)

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