9 2 Kingdoms and Binomial Nomenclature

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					Biology
9.2 – General Rules and Binomial
Nomenclature
Warm Up 01.24.07

   Who is credited with the modern
    system of classification?
   Who created the first reported system
    of classification?
General Rules #1

   Each group on one level of the
    hierarchy may be divided into several
    groups on the lower level.
    – The Kingdom Animalia is divided into ~20
      phyla and each phylum is divided into
      classes and each class into several orders
      and each order into several families and
      each family into several genera, etc, etc,
      etc
General Rules #2

   Each group in the hierarchy has
    various characteristics that all levels
    under the group possess.
    – The Phylum Arthropoda contains
      organisms that have an exoskeleton and
      jointed legs.
    – There are exceptions sometimes – you
      will see the words “most” and “almost”
General Rules #3

   Each level of the hierarchy can be
    divided into smaller units before
    reaching the next lower level.
    – Prefixes:
        “sub” (below)
        “infra” (below)

        “supra” (above
The Kingdoms
   Linnaeus had 2 kingdoms (plants and
    animals)
   In the 1860’s, Ernst Haeckel added the
    kingdom Protista (including bacteria, protists
    and sponges)
   1956 – Herbert Copeland made the bacteria
    their own kingdom Monera
   1969 – Robert Whittaker created a separate
    kingdom for fungi - Fungi
Five or Six Kingdom
System
   Kingdom Eubacteria:
    – Most abundant organisms, unicellular
      prokaryotes, contain peptidoglycan in its
      cell wall
   Kingdom Archaebacteria
    – Prokayotes, no peptidoglycans in their cell
      wall, also called extremophiles
Five or Six Kingdom
System
   Kingdom Protista
    – Algae and protozoans, autotrophic and
      heterotrophic, mobile and stationary,
      unicellular and colonial, eukaryotic
   Kingdom Fungi
    – Heterotrophic, feed on decaying matter,
      unicellular or colonial
    – Includes mushrooms, molds, mildews,
      yeasts and rusts
Five or Six Kingdom
System
   Kingdom Plantae
    – Huge range in size, most are autotrophic
      (photosynthetic mostly), some are
      heterotrophic (mistletoe), usually sessile
      (stationary), has true tissues
   Kingdom Animalia
    – Hetertrophic, eukaryotic, multicellular
      organisms, most have ability to move
      during at least part of their life cycle.
Scientific Names

   Common names make it difficult to
    identify an organism – the way around
    this is to use its scientific name
   For each organism, there is only one
    scientific name
   Also, some common names refer to
    more than one animal
    – “Gopher” can be a frog, snake, turtle,
      salamander, or 50 different rodents!
Binomial Nomenclature

   Carolus Linnaeus developed a two
    name system called Binomial
    Nomenclature
    – People use this system to name
      themselves! Katie Korn (2 names)
   Linnaeus decided to use Latin because
    it was an accepted universal language
    of learning and was unchanging.
Genus-Species Names

   Scientific name includes its genus and
    species name
    – Ex. Homo sapiens
   When handwritten, you underline a
    genus-species name and capitalize
    only the genus name
    – When typing, italicize it.
Genus

   A group of similar organisms
    – For some organisms, the genus name
      and the common name can be the same
          Ex. Paramecium
   The species name tells us which
    specific organism of a particular genus
    is being described
Varieties

   A species can have a large group of
    similar but different members
    – Canis familiaris is the dog – there are
      many varieties of domestic dog
    – Purebreds (collie, Irish setter, English
      bulldog) and crosses (peekapoo – a
      poodle and a pekingese, and a
      labradoodle – a poodle and a labrador)

				
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posted:2/25/2012
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