The Voice of by yaosaigeng

VIEWS: 17 PAGES: 24

									               The Voice of
                 FCUG
July 2010
Volume 31
  No. 2
                 Contents
The Editor's Desk. . . . . . . . . . . . . .       2
Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        3
Questions and Answers – Chuck Davis . . . .        4
The Way We Were – April 1990 . . . . . . .         8
Tidbytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       9
Wildlife Report – Bill Hart . . . . . . . . .     12
...Speed, RAM and Virtual... – Brian K. Lewis .   13
FCUG Meeting 1st June 2010 . . . . . . . .        15
....about Windows Mail – Ogden Douglas. . .       18
Word Processor tip – Bill Hart . . . . . . .      19
huh? ….. Linux?? (Part 1 of 3) – Dave Bartlett    20
Neat Things....a Flash Drive – Vinny La Bash .    22

 Meeting 7.30 pm 6th at
 New Canaan Historical
       Society
   13 Oenoke Ridge
                            BOILERPLATE

       “The Voice of FCUG" is the monthly newsletter of the Fairfield
County Computer Users Group, Inc., a registered non-profit organization
dedicated to helping members use their PC computers. Non-commercial
and non-profit users are free to copy or quote material herein; proper
credit and sending a copy of the publication to the Editor would be
appreciated.
       Members can exchange ideas and opinions through this newsletter,
at a monthly meeting held the first Tuesday of most months, at occasional
SIG programs, and on a bulletin board reached from the Club Internet
Web-site at www.fcug.org.
       Meetings and SIG groups are open to the public. Membership costs
$30/Yr, prorated. For information and payment contact
                  Ed Congleton, Treasurer: 203-966-4854,
                 251 Weed Street, New Canaan, CT. 06840
      To submit articles or letters for The Voice send an e-mail message to
thevoice@fcug.org, hopefully with article attached, or mail paper, or even
a diskette in ASCII, Word, or WordPerfect format to:
               The Voice, 280 Main Street, Westport, CT 06880




       The Editor's Desk

          This month and next may be times
of stress in the Voice Editorial offices; I am
on vacation from the end of June through
the middle of July. So some of the
important stuff, like who is talking about
what at the club meetings, may be even
more out-of-whack than usual! Just make sure to check the website for the
latest information.
          I don't know if it is my problem, or a general one, but several times
recently, on both my laptop with Vista and this desktop machine with
Seven, Firefox has stopped working and the only way out has been to
reboot the machine. When I use the “CAD's way out” (Ctrl-Alt-Del) to check
what is running, I find that Firefox appears to be being run, not as an
Application, but as a Process, and that somehow it is in there twice. If I
learn more about this strange behavior I will get somebody to report more;
meanwhile, please let the Voice know if you ever have a similar trouble.
After all, (read the BoilerPlate above …) we are supposed to be “dedicated
to helping members use their computers”, and what better way than to
pass on information like this? Thanks...

                                ---o-oOo-o---
           The Voice of FCUG - Page 3 - July 2010




                                Program for 6Th
                                   July 2010
                              Call to order .. .. .. .. .. 7:30

Novice topic .. .. .. .. Ed Congleton .. .. .. .. ..             7:40
   Continuing his discussion on Words 2003 and 2007, this time on
   the use of Styles and different document structures.
Q and A: .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..            8:00
Refreshments.. .. .. Jane and Charlotte .. .. .. ..              8:20

Main topic: .. .. .. .. Ed Congleton .. .. .. .. ..              8:30
   Showing how Excel 2003 or 2007 can be used to manage one's
   financial assets. This will include a number of advanced Excel
   functions and macros. His sample workbook can be made
   available to FCUG members.
Adjournment      .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 10:00

  Please bring empty ink cartridges to the meeting. The
   club can use them to help keep the dues from rising.
                      LOOKIN' FOR A RIDE?
                                      If anybody who wants to attend
                                      meetings has a transport
                                      problem, please mention it and
                                      together we will look for a
                                      solution. You can also contact
                                      Dick Booth (203-847-8047 or
                                      dick.booth@juno.com). He can
                                      tell you who lives near you, or
                                      might pass by on their way.

                                               -----ooOoo-----
               The Voice of FCUG - Page 4 - July 2010




          Questions and Answers




 From the January 2010 issue of “Bits, PCs and Macs”, the journal of the Sun City
                   Anthem Computer Club of Henderson, NV

Question: My new laptop computer is presenting this message: “The file is
possibly corrupted, the file header checksum does not match the computer’s
checksum.” Should I contact one of the Club’s House Call technicians, or
how can I fix this?
Answer: Don’t try to fix it. Contact the manufacturer and request warranty service
and/or replacement. Any attempt to repair the computer might void your warranty.
Question: I'm attempting to run the Disk Defragmenter program. I get the
following message: “Disc Defragmenter has detected that chkdsk is
scheduled to run on volume (C:). Please run chkdsk /f.” I don't have an 'f'
drive, and can't run chkdsk /f. What's the problem?
Answer: To clarify, the “/f” is a parameter, not a drive designation. The chkdsk
program cannot run on an open drive. The scheduled process will run when you
restart the computer. It will run before your “C:” hard drive is opened during
startup. When you see it starting, allow it to run to completion. It takes a
considerable amount of time, and is dependent on the size of your drive.
Question: My computer is a Windows Vista 64-Bit based system. There are
many times that I would like to open Office Outlook 2007 with the calendar
already open so that I can get a sense of the day’s activities before I start on
the myriad e-mail messages in the inbox. How can I do this?
Answer: This can be accomplished by creating a new shortcut on your desktop
using a command-line switch. The command that starts Outlook is Outlook.exe. A
command-line switch is the addition of a forward slash (/) followed by the switch
name and any parameter the switch has. In your case, it’s /select
outlook:calendar. Do a search to find the outlook.exe file. On your system it will
probably be C:\Program Files (X86) \Microsoft Office\Office12\Outlook.exe
       Right-click   on    the
Outlook.exe file name and
then on Send To followed by
Desktop (create shortcut),
and now close the Search
Results dialog box and go to
your desktop.
       Right click on the new
desktop icon that you just
                The Voice of FCUG - Page 5 - July 2010

created. Click on the Shortcut tab in the dialog box. Locate the Target box. It will
contain the path to the outlook.exe file. Press the Space bar once to place a blank
after the path, and then type /select outlook:calendar Click OK Now, double-click
                                    on the shortcut previously created. Outlook
                                    will open with the calendar displayed.       To
                                    open Outlook in the normal manner, use the
                                    Microsoft Outlook icon. I renamed my shortcut,
                                    replacing “Microsoft Office Outlook 2007” with
                                    “Outlook Calendar,” to easily differentiate it
                                    from the standard icon.
Question: You have often stated that keeping all programs up to date would
lessen the chances of getting malware installed on my computer through
vulnerabilities in the various programs. Is there a way to determine which
programs have updates that I don’t know about?
Answer: For years, it has been assumed that anti-virus programs will protect your
computer. Symantec (Norton) states: “Computer protection from malicious
software and identity theft” on their website. “McAfee Total Protection 2010” is
anything but “Total.” They don’t/can’t/won’t offer the kind of protection that you
need. The multiple offerings by McAfee make things confusing for the user by
offering several different products, none of which truly provide “total” protection.
The entire anti-virus and anti-malware industries need to rethink their place in this
world.
        While there are many discrete programs available, there is no real difference
between virus, worms, Trojans, or spyware, from the user’s point of view. They
have no control over the vulnerabilities that exist in other programs that are on
your computer. Frequent appearances on the list of programs that must be updated
of Adobe Reader, Macromedia Flash, Apple iTunes and QuickTime — you know,
those produced by companies that have been in denial for years.
        This past week I removed malware purporting to be more effective at
removing the numerous “Infections” that it listed from 3 computers. The malware
program was the infection. Each computer had either Norton or McAfee installed
with updated subscriptions and Windows was fully updated. Enough for
“protection” by these folks. The true infection may have arrived via other programs
that haven’t been updated as the user accessed various web sites.
        Malware threats are getting worse. The authors of these programs are
becoming more agile, and have more resources, to create ever more sophisticated
ways of breaching the anti-virus programs. To learn about the known vulnerabilities
of programs on your computer, Secunia offers a couple of free facilities to
determine the products already installed that contain vulnerabilities. More
importantly, it makes it very easy to download and install the more secure versions
providing links to the actual program download. This is important due to many
programs that lack automatic update features.
        For home users, there are two Secunia products to choose from; 1) Simple
Scan Online. It Scans 70 programs via your browser and 2) Secunia Personal
Software Inspector must be installed on your computer, but provides a much more
in-depth scan. For most readers, I suggest installing the Personal Software
Inspector. I found that the online scan took much more of my time because of
frequent restarts that may be required. You may download either the Online
version or the PSI here: http://secunia.com/vulnerability_scanning/
        Following the scan you may see a list of Insecure Programs (image at the top
of the next page). Click on the Solution Icon and install the program offered. As you
                The Voice of FCUG - Page 6 - July 2010




install each, the line is removed from the window. As each update is installed, if
prompted to restart, choose Restart later. Restart your computer after the last
update is installed to complete the installation. The PSI version can remain on your
computer to notify you each time there is the need to update a program. The
manner in which the program provides a direct link to download the correct
program eliminates the problems of searching the vendor’s web sites.
        Secunia is a Danish computer security service that is known for tracking
vulnerabilities in more than 12,400 pieces of software in addition to various
operating systems. A little vulnerability scanning is certainly preferable to removing
malware after it has gained a foothold on your computer.
        Finally, on this subject, many times ridding the computer of some malware
infections require wiping the hard drive clean and reinstalling the operating system.
Happiness is a recent backup of your documents and images to an external hard
drive or on the “Cloud” when things suddenly go wrong. Remember there is no
slow degradation, it is instantaneous!
Question: How does malware get into computers?
Answer: There are several ways these insidious programs arrive.
      ☺ You, or some member of your household, have visited a web site that
         has introduced the malware (virus, worm, or Trojan) program.
      ☺ A malware infection can enter via an e-mail.
      ☺ A malware program can also accompany an instant message.
      ☺ A malware program can enter via a mobile device.
Just keep everything on your computer up to date. The Secunia PSI, discussed in
                                  the answer to the prior question will help.
                                    Question: I am using a new installation of
                                    Microsoft Office Outlook 2003. All incoming
                                    e-mail messages arrive as plain text. I know
                                    they are being sent as HTML. How can I
                                    change this problem?
                                    Answer: Open Outlook, choose Options from
                                    the Tools drop down menu. Click on the
                                    Preferences Tab. Under E-mail click on the E-
                                    mail Options… button. Uncheck Read all
                                    standard mail in plain text.

Question: I have just installed Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. URL links to
web sites do not work. How can I correct this in Outlook?
Answer: The problem is a setting in Internet Explorer, not an error in Outlook. You
                The Voice of FCUG - Page 7 - July 2010

will have to reset your Internet Explorer settings. Open Internet Explorer, choose
Internet Options from the Tools drop down menu. Click on the Advanced tab.
Under Reset Internet Explorer settings, click on the Reset… button. You will be
presented with a list of settings that will be reset. There is no menu to pick and
choose from. It’s all or nothing…
Question: I have downloaded and installed a free registry scanner. It has
identified a bunch of erroneous entries in my Windows XP system, and it
won’t remove them unless I register the product and pay a fee. What course
of action should I take now?
Answer: Uninstall the program and find something else to do. Registry cleaning
isn’t needed and is downright dangerous to your system’s well being. Have you
heard the phrase “snake oil?” Vendors of registry cleaning software try to convince
you that removing a few dozen 80 character text files will speed up your computer.
A registry entry that isn’t used can’t slow down anything.
        If you started on this course of action because of some perceived
sluggishness of your system, there might be some real bottlenecks that can be fixed.
Have you run the Disk Cleanup program? Disk Defragmenter? If not, do so. If
Microsoft Update has recently installed Service Pack 3, you might need some larger
RAM memory chips. You can test this by visiting http://www.crucial.com and
clicking on the Scan my System button. Install the tool and review the results. If the
total of all installed chips is less than 1GB (1,024 MB) you have isolated one
bottleneck. You now must decide whether to buy the chips from the Crucial site or
trundle down to your local PC supply store. If you aren’t comfortable with installing
the memory chips, contact one of your Club’s [Gurus] for assistance.
Question: I have installed Mozilla Thunderbird as my e-mail program on my
new Windows 7 computer. I would like to move my addresses from the old
computer to Thunderbird. How can I do this?
Answer: Since there are a considerable number of steps involved, I will refer you to
the Microsoft instructions to Export the Addresses from Outlook Express to a file.
Export: http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx/kb/270670
       To import addresses into Thunderbird, choose Import from the Tools drop-
down menu. The Import dialog will open; choose Address Books and click Next.
Choose the email client from which you will import an address book, and click
Next. (Alternatively, you can choose Text files, which supports LDIF, tab-delimited
or comma-separated files.)
Question: Some time ago, I decided I didn’t want Outlook Express to be on
my Windows XP machine. Don’t remember how I removed it, so naturally I
don’t know how to get it back. Can you help?
Answer: Choose Run from the Start menu. Type
“msimn.exe” (without the quotes) and press
enter. Outlook Express will open. You will have
to establish any accounts that you will need
before use.
Question: I have a new computer with
Window 7 installed. How do I turn on/off
Windows Features, specifically the Tablet PC
Components?
Answer: Choose Control Panel on the Start
menu, then double-click on the Programs and
Features applet. When open click on Turn
               The Voice of FCUG - Page 8 - July 2010

Windows features on or off. Place a check in the box preceding the feature name:
Tablet PC Components. Other services can be turned off. Be choosy, but if things
don’t work as expected, you can return and reverse the setting.

                                                        Question: I have a new
                                                        computer with Windows 7
                                                        Home Premium installed
                                                        by the manufacturer. I also
                                                        have a 500 GB USB backup
                                                        drive. How do I start the
                                                        backup process?
                                                        Answer: Click the Start Orb,
                                                        and type “Backup” (without
                                                        the quotes) in the search
                                                        field, and press Enter. The
                                                        dialog box is shown at left.
                                                        Click on Set up backup, and
                                                        follow the prompts.
      You can create a System Repair DVD. DO IT!

                                  -----ooOoo-----



                                         The Way We Were --
                                               July 1990
                                              President – John Krause
                                              Vice President – Jack Fairley
                                              Secretary – Taylor Vincent
                                              Treasurer – Ed Congleton
                                              Program Chairman – Ted Rosen
                                              Editor -- Alan Abrahamson
                                              TBBS System Operator -- John Krause
                                     Printed by Technical Reproductions, Inc.
Novice Nook #24 Hard Disk Housekeeping Techniques – Roger Giler. Three pages.

                                CompuShrink
      The ultimate in computerized medicine, self-analysis through your own
      computer, is now available on a program called PsychOut.
      The patient lies down on a couch in the privacy of his or her own home.
      The program is booted into the patient's own computer.
      The patient then talks to the computer for 55 minutes while the
      computer plays tic-tac-toe, hums and nods off, interrupting with an
      occasional “Hmmm”, “Interesting”, and “Would you like to tell me
      more?”
      PsychOut is priced just out of the reach of everyone.
                The Voice of FCUG - Page 9 - July 2010

Dress up your screen – George Saladino. Two pages, with BASIC program listing.
Bill's Bumblings No.53 – Bill Hart. Description of the construction of the FAT on a
floppy disk, and a Pascal program listing to make use of it. Three pages.
The Hardware Curmudgeon No.2 – Al Paul. Three pages.
½ = Madness – Unless – Aaron M. Bisberg. Two pages on WordPerfect display of
fractions.
Friendly Computer and DOS Glossary – Roger Giler. Four pages on H.
FCUG March 6, 1990 Program [sic]
      Main topic: HP New Wave – Tom Reimer – Hewlett Packard
      Novice Program: Do It In DOS – Roger Giler
      Share Topic: ElfTree – Ted Rosen
      Questions & Answers – John Krause

                                   -----ooOoo-----


           Tidbytes
POOR McAfee! A recent reportedto their have
 virus software is
                      update
                                  to
                                       anti-

mistakenly    labeled   a    valid  Windows
component, svchost.exe, as a virus, and
quarantined it. Major problem: Windows runs
many copies of svchost simultaneously to keep
things humming. So thousands of McAfee users
found their computers rebooting endlessly and
unexpectedly. The University of Michigan said
8,000 of its 25,000 machines were affected.
Sometimes the cure can be worse than the
disease...

SKYPE iscomputer; it isattractto hear fromI usually have recently, more than once,
 on the
         beginning to
                         nice
                               spammers.
                                            friends. But
                                                         Skype running when I am

the tinkling of the Skype attention bell has been accompanied, not by a
conversation window, but a message one. You can leave 'chat' messages for friends;
I have done it more than once, but these have been from the usual Viagra and
similar suppliers. I am surprised Skype allows them on; I guess they have acquired
access by hiding their true identities. It is possible to block an unwanted contact, so
I have tried to use this feature. They still occur from time to time, though. There
will always be an ad-man, more's the pity...

REQUIESCATmany years since they really were floppy; the knew3.5-inch critters
 It has been
             In Pace: the floppy disk is no more. Well, we
                                                           little
                                                                  that, didn't we?

were hardly bendable. Not like the 5.25s which one could really play with,
punching extra holes to make them double-sided and all that. (Once I did punch
extra slots round the edge of a pack of 3.5s to try to fool the computer into
increasing their capacity, but the result was a pack of really quite unreliable
               The Voice of FCUG - Page 10 - July 2010

monsters...) Anyway, Sony, who introduced them in 1981, has announced they will
not be making any more from the end of the year. So stock up while you can – I'm
sure you need more, right?

INTERNET Explorer ismore alternatives appear. Down from over 90% of the
 weaknesses arise and
                      sinking in the popularity polls, as the reports of

market in 2003, the latest figures from Net Applications show:
       Internet Explorer - 59.9%
       Firefox            - 24.5%
       Chrome               - 6.7%
       Safari               - 4.7%
       Opera                - 2.3%
       Opera Mini           - 0.7%
       Netscape             - 0.46%
       Mozilla              - 0.16%
       Flock                - 0.06%
       Lunascape            - 0.04%
Way back when, my boss would double-check my numbers in reports like this, so I
bethought me to do that here. Total: 99.52%. So there are still eight hardy souls in
every ten thousand of us who are exploring the Web with something else – home-
rolled, perhaps? Oh, and, of course, these numbers probably only apply to a
fraction of the total market anyway; it seems quite likely there are parts of Lower
Slobovia, for example, with their own list of preferred tools.

OF course, around 60%these figures, pointed out that market, and themay change
 whose report I culled
                       is still a large fraction of the
                                                        with IE9 things
                                                                        BBC, from

again. And the report ended with an interesting tidbyte: Apple and Microsoft are
both in favor of the new HTML5 web-page standard, which is expected to reduce
the need for add-ons like Adobe's Flash. And Apple, in a “high-profile spat” with
Adobe over Flash, has banned that standard on many of its products. How childish!

THE BritishBritain to introduce a law against copyright infringement is a move
 afoot in
            are so civilised! (British spelling, to fit the occasion.) There
                                                                             and web
piracy. When major malefactors are found they will …. receive a warning letter in
the mail, complete with details of the problem and how they can alleviate it! In fact,
they will receive three letters before any action is taken.

ON the other can be officially case of Iron Fist Inthe Internet altogether – and not
 malefactors
              hand, this is a
                               disconnected from
                                                    Velvet Glove: after three letters

just by their ISPs, but by the Secretary of State. Sort of like having your modem
turned off by, say, Homeland Security, or the Vice President.

MORE onduring Glove: He told me that was inreceived of request from athe U.S.
 county
        Velvet
               WWII.
                     my father-in-law
                                      they
                                             charge the police in British
                                                    a
M.Ps to help capture a G.I. accused of murder, and “armed and dangerous,” as they
say. The landlord of a pub called in to say he thought the man was in his bar, so a
plain van with two constables and a sergeant (all unarmed) went to the pub. The
sergeant went in alone and asked the man at the bar if he was the suspect. He
admitted it, and came quietly with the sergeant out to the van. As he reportedly said
to the police, he knew he would get fair treatment from the Brits. Sometimes the
Velvet Glove works better...
               The Voice of FCUG - Page 11 - July 2010


NOW find anything to do with computing in that last paragraph!
THE Financial Times reports that GoogleApple Mac OS X, or Linux. It would also
 getting its employees to shift either to
                                          is tired of Windows' weaknesses and is

prefer them to use Chrome (of course...). The report says Chrome is an operating
system, but I thought it is a browser. Ah well, one can never believe everything one
reads in the press...

MAYBE even here, too! (Though I try to keep this page honest...honest...)
HACKERS have now found“clickjacking”.inThis is whenand introduced there one
 phenomenon known as
                       a weakness       Facebook,
                                                    you are persuaded,
                                                                        the

way or another, to click your mouse on a button (as in 'Click here to continue') and
find, too late, that you have been hijacked in some nefarious way. I do use
Facebook, but only in a minimal manner, so I am not familiar with all the features.
There is something called 'Likes' which has been compromised by this malicious
activity, it seems. Read more about clickjacking on Wikipedia – and watch out!

THE new up-coming standard, HTML5, is lurching slowly forward,way... Microsoft
 two mega-backer Steves, Ballmer and Jobs – each in their own
                                                               aided (?) by its

has come out with a report showing its new IE9 is 100% compatible with HTML5,
way ahead of any of the competition; yet others report conflicting results. Indeed, a
post on Freeciv suggests IE9 scored zero, not 100 out of 100. That is quite a
difference! And Apple has materials showing that Safari is, similarly, in complete
compliance – and yet the results web page can ONLY be accessed using Safari. This
is not because other browsers are not complying, but because Apple's coding
checks to see which browser is being used. Wonderful... History has shown that
Redmond is hardly ever in complete compliance with any internationally-agreed
standard, and is always pulling at the edges trying to upset anyone who maintains
proper compliance, and now Apple is doing the same, it seems. Oh dear – here we
go again?

ONE thethe key Flash player, and Apple has beento be thewith Adobe anyway.need
 for
     of
        Adobe
               features of HTML5 is supposed
                                                feuding
                                                        elimination of the
                                                                           And
now it seems that the Flash player, Adobe Reader and Acrobat software, in their
latest incarnations, have a major vulnerability and should be used with caution. The
up-coming Flash 10.1 seems immune, luckily, as do versions 8.1 and earlier if you
want to go Retro.

BLETCHLEY PARK, the home be the Collossus computer and Britain'saWWIIyears
 Enigma HQ, is reported to
                           of
                              actively digitizing its archives, so in few
                                                                          anti-

we may all be able to learn a lot more abut what really went on during the Great
War, Daddy. Hewlett Packard has donated scanners to help with the effort.


                                  -----ooOoo-----
               The Voice of FCUG - Page 12 - July 2010




            Wildlife Report
                  Bill Hart


         The message seemed OK:


From: DHL Express Services <services@dhl-tracking,com>
To: [more on that later]
Subject: DHL Tracking Number BYPBEHAU
Hello!
We were not able to deliver the package you have sent on the 8th of May in time
because the addressee's address is incorrect.
Please print out the invoice copy attached and collect the package at our office.

DHL Express Services.

And there was a 42.6 Kb attachment called DHL_INVOICE_94139f.zip.

If I had used DHL recently I might well have simply opened this file as the message
suggests.
BUT there were three things which stopped me:
   1. My ISP had prefixed the Subject line with <<POTENTIAL SPAM>>.
        Duh...
   2. The recipient was given as wdhaan0@attglobal.net, which is not my
        address (but I could easily have missed that if I was in a hurry). DUH...
   3. I saved the attachment, disabled the Wifi connection, and opened the Zip
        file gingerly with jZip: it contained a single file called
        DHL_INVOICE_94159f.EXE – an executable, not a printable page!
Check what your ISP offers. If it can supply a message filter, turn it on. You may be
able to get it simply to delete them; as a minimum it will probably mark the subject
line in a manner similar to mine. That allows you to double-check the Potential
Spam any time you wish. In fact, I have set my mail program message filter to dump
anything with 'POTENTIAL SPAM' in the title directly in the Trash bin.
As Sergeant Esterhaus used to say in the 1980s TV program “Hill Street Blues”,
“Hey, let's be careful out there!”

                                  -----ooOoo-----
               The Voice of FCUG - Page 13 - July 2010


   Computer Speed, RAM and
       Virtual Memory
                             Brian K. Lewis, Ph.D.
                                        Sarasota Personal Computer Users Group, Inc., FL
                                                                         www.spcug.org
                                                                    bwsail at yahoo.com

          One of the more frequent questions raised is: "will adding more physical
memory (RAM), speed up my computer"? The answer is a qualified "maybe". The
first thing you need to be aware of are the built-in bottlenecks that can slow down
your computer. Programs and data move through your computer at different
speeds in different locations. The central processor (CPU) is usually the fastest data
handler in the system. The hard drive is the slowest and everything else, including
the RAM, is intermediate in data handling speed. The speed of processing data in
RAM is measured in billionths of a second, or nanoseconds, and the speed of
accessing data on the hard disk is measured in thousandths of a second, or
milliseconds. So, ideally, you want all the processing to go from RAM to the CPU
and back to RAM. Unfortunately, that’s not always possible even if your system has
the maximum amount of RAM installed.
          Every computer running Windows, from several generations back, uses
"virtual memory" in addition to RAM. The definition of "virtual memory" is based on
redefining the address space to "trick" programs into thinking they are using large
blocks of contiguous memory. Virtual memory is a space on the hard drive,
frequently called a "swap file" or "page file". This is a block that is mapped for
temporary storage of programs, data, and operating system essentials. This
technique gives an application program the impression that it has contiguous
working memory (address space), while in fact it may be physically fragmented.
          Virtual memory was designed at a time when RAM was much more
expensive than space on a hard drive. Even though RAM is now much less
expensive, the latest versions of Windows (XP & Vista) still depend on virtual
memory. In fact, much of the operating system kernel ends up in virtual memory.
This kernel memory also controls the allocation of data to virtual memory.
Consequently, it is not really possible to eliminate virtual memory when you are
running Windows XP or Vista. If you do disable virtual memory, Windows becomes
unstable.
          In a 32-bit computer running Windows, the maximum memory that can be
accessed by the CPU is 4 gigabytes (232). It can not access addresses beyond 4
gigabytes (GB). (A gigabyte is a billion bytes.) Not every computer can accept 4 GB
of RAM. Some older computers are limited to 512 megabytes (MB) and still run
Windows XP quite successfully. However, if you have a newer computer whose
motherboard can accept 4 GB of RAM, you may not be able to fully access all of that
RAM. In some cases, RAM is shared with the graphics system. This is usually referred
to as an "integrated graphics card". In such a case, up to 1 GB of your RAM may be
used by the graphics leaving only 3 GB for the rest of the system. Then Windows
takes 2 GB of space leaving only 1 GB for user space (programs and data). Even if
some of this is placed in Virtual memory, the CPU still has only 4 GB of addresses. If
you have a graphics card with its own memory, Windows will allocate 2 GB to
kernel memory and 2 GB to user memory. Since some of the kernel memory will be
in virtual memory, your total memory will be a combination of physical memory
               The Voice of FCUG - Page 14 - July 2010

(RAM) and virtual memory (hard drive), but the total will not exceed 4 GB in a 32-
bit computer. Remember, the 4 GB limit applies to the number of addresses that
can accessed by the CPU. Those addresses can be on the graphics card, the hard
drive or in physical memory (RAM).
          Windows sets up the memory system by dividing memory into pages. The
most recently accessed pages are in RAM. Any pages that have not been referenced
in a while are written to the file on the hard drive. According to Microsoft the
paging file in a 32-bit system can be a maximum of 16 terabytes (one terabyte
equals 1000 gigabytes). So the total virtual memory pagefile system can exceed the
4 GB limit by a considerable amount. However, no more than the 4 GB can be
actively handled at time. The inactive pages are stored on the hard drive.
          Virtual memory not only operates at the speed of the hard disk data access,
it also requires special handling before it can be used by the CPU or sent to the
video screen. Pages on the hard disk have to be read into RAM to be used. That also
means that the space they will take in RAM must be vacated. If there was data there,
it must be written to the hard drive, before the new pages can be read into RAM.
This paging process must also be managed. Some memory is used just to keep track
of which pages are in RAM and which are in virtual memory. This is the role of the
Virtual Memory Manager. All of these processes of reading and writing to and from
RAM require time. As a result, virtual memory use does slow the computer more
than the amount that is just due to the slower speed of disk access.
          Before you decide that you need 4 GB of RAM to solve your speed
problem, you need to determine how much RAM your computer is designed to
accept. Computers in today’s market are sold with anywhere from 1- 4 GB of RAM.
However, only a few years ago, computers were designed to accept a maximum of 1
GB of RAM or less. So you need to check your owners manual to see what the
maximum RAM is for your computer. Then, if you don’t know how much is
installed in your computer, bring up the the device manager window from the
control panel. The first page will tell you how much physical memory you have in
your system. You can also see the distribution of physical memory and virtual
memory by bringing up the task manager (Ctrl-Alt-Del) and clicking on the
Performance tab.
          There are several other possible solutions to this problem. One is to look
at your hard drive. If you have an older computer with an IDE drive, replacing it
with a drive that has a SATA interface will speed up the data handling in virtual
memory. Another change would be to purchase a graphics card with 256 – 512 MB
of RAM and install it in place of the integrated video. That would release the RAM
that was being shared with the video card.
          The best, and most expensive, alternative for speeding up your computer
is to replace your 32-bit computer with a 64-bit system. The 64-bit computers can
access 16 exabytes of RAM (264). That is 16 million GB of RAM. Most of the 64-bit
computers in today's market do limit physical RAM to anywhere from 8 to 256
terabytes. Not that we’re getting into any really large numbers here, but the amount
of RAM in a 64-bit machine is more than adequate to reduce virtual memory to a
bare minimum. The catch is that 64-bit machines have other problems, especially
with the limited availability of 64-bit software and drivers for peripheral devices. So
before you decide to switch to 64-bit computing you need to check out whether or
not drivers are available for your peripherals.
          Finally, if your hard drive is heavily fragmented, this will also slow down
data reading and writing. Simply defragmenting your drive will speed up the drive
input and output. It may also improve the computer’s boot time. As you can see,
there are a number of things to consider if you need to speed up your computer.
               The Voice of FCUG - Page 15 - July 2010

Dr. Lewis is a former university and medical school professor of physiology. He has
been working with personal computers for over thirty years, developing software
and assembling systems.
This article has been obtained from APCUG with the author’s permission for
publication by APCUG member groups; all other uses require the permission of the
author (see e-mail address above).
                                   -----ooOoo-----


  FCUG Meeting 1st June 2010
          Maybe it was the thunderstorms which crashed through the area within an
hour of starting time. Or maybe it was the fact that the day before had been
Memorial Day, from which it always takes some a little time to recover, but when
the (miniscule) dust clouds settled and Lenny called the group to order, it was for
him the easiest job in a long time, if not for ever: there were only twelve people
present. Much later one more joined, making us thirteen at table, as the
superstitious might title it... All of you who skipped the meeting, for one reason or
another, missed a treat and an eye-opener.
          Ed Congleton actually started the proceedings by explaining the complex
rules for room reconstruction after we were finished. What it came to was “move
any chair anywhere you like in the room, but make note of your starting place and
put it back exactly there afterwards.” There were other rules about table
manoeuvres, but they became clearer in time.
          When Lenny asked for information about CTPC, Dick Booth rose to tell us,
as none of the officers of that club had been able to attend. You can check their web
site, www.ctpc.org, for details...
          More business: we now not only have a vacancy for a Novice Chairman, we
also need a Q&A King, as Art Bettauer has in fact finally reached the retirement age
for this position. Two gaps to fill, and Ed Congleton announced that he had
decided to fill the first, temporarily, by offering over the next few months a set of
introductory descriptions of the features of Windows Office 2003 AND Office 2007.
Tonight we were to learn about fonts; if you have any key part of any part of Office
(Excel, Word, etc.) and would like ti covered, please call Ed. His number is on page
2 in the Boiler Plate section of this magazine. (203-966-4854. OK, now it's here,
too.)
          Office 2003 uses the classic window layout with a line across the top of
sections headings: File, Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tools, Table, Window and Help.
And if you select the Format heading and press it you find a drop-down list of
options, starting with Font. Press Font and you are shown a window like the one on
the next page. There are three sub-pages: Font, Character Spacing and Text Effects.
          Tonight Ed concerned himself only with the first. The top window shows
the actual typeface in use at present (in this example, Times New Roman). To the
right one can select the style (Regular, Italic, Bold, or any combination of them) and
next across the size. Size can be set to any number between 1 and 1638, including
half-units like, say, 10.5.
          Further down, one can select a color (“Automatic” basically implies black),
an underline style and, if so, the color for that as well. And further down a whole
string of extra options like Strikethrough, Superscript,.Outline – you can see the list
in the picture.
              The Voice of FCUG - Page 16 - July 2010

         Back to Fonts. There are four
basic styles: Serif fonts like this one
(Garamond); Sans Serif like Arial or
Lucida Sans; and crossing these,
Proportional     where,     like    with
Garamond, each letter has its own
width, or Non-proportional, as with the
typewriter, where each letter occupies
exactly the same width. Examples:
Courier        or     Lucida       Sans
Typewriter.
         Ed demonstrated some of the
hundreds of font options by printing
the same sentence displayed in Calibri
(the Word 2007 default). Times New
Roman, Garamond, Bookman Old
Style,     and      even      Wingdings
(Wingdings is how 'Wingdings'
would appear in that font).
         Enough for now. Ed will continue in future meetings – and, as mentioned
above, would appreciate input on items to cover.
          Q&A. Despite having reached years of discretion, Art volunteered to head
the section anyway and there followed...
Q: I cannot paste a Word document resumé into a website which requires me to do
that.
A: Don't use Word? Some web sites will not let you do this because of the dangers
of virus infection. Try moving the contents to Wordpad, say, and pasting that file
instead.
Q: When I attach more than one picture to an Outlook Express message they
appear too huge to be seen properly, unless I ignore the message and open each
picture file separately with another program.
A: Pictures are displayed in the message when the HTML section is interpreted. If
you do not physically restrict the size of the pictures you are sending, you would
have to adjust the HTML commands for picture display in the message, which is a
pretty advanced job, if possible at all.
INFO: There is an article in the New York Times about tweaking a Canon digital
camera to do a number of things – such as being left on to take pictures only when
it senses movement, so that one can capture wildlife photos.
  http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/27/technology/personaltech/27basics.html
          Grub up! Once again Jane had provided a selection into which the baker's
dozen tucked with gusto. For a moment it looked as though the only things
available to pick up the Salsa dip were chocolate cookies, but luckily a bag of
suitable crackers appeared just in time. Iced tea and lemonade provided the liquid
side of the refreshment. Another wonderful break; many thanks, Jane.
        Now for the major part of the evening. The Cub Scouts' Soapbox Derby.
Lenny provided a six- or seven-foot blue plastic track mounted on a strip of
plywood, a fair amount of complex equipment and four cars.
        Cars built for this sport must be made by the scouts themselves and cannot
                 The Voice of FCUG - Page 17 - July 2010

weigh more than 5 ounces. Kits are provided for the purpose, containing a block of
wood the contestant can carve down as much as he likes, four standard wheels and
four nails for the axles. If necessary, weight must be added to bring the car up to
specification. Graphite is used for lubrication, not oil.
          Lenny told of parents asking questions which made it clear that the
designs they were considering were being drawn by them, not their children, and
were therefore disqualifiable. The four cars he brought had been made by him and
his two cub scout kids, Philip and George – and there was a base vehicle to act as a
standard. This year's base vehicle is completely rectangular and named “Brick”.
Previous years had seen the Toxic Taco (sort of Taco-shaped) and the Poisonous
Potato (you guessed it). The actual track is roughly 40 feet long and set on a
gradient of roughly 1 foot drop every 10 feet and there may be 50 or more vehicles,
so this evening's actual demonstration was a little quicker than at a real meet.
        OK. Enough of the hardware. The main feature is the computer program,
which can be bought for about $30. It provides control to start the race and time
the vehicles as they pass the finish line to the nearest thousandth of a second; pretty
impressive. Even so, on more than one occasion ties have been registered for first
place.
        The track can carry four vehicles in parallel at once, and in a full meet each
vehicle is timed over each of the four tracks; the slowest time dropped and the
other three averaged to provide a final result. Tonight Lenny used just two tracks
for the four cars, running two against each other in each of eight heats. Because of
the shortened track, the automatic conversion of the times provided some really
impressive speeds:

       Heat 1:    Lenny     1.218 seconds     405.8 m.p.h.!
                  George    1.226             403.2
       Heat 2:    Philip    1.178             419.6
                  Brick     2.110             234.8
       Heat 3:    George    1.246             396.7
                  Lenny     1.218             405.8 (exactly the same as Heat 1!)
       Heat 4:    Brick     1.572             314.5
                  Philip    1.211             408.2
       Heat 5:    Lenny     1.264             391.1
                  Philip    1.231             401.1
       Heat 6:    George    1.220             405.2
                  Brick     1.932             255.9
       Heat 7:    Philip    1.203             410.9
                  George    1.258             392.9
       Heat 8:    Brick     1.528             323.5
                  Lenny     1.229             402.2
Dropping the slowest times for each and averaging the other three, the results
were: Philip      1.201; Lenny 1.222; George 1.246; Brick                1.677.
       At a real meet the program can play sound effects, too: music, engine noises,
brakes squealing, and ambulance sirens. The cubs get very excited...
       Oh, and Philip's car was the fastest at the local club meet, too.
       The demonstration over, we returned our seats to the upright position (well,
from whence they came) and tried to understand the rest of the instructions.

                                   -----ooOoo-----
               The Voice of FCUG - Page 18 - July 2010


       Something to know about Windows Mail
                                 Ogden Douglas
                                                   Copied, with permission, from A.M.S.I.

        If you have moved up to Windows Mail from Outlook Express you have no
doubt realized that there is actually little difference between them from a simple
user's point of view. And there isn't – but there is one more big advantage from a
pack-rat point of view: you can find your mail a lot more easily than before.
        What I mean is that where your mail is stored is so much easier to find and
move and handle. How did you find your mail before? You really had to open
Outlook Express, and if you were lucky you could save important material
elsewhere; but as to where the originals were on your hard disk, that was another
matter. That was because they were not only buried in hidden folders which
Redmond had decreed were none of your concern, but that if you did stumble
across them the individual messages were packed together in binary database files
with names ending in .DBX – inbox.dbx, for example.
        No more! Now the individual messages are stored separately, with filenames
ending in .EML, in folders that are really easy to reach.
        I recently had to recover some recalcitrant material for a friend from an XP
system's Outlook Express. I finally found where the mail was hidden by searching
for a standard file or folder named inbox, but to do it involved being told it wasn't
there, so having to say “do it again with all restraints off” – and even then there was
another thing to change before finally several files named inbox-something
appeared in the search list.
        Outlook Express stores your mail (and you can get there with Windows
Explorer) buried in Documents and Settings | [Username] | Local Settings |
Application Data | Identities | [A long hex-character system-like Folder name in
curly brackets] | Microsoft | Outlook Express. You are really NOT meant to find it!
And the files with the messages are named [folder name].DBX and, as I said, are
basically binary files, though you can often read the text parts of the messages
embedded apparently randomly in the mess.
        Windows Mail, on the other hand, can hardly be easier. Go to Users | [User
Name] | AppData | Local | Microsoft | Windows Mail | Local Folders and select
your mail folder of choice. Inside the folders with names matching your storage
habits (like inbox, drafts, etc.) individual messages have encoded names, all ending
in .EML, but you can open any of them with, say, Wordpad and find the data you
want.
        Pictures and text graphics are another matter, but then they always were.
        I have more than one computer accessing the Internet at different times, but
like to collect my mail into one machine, so I can easily collect these message
folders from the Local Folders folder and copy them to a memory stick for transfer.
Then I open the target computer's mail program, import from the memory stick,
and move the individual messages to their final destinations in my archives.

                                  -----ooOoo-----
                The Voice of FCUG - Page 19 - July 2010



                    Word Processor tip
                                      Bill Hart
       As in preparing the Voice, I like to use Full Justification, lining up both left
and right margins in a paragraph. This works fine until something odd happens for
some reason, and I find I want to insert a fixed line feed between two lines in the
middle of a paragraph. Here is a sample: I want to break after the end of the third
line and insert something (here a blank line; you tell me why):
       As in preparing the Voice, I like to use Full Justification, lining up both left
and right margins in a paragraph. This works fine until something odd happens for
some reason, and I find I want to insert a fixed line feed between two lines in the

 middle of a paragraph. Here is a sample: I want to break after the end of the third
line and insert something (here a blank line; you tell me why):
           See what happened? The third line had been pulled out to fit the full
justification, but now, being the end of the logical paragraph, it hangs short. And
the space between 'the' and 'middle' has been carried into the fourth line. That, of
course, is just because I placed the cursor up against the last letter in the line
before pressing Enter; the solution is easy; just remove it:

       As in preparing the Voice, I like to use Full Justification, lining up both left
and right margins in a paragraph. This works fine until something odd happens for
some reason, and I find I want to insert a fixed line feed between two lines in the

middle of a paragraph. Here is a sample: I want to break after the end of the third
line and insert something (here a blank line; you tell me why):

        I just deleted the space. But what about pulling the third line back out to
proper full justification? Clearly, we want to extend its length in some non-printing
way.
        Sadly, adding spaces alone does not seem to work. But try adding a TAB
after a few spaces have caused the line to fill out. If you make control characters
visible by pressing the ¶, you can see how many. The right number seems to be one
more than would be needed to fill the line with spaces…

       As in preparing the Voice, I like to use Full Justification, lining up both left
and right margins in a paragraph. This works fine until something odd happens for
some reason, and I find I want to insert a fixed line feed between two lines in the

middle of a paragraph. Here is a sample: I want to break after the end of the third
line and insert something (here a blank line; you tell me why):

        Works fine! The line extended on a wrap-round to the next tab point, in the
blank line, where it is invisible anyway.
        Just in case you ever find the need, as I have from time to time.

                                   -----ooOoo-----
               The Voice of FCUG - Page 20 - July 2010




                                          huh? ….. Linux??
                                                        Part 1 of 3

                                                    Dave Bartlett
                                                                 S.C.U.G., Sarnia Ontario
                                                from the April 2010 issue of SCUG Report
                                                                             www.scug.ca
                                                                                         \
              About five years ago, I listened to a co-worker talking about Linux. I
pretended to know what he was talking about, and I did, to a point. I knew it was
an operating system, but not much more than that. I was interested, though. He
suggested that a newbie might do well with Red Hat Fedora. But I was a Windows
user, and I had no problem using it. It did everything I wanted it to, well, almost. I
had a version of Nero, but it stopped working. Oh well, I didn't use it much
anyhow. And then I found CDBurnerXP Pro. It looked a little different than Nero,
but it worked just fine. And it was freeware.
         This was my introduction to open source software — free to use, free to
change, distribute, copy, free of restrictions, and free of cost. I liked that part.
         I also remember my son telling me of the things he was learning about
computers. He also talked over my head, but as time went by, I read articles and
realized, “that's what my son was telling me about. Now I understand!” That co-
worker talked about learning OpenGL, and creating GUI's. That's nice. But wasn't
Linux where you sat at a blank screen, typing instructions to make the computer do
things?
         In the early days, it was. That was back when Windows 3.1, and DOS were
the mainstream. Well, Linux matured, along with other operating
systems, most notably, Windows and Mac OS X. But first of all,
meet “Tux”, the penguin. He's the official mascot for all things
Linux. If you feel adventurous enough to depart from the
mainstream operating systems, you might just grow to love this
little guy. I did!
         So, what is Linux today? More accurately, GNU/Linux is the
kernel or “engine” under the hood. Linus Torvalds, the creator of
the Linux kernel, started the project just for himself, to do what
he wanted it to. He was a student at Helsinki University at the time. His code base
was an off-shoot from Unix. Friends were impressed with the kernel, and urged him
to continue development. He did, and now, while he only wrote two percent of the
modern day kernel, his team of developers continue to write code, improving the
product to meet ever-changing needs.
         The Linux kernel is really the heart of an operating system. But, add in the
code libraries, some Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), a windowing
client, a desktop environment and Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs), and “Voila!”. We
have our Linux operating system.
         The code for all of this, is different from Windows, or Mac OS-X, and they
are not interchangeable. Most Linux operating systems are released under the GNU
General Public License - free-ware.
         So, should you consider trying a Linux distro? Got a spare computer without
an operating system? Linux is free. Linux doesn't get viruses. Virus code doesn't
               The Voice of FCUG - Page 21 - July 2010

execute in Linux. Linux never needs the hard drive defragmented. I've never seen a
defragmentation program for Linux. Most desktops look sleek and elegant. Linux
rarely crashes. Updates aren't thrust at you at inopportune times. You can leave
your computer running for months at a time without it slowing down. You'll get a
browser, an e-mail client, music player, movie player, a chat program, and office
programs. Need a program? Go to the software download section. Pick and choose
from the application list. It downloads, installs, and is ready to use without
rebooting, legally, and at no cost. Listen to this radio promotion at
             http://www.heliosinitiative.org/sounds/linuxfinal.mp3

       This screenshot is the desktop of the PCLinuxOS distribution, or “distro”:




        Here's another nice thing about installing Linux. If you already have
Windows on your hard drive, Linux detects it, asks if you want to install Linux on a
separate hard drive partition. Answer yes, and it leaves Windows untouched. Try
installing Windows with Linux already on the hard drive, and Windows wants to
wipe the hard drive clean and be the only OS. You would have to manually
partition the hard drive and install Windows on the new partition.
        Linux and Windows can exist quite nicely on the same hard drive. Turn on
your computer and choose Linux or Windows.
        Tell me, and I might remember 10%. Show me, and I might remember 50%.
Let me put my hands on, and I might remember 80-90%. A trial is worth a thousand
pictures!
                                 -----ooOoo-----
               The Voice of FCUG - Page 22 - July 2010


     Neat Things You can do with a Flash Drive
                                  Vinny La Bash
                                                                  vlabash@comcast.net
                            Member Sarasota Personal Computer Users Group, Inc., Florida
                                                                        www.spcug.org

        By now you’re probably tired of reading about how much better Windows 7
is than Vista. Me too, so let’s spend some time examining some of the things you
can do with a flash drive other than mere data storage.
        A USB flash drive consists of a flash memory data storage device integrated
with a USB (Universal Serial Bus) interface. USB flash drives are easily removable,
and much smaller than a floppy disk. They are rewritable, and usually weigh less
than an ounce.
        There is a wide range of storage capacities with the most common being
from 2 GB to 32 GB. Higher capacities up to 256 GB tend to be pricey.
        One of the most useful things you can do with a flash drive is to run portable
applications. Open Office, for example, is a free suite of programs that includes a
word processor, spreadsheet, data manager, presentation tool, and drawing
package. You can store the suite as a portable application, and run it on any
computer that supports Windows. Firefox and Thunderbird are also available as
mobile applications.
        Having office applications, email, and an internet browser all pooled in a
portable drive you can carry on a key chain is a powerful combination. If you want
more go to www.portableapps.com for an open source platform that works with
iPods and portable hard drives in addition to flash drives. The platform is not only
free, but it’s a full-function site. You are not limited to a trial period or a limited
function subset. There is no sign-in requirement, and no necessity to provide even
an email address. Go for it.
        Everyone wants a faster system. With either Windows Vista or Windows 7,
the built-in ReadyBoost feature can speed up your computer with a USB flash drive.
ReadyBoost takes the storage space on a USB flash drive and converts it into an
additional memory cache that supplements the main memory cache on your
primary disk drive. It can do this because flash memory is faster than regular disk
drives. It’s faster because it has no moving parts, and you can get a noticeable
improvement in response time. Implementing ReadyBoost is simplicity itself. Insert
the USB flash drive into the USB slot on your computer and follow the
configuration prompts.
        If you work or live in an environment where other folks have physical access
to your computer you can use your flash drive to lock everyone else out of your PC.
There is no built-in utility like ReadyBoost for this, but you can download a free
tool called Predator from www.brothersoft.com that provides this function.
Predator uses a standard USB flash drive as an access control device. After
performing a short installation and configuration process, your flash disk becomes a
key that will lock and unlock your PC. When you leave your PC remove the USB
flash drive. This causes the screen to go blank while disabling the mouse and
keyboard. When you ready to resume, put the flash drive back, and everything
returns to normal. Move over, Mr. Bond, Predator is here.
        All the preceding capabilities are very convenient, but how would you like to
carry around a portable operating system? If you are willing to expend a little time
and energy you can configure a USB flash drive to be a bootable Windows 7 drive.
You will need a flash drive with a capacity of at least 8 gigabytes, and of course a
Windows 7 installation disk. Start out by inserting your flash drive into its USB
socket and inserting the Windows 7 installation disk in the optical drive. Please
make a note of the drive letters. This is essential for successful installation.
        Preparing the flash drive is the next step. Click on the Start orb and type:
Diskpart. Pressing Enter opens a command window. (After typing a command at the
command prompt always press Enter to execute the command.) At the prompt
type: List Disk You will see a list of all your hard drives, partitions, optical drives,
card reader drives, and flash drives. Identify the optical drive that contains the
Windows 7 installation disk and the flash drive you’re working with. For this
example we’ll assume the flash drive is disk #4, also designated as G and the
optical drive is disk #2, also designated as D.
        At the command prompt type: Select Disk 4
        Run the following commands:
          Clean
          Create
          Primary
          Partition Select Partition 1
          Active Format FS=FAT32
          Assign
          Exit
This series of commands erased extraneous material from the flash drive, created an
active primary partition, and formatted it with the FAT32 file system. The next step
is to copy the Windows 7 installation files to the flash drive.
        At the command prompt type: Xcopy D:*.* /S/E/F G
In this example D is the drive housing the Windows 7 installation disk and G is the
USB flash drive. The command copies the installation files to the flash drive, and
when it finishes you have a bootable Windows 7 flash drive. The last thing you need
to do to make this work is go into the BIOS and make the first bootable device the
flash drive.
        Carrying a flash drive around is obviously far more convenient than carrying
a DVD, and has the additional advantage of being faster than a DVD.
        This procedure also works for Windows Vista, but why bother when
Windows 7 is here?

                                   -----ooOoo-----
                                                                                            ℅ 280 Main Street
                                                                                            Westport,CT 06880
                                                                                             First Class Mail
                                                                                            To:
     Journal of the Fairfield County Computer
                    Users' Group
                                BOARD MEMBERS
PRESIDENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VICE PRESIDENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lenny Bloom
SECRETARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bea Mull
TREASURER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ed Congleton
PAST PRESIDENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charles Bryk
PAST PRESIDENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dick Booth                 The VOICE OF FCUG is a publication of the Fairfield County
NOVICE CHAIRMAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            Computer Users' Group, Inc. Permission to reprint is granted for
Q&A CHAIRMAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        non-commercial and non-profit users. Credit is appreciated.
MEMBERSHIP CHAIRMAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lynn Bloom
REFRESHMENT CHAIRMAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jane Wiese                          Newsletter prepared using OpenOffice 3.2.0 under SuSE Linux 10.3
PUBLICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Sponza           on an eMachines et1161-03 64-bit computer and printed by:
CTPC LIAISON CHAIRMAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jim Sullivan
VOICE EDITOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bill Hart                      Paul's Prosperous Printing, Wilton,CT 06897
WEB PAGE -- www.fcug.org. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ed Fitzgerald                                          Telephone: 203-834-1962

								
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