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The Nearby Supernova Factory

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					The Nearby Supernova Factory
Greg Aldering et al LBL Director’s Review

November 9, 2005

LBL Director's Review

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The Collaboration
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab Laboratorie de Physique Nucleaire et de Haute Energies de Paris Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon Centre de Recherche Astronomy de Lyon Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics - University of Chicago

Yale University - QUEST group
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SNfactory Genesis
• Low-density universe measurement in fall 1997
• Discovery of accelerating universe in winter 1998 • First HST NIR SN observations in winter 1998 • First z > 1 Type Ia SN in fall 1998 • Nearby SN campaign in spring 1999 • SNfactory conceived in spring 1999 • SNAP conceived in spring 1999 • SNfactory/SNAP LDRD in summer 1999 • French commitment in winter 2001 • Telescope secured in summer 2001 • Design phase in 2001-2002 • SAGENAP endorsement spring 2002 • Construction phase 2002-2004 • Ramp-up phase in summer 2004 to spring 2005
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SNfactory Science Goals
• Improve statistical constraints on dark energy – 2x improvement for SNLS, Essence, SNAP

• Improve systematics uncertainties on dark energy – Better calibration of SN properties – Span wide range of physical & empirical parameters – Constrain SN physics
• 300 Type Ia SNe – in the nearby smooth Hubble flow – with many-epoch spectrophotometry

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Cosmological Constraints from SNfactory
SNfactory + SNLS

SNfactory + SNAP

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Lightcurve Standardization

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Spectroscopic “CAT Scan”

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Type Ia Supernova Spectral Features

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SNfactory Probes Parameter Space
Rise Time

Peak/ Tail

Host Galaxy Type Kinetic Energy

R(Si) Luminosity Stretch

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Project Organization
Executive Committee Institutional Board Project Leader Real Time Instrument Operations QUEST II Wide-field Camera Supplemental Observations SNIFS Spectrograph Calibration System Screening Images Search Operations Subtraction Pipeline Human Scanning Scheduling Off-line Analysis Extraction Off-line/Lab Science Studies SYNOW Lab Directors' Review Boards

Photometry

PHOENIX

Flux Calibration Classification Cataloging

Lightcurves

Classification

Database/Catalog

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Nearby Discovery Challenge
SNfactory: 50 Gb per night, every night

Follow-up spectroscopy gives redshift and type

High Redshift: 5 Gb per night, every 3rd night

Continued spectrophometry allows synthetic photometry, giving lightcurve

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• 99 SNe from prototype search • Best “rookie year” search • Adapted to new QUEST II camera • 65 confirmed + 60 probable in new search

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2002ic: First Type Ia with Hydrogen!
SN

17.0 17.5 18.0 18.5 19.0 19.5 20.0 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 Days [JD-2452000]
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exp SN+ ejecta-CSM fit exp ejecta-CSM fit w/o gap exp ejecta-CSM fit SN fit

Wood-Vasey, Wang & Aldering 2004, ApJ, 616, 339

SNIFS Operating Principle

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SNIFS on the UH 2.2m
Telescope Photometry CCD Cooling Lines CCD Electronics Mechanical Control Unit

Calibration Unit
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SNIFS IFU Example
SNIFS direct image of globular star cluster Reconstructed IFU image

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Spectra are Rolling In
Spectral time series for: SN2004dt SN2004ef SN2004gc SN2004gk SN2004gs SN2005L SN2005M SN2005ac SN2005ag SN2005ak SN2005al + 20 More + UV spectral time series from HST for several SNe!

50 more screened
Our spectral dataset is already as large as 60% of all published spectra since 1937.

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Redshift Distribution

42 Ia 21 II 2 Ib/c 60 untyped

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Recent Research Highlights
• • • • • Discovery and Follow-up of First Type Ia Supernova showing Hydrogen Spectral Time Series for 31 SNe Ia SN Rates from Prototype Search UV - optical - NIR spectral coverage for some SN (from HST & Keck) In-depth spectral studes
• Carbon (progenitor material) detected in SN2005al • High velocity calcium in SN2005M • Missing Fe – only intermediate mass elements – in SN2004dt

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SYNOW Analysis

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Automated SYNOWAnalysis

QuickTime™ and a YUV420 codec decompressor are neede d to see this picture.

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Velocity Evolution Comparison

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SN2004dt UVONIR Spectroscopy
SNIFS HST

Keck

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SNfactory Recent Publications
Published • Photometry of SN 2002ic and Implications for the Progenitor Mass-Loss History, Wood-Vasey, W. M., Wang, L., & Aldering, G., ApJ, 616, 339 (2004). • The Nearby Supernova Factory, Wood-Vasey, W. M., et al., New Astronomy Review, 48, 637 (2004). Conference Presentations & Discovery Telegrams
• • • • • • • • • Feeding the Pipeline: The SNfactory Search for Nearby Supernovae, Scalzo, R.A., NERSC User’s Group, (2005). The Nearby Supernova Factory, Lee, B. C., et al., AAS, 204, (2004). Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of the Type Ia Supernova 2004dt, Thomas, R. C., et al., AAS, 205, (2004). First Results from the Nearby Supernova Factory, Scalzo, R. A., et al., AAS, 205, (2004). Supernova Rates from the Nearby Supernova Factory Prototype Search, Wood-Vasey, W. M., AAS 205, (2004). Type determination for SN 2005M, Aldering, G., et al., ATel, 396, 1 (2005). Type determination for SN 2005L, Aldering, G., et al., ATel, 401, 1 (2005). Type Determination for SN 2005ac, Aldering, G., et al., ATel, 408, 1 (2005). + 30 additional Astronomer’s Telegrams

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Challenges & Opportunities
• Operations are continous and dynamic.
– Moore software support will improve situational awareness.

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Challenges & Opportunities
• Operations are continous and dynamic.
– Moore software support will improve situational awareness.

• Possible closure of UH88 in 2007 due to PanStarrs.
– Try to secure more telescope time in 2006 – Consider new telescope for SNIFS after UH88 closure

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Challenges & Opportunities
• Operations are continous and dynamic.
– Moore software support will improve situational awareness.

• Possible closure of UH88 in 2007 due to PanStarrs.
– Try to secure more telescope time in 2006 – Consider new telescope for SNIFS after UH88 closure

• Search generates many more candidates than SNIFS can handle.
– Improve operational efficiency – Implement photometric screening – Consider imaging follow-up of the more distant SNe Ia

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Conclusion
• SNIFS has been operating for eighteen months
• We have roughly two dozen-well studied SNe Ia • Important complementary data obtained • HST ultraviolet spectroscopy for 4 SNe Ia • Keck infrared spectroscopy for 7 SNe Ia • Infrared imaging for 9 SNe Ia • Already have data on several unusual SNe Ia • Search efficiency is now high • Completing transition to full-scale operations • Moore funding has proven crucial • Will implement photometric screening ASAP • Will attempt to accelerate program in 2006

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