Tools _ Equipment by jianghongl

VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 54

									FF Tools and Equipment

• Based on “Fundamentals of Fire Fighter
  Skills” by The International Association of
  Fire Chiefs and The National Fire
  Protection Association

• Adapted for the Vancouver Fire Department



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Objectives     (1 of 5)


• Describe the general purposes of tools and
  equipment.
• Describe the safety considerations for the
  use of tools and equipment.
• Describe why it is important to use tools
  and equipment effectively.
• Describe why it is important to know
  where tools are stored.

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                                        8
Objectives    (2 of 5)


• List and describe tools and equipment that
  are used for rotating.
• List and describe tools and equipment that
  are used for pushing or pulling.
• List and describe tools and equipment that
  are used for prying or spreading.



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Objectives    (3 of 5)


• List and describe tools and equipment that
  are used for striking.
• List and describe tools and equipment that
  are used for cutting.
• Describe the tools used in response and
  scene size-up activities.



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                                           8
Objectives     (4 of 5)


• Describe the tools used in a forcible entry.
• Describe the tools used during an interior
  attack.
• Describe the tools used in search-and-
  rescue operations.
• Describe ventilation tools.


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                                       8
Objectives    (5 of 5)


• Describe the hand tools needed during an
  overhaul assignment.
• Describe the importance of properly
  maintaining tools and equipment.
• Describe how to clean and inspect hand
  tools.
• Describe how to maintain power plants
  and power tools.

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Introduction
• Tools are used for a wide range of activities.
• Fire fighters must know how to use tools and
  equipment
  –   Effectively
  –   Efficiently
  –   Safely
  –   In dark, limited visibility environments
• Same tools used different ways in each phase of
  fire suppression and rescue operations

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General Considerations
• Hand and power tools used in all fire
    suppression and rescue operations
•   Hand tools
    – Extend or multiply body actions
    – Increase task effectiveness
    – Use simple machine principles
• Power tools
    – Powered by electric motors or internal combustion
      engines
    – Faster and more efficient

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                                          8
Safety
• Safety is the prime consideration for use
  of tools and equipment.
• Safe equipment avoids accidental injury
  to:
  – Fire fighters
  – Other responders
  – Victims
  – Bystanders

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Safe Operation Requires PPE

•   Approved helmet         •   Turnout coats
•   Firefighting hood       •   Bunker pants
•   Eye protection          •   Boots
•   Face shield             •   Self-contained
•   Approved firefighting       breathing apparatus
    gloves                      (SCBA)
                            •   Personal alert safety
                                system

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                                                    8
    Conditions of Use/
    Operating Conditions
• Begin learning under optimal conditions.
• As proficiency increases, practice under more
    realistic conditions.
•   Eventually, be able to use tools with no visibility.
•   Requires ability to work safely in noise and
    around other activities
•   Your department may require you to practice
    skills in total darkness.


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                                           8
Effective and Efficient Use           (1 of 2)


• Use the least amount of energy to
  accomplish the task.
• Objective is to complete task safely and
  quickly.
• Many are surprised by the strength and
  energy required for tasks.
• You will learn which tools are used during
  various fireground operations.

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Effective and Efficient Use             (2 of 2)


• Fire department may have standard
 operating guidelines specify:
  – Tools and equipment needed for specific
    situations
  – Tools and equipment to be carried by fire
    fighter as personal gear
• Many carry a selection of tools in their
 pockets.

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                                       8
Functions

• Rotating (assembly or disassembly)
• Pushing or pulling
• Prying or spreading
• Striking
• Cutting
• Multiple use

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                                          8
Rotating Tools       (1 of 2)


• Apply rotational force to turn
• Most common are screwdrivers, wrenches
  and pliers
• Requires basic skills
• Apparatus carry tool kits with a wide
  selection


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                                       8
Rotating Tools     (2 of 2)


• Various sizes and types of screw heads
• Spanner wrenches are used for couplings.
• Hydrant wrenches are used for hydrants.




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    Common
    Assembly/Disassembly Tools
•   Box-end wrenches
•   Gripping pliers
•   Hydrant wrenches
•   Open-end wrenches
•   Pipe wrenches
•   Screwdrivers
•   Socket wrenches
•   Spanner wrenches

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                             8
Pushing/Pulling Tools
• Extend fire fighter’s
    reach
•   Increase the power
    exerted on an object
•   Many common poles
    and hooks
•   K-tool is used to pull
    lock cylinders.


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Common Pushing/Pulling Tools
 •   Pike pole
 •   Plaster hook
 •   Ceiling hook
 •   Clemens hook
 •   Drywall hook
 •   Multipurpose hook
 •   Roofman’s hook
 •   San Francisco hook

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Pike Pole    (1 of 2)


• Wood or fiberglass pole with sharpened
  point metal head attached to one end
• Primarily used to pull down ceilings
• Available in different sizes, handles, and
  head configurations
• Head designs vary for different ceiling
  types.

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Pike Pole        (2 of 2)


• Most common size: 4'
    to 6' for use on 10'
    ceilings
•   Closet hooks are 2' to
    4'.
•   12' to 14' are for high
    ceilings.



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Prying/Spreading Tools
• May be as simple as a pry bar or complex as a
    hydraulic spreader
•   There are many variations.
•   Pry bar—hardened steel rod that is tapered on
    one end
•   Halligan—includes a sharp pick, flat prying
    surface, and a forked claw
•   Hydraulic spreaders—often used for extrication


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Common Prying/Spreading
Tools
•   Claw bar
•   Crowbar
•   Flat bar
•   Halligan tool
•   Hux bar
•   Kelly tool
•   Pry bar


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Striking Tools
• Used to apply impact force
• Used to gain entry or make openings
• Axe—two types: flat-head or pick-head
  –   Both have a wide cutting blade.
  –   Flat-head can be used as a striking tool.
  –   Flat-head and a Halligan are called “the irons.”
  –   Pick-head used for puncturing/pulling/prying.
• Spring-loaded center punch—used primarily to
  break car windows

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Common Striking Tools
•   Hammer
•   Mallet
•   Sledgehammer
•   Maul
•   Flat-head axe
•   Pick-head axe
•   Battering ram
•   Chisel
•   Spring-loaded center
    punch

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Cutting Tools
• Tools with a sharp edge to sever an object
• Range from knives to saws and torches
• Each is designed for certain materials.
• Fire fighters can be injured and tools
  ruined if used incorrectly.
• Bolt cutters are often used to cut chains
  and padlocks.


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Common Cutting Tools
•   Axes
•   Bolt cutters
•   Saws
•   Reciprocating saws
•   Cutting torches
•   Hydraulic shears
•   Seatbelt cutter


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Saws
• Two main categories
  – Manual
  – Mechanical
• Handsaws include
  –   Hacksaws
  –   Carpenter’s handsaw
  –   Coping saw
  –   Keyhole saw



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Mechanical Saws
• Three main types
  – Chain, rotary, reciprocating
• Faster than handsaws
• Conserve fire fighter energy
• Requires proper training
• Disadvantages
  – Heavy and sometimes hard to start
  – May require an electrical connection

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                             8
Chain Saws
• Gasoline-powered or
    powered by electricity
•   Special chains are
    good for cutting
    ventilation openings.




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Rotary Saws
• Gasoline powered or
    electric
•   Round metal blade
    with teeth or flat,
    abrasive composite
    disk
•   Choice of blade
    depends on type of
    material to be cut.

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Reciprocating Saws
• Powered by electricity or
    battery
•   Blade moves back and
    forth.
•   Different blades are used
    for different materials.
•   Most commonly used to
    cut metal during vehicle
    extrication



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Hydraulic Shears
• Requires extensive
    training
•   Used with hydraulic
    spreaders and rams
    for vehicle extrication
•   Quickly cuts metal
    posts and bars



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Multiple Function/Special Use Tools
 • Reduce the tools
     needed to achieve a
     goal
 •   Includes rakes,
     brooms, shovels, air
     bags, come alongs,
     and tripods



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                                               8
Phases of Use
• Each phase of fire suppression may require
    certain tools and equipment.
•   Basic phase of fire suppression
    –   Response/Size-up
    –   Forcible entry
    –   Interior attack
    –   Search and rescue
    –   Rapid Intervention Crew
    –   Ventilation
    –   Overhaul

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Response/Size-Up

• Consider information from dispatch.
  – May indicate the nature and gravity of the
    situation and problems that might arise
• Begin considering tools needed.
• On arrival, company officer will size-up
 and develop action plans following SOPs.



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                                                 8
Forcible Entry
• Locked, blocked entries and security systems
    challenge forcible entry tasks.
•   Typical tools for forced entry
    –   Axe
    –   Prying tool
    –   K tool
    –   Other prying tools
• Many techniques may be required to gain entry.


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                                                   8
Interior Attack
• Interior attack involves multiple tasks performed
    simultaneously or in rapid succession.
•   Basic tools should be carried by every crew
    member.
•   Specialized tools should be carried for particular
    assignments.
•   A basic set of tools includes a prying, striking,
    cutting, and pushing tool and a hand light.



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                                                 8
Interior Attack Team Tools
• Interior attack team is responsible for
  advancing hose lines, locating and
  extinguishing the fire.
• Basic tools for reaching the fire
  – Prying tools (Halligan Tool)
  – Striking and cutting tools (Flat-head axe)
  – Pushing tool (short pike pole)
  – Hand light

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                                             8
Search and Rescue            (1 of 2)


• Search team carries same tools as interior
 attack team.
  – Pushing tool (Short pike pole)
  – Prying tool (Halligan tool)
  – Striking tool (Sledgehammer or flat-head axe
  – Cutting tool (axe)
  – Hand light


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                                     8
Search and Rescue         (2 of 2)


• In addition, may need
  closet hook, thermal
  imaging camera,
  portable lights, and
  lifelines




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Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC)
• RIC stands ready for immediate assistance to
    lost, trapped, injured fire fighters.
•   Standard interior firefighting tools used by RIC
    plus specialty tools for fire fighter rescue
•   All equipment should be staged for immediate
    use.
•   Special equipment includes thermal imaging
    camera, portable lighting, lifelines, prying tools,
    striking tools, cutting tools, SCBA, and spare air
    cylinders.
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Ventilation        (1 of 2)


• Many tools are the same as for forcible entry.
• Power saws and axes are commonly used.
• Fans are used to remove smoke or introduce
    fresh air.
•   Horizontal ventilation requires opening doors
    and windows.
•   Interior openings may need to be created.



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                              8
Ventilation        (2 of 2)


• Vertical ventilation
    requires openings in
    the roof.
•   Special tools needed
    include positive
    pressure fans,
    exhaust fans, cutting
    tools, and long pike
    poles.

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Overhaul     (1 of 2)


• Examines fire scene to extinguish hidden
  fires
• Burned debris must be removed.
• Accomplished using hand tools
• Pike poles used to pull ceilings and open
  walls
• Axes and saws used to open walls
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                           8
Overhaul       (2 of 2)


• Prying and striking
    tools used to open
    closed spaces
•   Shovels, brooms, and
    rakes used to clear
    debris
•   Thermal imaging used
    to “see” hot spots


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                                                8
Tools Used in Overhaul
•   Pushing tools          • Water-removal
•   Cutting tools              equipment
•   Prying tools           •   Ventilation equipment
•   Striking tools         •   Portable lighting
•   Debris-removal tools   •   Thermal imaging
                               camera




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Tool Staging
• Many departments have SOPs for staging tools
    at scenes.
    – Salvage covers at designated location for layout of
      commonly used tools
    – Saves time and energy
• SOPs specify staged tools and equipment.
• Location may be outside or on convenient
    interior floor of high-rise structure.
•   Apparatus operators may transport tools to/from
    staging area.
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                                                8
Maintenance
• Tools and equipment must be maintained to
    ensure readiness.
•   Use power tools only with proper training.
•   Use equipment only for its intended purpose.
•   Clean tools according to manufacturer.
•   Clean and inspect all hand tools after use.
•   Avoid painting tools.
•   Power equipment should be left in “ready” state.


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                                        8
Hand Tool Maintenance

• Remove all dirt and debris.
• If appropriate, use soap and water.
• Dry tools completely.
• Sharpen cutting tools.
• Inspect for damage.


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                                          8
Power Tool “Readiness”         (1 of 2)


• Remove debris, clean and dry unit.
• Fill with fresh fuel.
• Replace dull/damaged blades/chains.
• Inspect belts.
• Ensure guards are in place.
• Clean and inspect hydraulic hoses.
• Inspect power cords for damage.
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                                           8
Power Tool “Readiness”          (2 of 2)


• Clean, inspect and test all fittings.
• Start to ensure it operates properly.
• Empty tanks on water vacuums.
• Clean and dry tanks, hoses, and nozzles
 on water vacuums.




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Summary          (1 of 2)


• Fire fighters must understand purpose of each
  tool and piece of equipment on apparatus.
  – Tools and equipment used in all fire suppression
    phases
  – Tools and equipment used in smoke, darkness,
    decreased visibility, limited motion
  – Fire fighters must know tool/equipment location.
  – Fire fighters must know safe, effective operation.



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Summary             (2 of 2)

• Most tools/equipment perform one or more
    function(s):
    –   Rotating (assembly/disassembly)
    –   Pushing or pulling
    –   Prying or spreading
    –   Striking or cutting
• Fire fighters should know common tools for each
    phase of fire suppression sequence.
•   Proper maintenance ensures proper operation
    during emergency.
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