Use of different sources
• Make a list of different
sources that could help
you in your research
• Library : books, magazines,
• TV / radio
• CD rom
• Personal experiment or
Example : Questionnaires
• 2 basic types of questions
- open-ended. No set answers to choose from.
This produces mainly qualitative data
- Closed questions / yes-no questions. This
produces mainly quantitative data
• Easy to create and interpret but sometimes
limitations in depth of answers
• Selecting samples may be difficult as well as
• Very good primary source. Could be an
anonymous survey or a structured interview
The difficulty of research
• What is difficult is to
separate facts and
opinions (subjective vs.
What is objective?
• Definition : “When you look at a
topic area from an objective
viewpoint, you are looking at it as
an outsider or "third person". You
are simply reporting what you
• Examples : figures, percentage,
dates, what can be found in a
history book for instance …
Example of an objective text
• The private party room was
about the size of a small
airplane cabin. Roger and Mabel
were dancing together. Rita was
eating a piece of chocolate
éclair that she had cut into three
bites. "This is amazing!" she
said, licking the pudding from
her fingers. A Labrador retriever
was sleeping in the corner.
What is subjective?
• Definition : in a subjective
standpoint the writer
inserts his or her own
opinions on the facts
presented. No longer is
the reader invited to
interpret the scene;
instead, the writer does it
for him or her.
Example of subjective text
• The private party room was
cramped. Although Roger and
Mabel managed to dance with one
another, they looked as if their
steps were uncomfortable and
stilted. Poor Rita had to satisfy
herself by eating. Though she
said, "This is amazing," as she
munched on an éclair, it was
obvious she was being sarcastic.
The party was so boring that the
dog in the corner couldn't even
Selecting and analysing
• The PLUS model
• Research analysis
The PLUS Model
• What do you need to find out?
• Keywords; break down your topic.
• General> specific
• Pose questions
• Brain storm
• Shape your thoughts: lists/bubble or
• Where will you look for information?
Investigate as many sources as you can.
• Books: school and local libraries. Try their
online catalogues. Order material. The
School library catalogue can be viewed by
clicking on the SearchStar icon on the library
• Internet: be specific when you search,
evaluate the Websites that you find; which
Websites give quality, relevant information?
• Newspapers and periodicals
• Issues Online at www.independence.co.uk
username: holmes password: 3551
• National and local organisations
• Be selective. Read actively. Decide whether
what you are reading is really useful for your
topic. Be organised. Keep references.
Structure your work: introduction, main
points with examples, data and analysis,
• Avoid plagiarism.
• Have you found the answer to your
• How effective have you been as a
• Is there anywhere else you could look for
Research : analysis of secondary
Website / Main topic What did you What was
name of learn? useful / not?
• Select key words and
• Select key dates, figures
and their explanation
• Select key quotes (don’t
forget to write down
• Summarise the main
Possible activities - teachers
• Give students a short text /
article from a newspaper
(could be current affairs) and
ask them what the title is. If
they can give a title, it means
they can summarise the key
idea in a few words
• Practise on skimming and
• Practise on reformulating by
giving them a short text that
they need to reformulate