Sustainable Management of Soil and Natural Resources

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					Sustainable Management of Soil and Natural Resources

R. Lal Carbon Management and Sequestration Center The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 USA

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WORLD POPULATION GROWTH
Year 1650 1750 1850 1900 1930 1950 195 1980 1986 1990 1995 2000 2025 (Bartlett, 2004) Population (Billions) 0.550 0.725 1.175 1.60 2.00 2.56 4.00 4.48 5.00 5.33 5.68 6.13 8.18 Growth Rate (%/y) 0.276 0.483 0.617 0.744 1.23 1.78 2.27 1.83 1.60 1.27 1.52 1.15 In 2000s: 70- 80 million people/year

WORLD ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Year 1860 2005 2030 2050 EJ/y 12 463 691 850

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THE ADDICTION OF CARBON CIVILIZATION
1. Global Daily Oil Consumption = 86 million barrels/day
= 18.9 billion L/day 2. Per Capita Oil Consumption = 2.8 L/person/day

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ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY

I. CO2 CONCENTRATION
Year 1750 1950 2008 PPMV 280 315 380 (+2 ppm/y)
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ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY

II. TEMPERATURE INCREASE DURING THE 20TH CENTURY = +0.56 °C

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Global Water Use
Use Drinking Household Wheat Meat Biofuel Amount 2-5 L/person/day 20-500 L/person/day 500-4000 L/kg 5000-15,000 L/kg 1000-3500 L/L

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Water Use in Agriculture
• Global Food crops evaporate = 7,100 km3/y (7,100,000,000,000,000 L) • Irrigation (275 Mha) = 2,650 km3/y (2,650,000,000,000,000 L)

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Bottled Water
U.S. Sales (109 L in 2006)
Item Carbonated Bottled Water Bottled Water Beer Amount 57.2 31.2 24.5

Milk

21.5

Bottled H2O can use up to 20 times more energy than tap water

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GLOBAL FERTILIZER USE
(IFDC, 2004; Tilman et al., 2001)
Area (106 Mg/yr) Year 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2020 2050 N <10 11.6 31.8 60.8 77.2 80.9 135.0 236.0 P 10.9 21.1 31.7 36.3 32.5 47.6 83.7 K 8.7 16.4 24.2 4.5 21.8 Total <10 31.2 73.3 116.7 138.0 135.2

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GLOBAL GRAIN PRODUCTION AND PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION 1950 - 2000
Year 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Production (106 Mg) 631 759 824 905 1079 1237 1430 1647 1769 1713 1840
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Per Capita Consumption (Kg) 267 273 271 270 291 303 321 339 335 301 303

(Kondratyev et al., 2003)

GLOBAL INCRESE IN CROP YIELDS
Year 1960 – 1980 1990s 2000s Increasing Crop Yields (%/y) 4 2 1 (Population 1.2)

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WORLD BIOFUELS IN 2008
• Ethanol: 65 billion L (USA, Brazil) • Biodiesel: 13 million ton (EU)

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WORLD FEEDSTOCK FOR BIOFUELS
• Ethanol: 6% of grains produced • Biodiesel: 9% of vegoil produced

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ETHANOL IN USA
• 2008 = 9 billion gallons • 2009 = 10.5 billon gallons • 2015 = 15 billion gallons

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6 CROPS SUITABLE FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION
Crop Sugarcane Sugar beet Cassava Maize Oil Palm Rapeseed Soybean Fuel Product Ethanol Ethanol Ethanol Ethanol Biodiesel Biodiesel Biodiesel Annual Yield (L/ha) 6000 7000 4000 3500 5500 1200 400 Energy Yield (GJ/ha) 120 140 80 70 193 42 14

(USDA, 2006; FAO, 2006; Marris, 2006)

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SOURCES OF BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK

Traditional Biofuels

Modern Biofuels Ethanol 1. Sugar 2. Starch 3. Cellulose 4. Lignin Biodiesel 1. Vegetable oil 2. Animal fat Gas 1. Plant Biomass 2. Animal Products

1. Wood 2. Crop residues 3. Manure 4. Charcoal

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ENERGY IN BIOMASS
One Mg of Lignocellulosic material = • 280 L of Ethanol • 15 - 18 GJ of Energy • 16 x 106 BTU • 2 Barrels of Diesel • 3 x 106 KCal
(Lal, 2005)
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Economics of Residue Removal for Biofuel CONOMICS OF RESIDUE REMOVAL FOR BIOFU

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THE CARBON PIE
• CO2 Conc. • ∆CO2 = = 450 ppm 450 – 380 = 70 ppm (35y from now by 2045). 4 Gt of C from all emissions 70 X 4 = 300 Gt

• 1 ppm Total C Pie for Humanity

= =

How does one divide the Pie?

“Vasudhaiv Kutumbikam”
“WORLD IS ONE FAMILY”
(Maha Upanishads 6.71)

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HUMANS AND LAND RESOURCES
Humans have converted a third of the land area - almost 3.8 billion hectares - to agriculture and urban or build up areas. Most of the remainder land is unsuitable for agriculture.

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URBANIZATION
• Population Growth = 70-80 million/y • Land needed for basic necessities = 40,000 ha/1 million inhabitants • Therefore, new land under urbanization = 3 Mha/y

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HUMAN APPROPRIATION OF NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY IN 2000
• Total NPP = 65.5 Gt • Human Appropriation = 15.6 Gt (23.8%)
Harvest = 8.18 Productivity Increase = 6.29 Fire = 1.14 Haberl et al. (2007)
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GLOBAL HECTARE PER PERSON
“ The amount of biologically productive land and water area required to produce the resources as individual population or activity consumes and to absorb the waste it generates, given prevailing technology and resource management.”

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THE GLOBAL FOOTPRINT IN 2008
• Actual: 2.7 global hectare/person • Biocapacity of Earth = 2.1 global hectare/person

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SUSTAINABILITY
It means:
• for a long-time, • to maintain, • to cause to continue

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ALBERT BARTLETT LAWS OF SUSTAINABILITY (18 IN TOTAL)
1. Law of Seventy (T2 = 70/R) Population growth and growth in rate of consumption cannot be sustained. 2. The larger the population and larger the rate of consumption of natural resources, the more difficult it is to transform the society to the condition of sustainability. 3. The Carrying capacity and the sustainable average standard of living are inversely related to one another. 4. Starving people don’t care about sustainability. 5. Humans will always be dependant on agriculture.
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LAW #1 CAUSES OF SOIL DEGRADATION

The biophysical process of soil degradation is driven by economic, social and political forces.

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LAW #2 SOIL STEWARDSHIP AND HUMAN SUFFERING

When people are poverty stricken, desperate and starving, they pass on their sufferings to the land.

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Law #3 NUTRIENT, CARBON AND WATER BANK
It is not possible to take more out of a soil than what is put in it without degrading its quality.

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LAW #4 MARGINALITY PRINCIPLE

Marginal soils cultivated with marginal inputs produce marginal yields and support marginal living.

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LAW #5 ORGANIC VERSUS INORGANIC SOURCE OF NUTRIENTS
Plants cannot differentiate the nutrients supplied through inorganic fertilizers or organic amendments.

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LAW #6 SOIL CARBON AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT
Mining C has the same effect on global warming whether it is through mineralization of soil organic matter and extractive farming or burning fossil fuels or draining peat soils.

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LAW #7 SOIL VERSUS GERMPLASM
Even the elite varieties cannot extract water and nutrients from any soil where they do not exist.

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Law #8 Soil As Sink For Atmospheric CO2
Soil are integral to any strategy of mitigating global warming and improving the environment

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Carbon Capture by Photosynthesis
• The capture of CO2 by a field of corn is about 400 times as much C as there is in the annual increment in man made atmospheric C in the entire column of air above the field from the ground to space. • The residence time of C in soils is 25yrs compared with that in the biota of 5yrs • The terrestrial C pool is 4 times as much as the atmospheric pool.

LAW #9 ENGINE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Sustainable management of soils is the engine of economic development, political stability and transformation of rural communities in developing countries.

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Law #10 TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND MODERN INNOVATIONS
• Sustainable management of soil implies the use of modern innovations built upon the traditional knowledge. • Those who refuse to use modern science to address urgent global issues must be prepared to endure more suffering.
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PRODUCTIVITY INCREASE BETWEEN 1900 AND 2000 (PONTING, 2007)
Increase Factor Between 1900-2000 3.8 12.8 35 12.5 300 9 6.8 342 65 1000 7750

Parameter
Population Urban Population Industrial output Energy Use Oil Production Water Use Irrigated Area Fertilizer Use Fish Catch Organic Chemicals Car Ownership

NATURAL CAPITAL
“Like winds and sunsets, wild things were taken for granted until progress began to do away with them. Now we face the question whether a “still higher standard of living” is worth its cost in things…natural wild and free”.

Aldo Leopold (1925)

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