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Sunday Clinic Cancer Screenings

•   Breast Cancer
•   Cervical Cancer
•   Prostate Cancer
•   Liver Cancer & Hepatitis B
•   Colorectal Cancer
VN CARES Screens for 5 Cancers

                  Preventive Screening for prevalent
                  cancers in the community at large
                  helps prolong patients’ lives and
                  empowers them to take further
                  initiative to do the same on their own.
Breast Cancer

   What is Breast cancer?
    –   The development of malignant breast
        tissue in the breasts
    –   More prevalent in women than men
   Why we screen for Breast Cancer:
    –   Breast Cancer is prevalent in 1 out of 8
    –   Because this is so common among all
        women, it is imperative that women check
        their breasts regularly to catch early onset
        of breast cancer or growth of abnormal
Risk Factors

   Women over 50 years old
   Have a family history of breast cancer
   Early menstruation onset (younger than 12 years old)
   Late menopause (after 50 years old)
   Never given birth or have first-born child after the age of 30
   Previously diagnosed with ovarian or cervical cancer
   Overweight and/or obese
   Have a diet high in fats
   Uses alcoholic beverages and/or smokes on a regular basis
   Uses birth control
Symptoms of Breast Cancer
 –   Visible symptoms:
        Changes in the way the breast feels
        Changes in color of the skin and/or
         texture of the skin
        Irregular shape of the nipples. It may
         indent in or doesn’t look circular. The
         skin around it may look scaly.
        A change in the way the breast looks.
         The skin on the breast may dimple or
         looks like an orange peel.
        A change in the size or shape of the
         breast. Indentation or bulging of the
        A clear or bloody fluid that comes out
         of the nipple.
 –   Non-visible symptoms: Lumps
        This is why we teach self-breast

   Clinical Breast Exam: A trained professional feels
    and looks for abnormalities in the breast area.
   Mammogram: X-ray pictures of the breasts; uses to
    find any abnormal growths or tissue formations
   Ultrasound/MRI: Uses the wave-like properties of
    sounds to penetrate and show images of the breast
   Biopsy: A tissue sample is extracted and looked at
    for signs of cancer
   Lab Tests: Looks at hormone levels to check for
    signs of abnormalities

   Surgery (segmental or full mastectomy): removal
    of cancerous tissue
   Radiation Therapy: Uses high energy rays to
    eliminate cancerous cells (rapid growing cells)
   Hormone Therapy: Hormonal treatments to slow
    growth of breast tissue
   Chemotherapy: Uses drugs (chemicals) to eliminate
    cancerous cells
   Targeted Therapy: Blocks growth of breast cancer
    cells (specifically) with drugs
   Treatment(s) may vary with stage of cancer growth

    Maintain a healthy body weight
    Minimize and avoid alcohol usage
    Eat fruits and vegetables
    Exercise regularly
    Eat healthy
    GET regular check-ups!
      – For women ages 18 and up, it is recommended that they
        perform regular self-breast exams every month (when
        not on menstrual period)
      – Annual mammograms are recommended for women 40
        and older
    Cervical Cancer

   What:
     –   The development of malignant tissues in the
         cervix. It is usually caused by the Human
         Papilloma Virus (HPV), contracted through
         sexual intercourse with partners carrying HPV.
   Why be concerned:
     –   It is important to check for cervical cancer
         every year.
     –   Vietnamese women are five times more likely
         to be affected by cervical cancer than any
         other population in the United States
Risk Factors

   Have multiple sexual partners; this increases
    the likelihood of contracting an STD
   Begins sexual activity at an early age
   Have other sexually transmitted diseases
   Have a weak immune system
   Smokes on a regular basis

   Early stages of cervical cancer may show no
   Vaginal bleeding
    –   After intercourse
    –   Between periods
    –   After menopause
   Pain in pelvic area during intercourse

   PAP Smear: tests tissue
    sample from the inside
    of the uterine wall
   HPV DNA test: checks
    for presence of HPV
    DNA in body
   Cone Biopsy: cone
    shaped biopsy of
    cervical cells

   Cone biopsy: removes cancerous tissues
   Laser surgery: uses laser to eliminate cancerous
    and pre-cancerous cells
   Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP):
    uses a wire loop with electric current to remove the
    tumor or cancerous tissues
   Cryosurgery: stops growth of and removes
    cancerous tissues through freezing techniques
   Hysterectomy: removal of uterus and/or cervix
   Radiation
   Chemotherapy

   Avoid smoking
   Get the HPV Vaccination (this will consist of
    3 shots throughout a six month period)
   Practice abstinence or safe sex
   Get a Pap Smear exam every year for
    women 18 and over
    Prostate Cancer

   What:
     –   The development of cancerous tissue in
         the prostate (located under the bladder,
         surrounding the urethra)
   Why it is important to screen:
     –   Prostate Cancer may show no symptoms.
     –   Early detection is the most effective way to
         treat it
Risk Factors

   Male over age 65
   Have a family history of cancer
   Experience changes in the prostate gland
   Genetics
    –   African Americans have higher rates of prostate

   Urinary problems
    –   Not able to pass urine
    –   Have trouble controlling urine flow
    –   Urinates often, especially at night
    –   Pain or burning sensation during urination
   Difficult to maintain/have an erection
   Blood in urine or semen
   Frequent pain in the lower back, hips, or upper

   Digital Rectal Exam: doctor feels for prostate
    abnormalities using finger
   Blood Test for Prostate Specific Antigen(PSA):
    examines blood sample for PSA
   Trans rectal ultrasound: doctor inserts a probe into
    the rectum to develop a picture of the prostate area
   Transrectal biopsy: removal of a small sample from
    the prostate

   Active surveillance:
    –   DOES NOT undergo treatment
    –   Patient under close surveillance to keep track of
        growth and development of the cancer
   Surgery
   Radiation Therapy
   Hormone Therapy
   Chemotherapy

   Eat a balance and healthy diet
   Exercise regularly
   Avoid/cease smoking and alcohol usage
   Get screen for prostate cancer regularly
   Prostate Cancer may be detected early on by two
    –   Digital Rectal Exam: The doctor feels the prostate for any
        abnormal bumps or growth
    –   Prostate Specific Antigen: tests the antigen level in the
        blood for signs of Prostate Cancer
Liver Cancer & Hepatitis B

   What:
    –   Growth of abnormal tissue in the liver
    –   Leading cause of liver cancer is by a viral infection called Hepatitis B
            Causes continuous inflammation of the liver
            If prolonged, will develop into cancer

   Why it is important to get screened:
    –   There is usually no early indication of Hepatitis B
            May pass on to others
            Increase chance of developing liver cancer
Risk Factors

   Infection with Hepatitis B Virus
   Infection with Hepatitis C Virus
   Heavy Alcohol usage
   High Levels of Aflatoxin (in
    peanuts, corn, and other nuts)
   Cirrhosis
   Obesity and diabetes

   Pain in the upper right abdomen
   Lump or feeling of heaviness in the upper abdomen
   Swollen abdomen
   Loss of appetite and constant feeling of fullness
   Weight loss
   Weakness or tiredness
   Nausea or vomiting
   Yellow skin and eyes (jaundice)
   fever

   Physical Exam: The doctor will feel the
    abdomen for any lumps or irregularities
   Blood Tests
   CT scan: X-ray scan
   MRI/Ultrasound
   Biopsy (laproscopic surgery): a small
    incision used to obtain a sample of the liver

   Surgery (hepatectomy): removes infected parts of the
   Ablation: uses various methods to eliminate cancerous
    cells in the liver
   Embolization: involves surgery to block off blood flow
    to cancerous growth in the liver
   Targeted Therapy: uses Sorafenib to slow growth of
   Radiation Therapy: uses radiation to kill rapidly
    growing cells
   Chemotherapy: uses drugs to kill rapidly growing cells

   Avoid smoking
   Decrease alcohol intake
   Get the Hepatitis B vaccine for you and your whole
    family (because Hep B is contagious)
   Practice safe sex
   Eat healthy
   Maintain a healthy body weight
   Exercise regularly
   Get check regularly for Hep B infection
Colorectal Cancer
   What:
     –   Characterized by malignant tumor growth in
         the colon, rectum, or appendix
     –   Typically arises from adenomatous polyps
         (small growths) in the colon
   Why it is important to screen:
    – It is the 4th most common form of
      cancer in the US
    – It is the 3rd leading cause of cancer-
      related death in the western world
Risk Factors

   Individuals over the age of 50
   Have colorectal polyps
   Family history of colorectal cancer
   Personal history of cancer
   Have Crohn’s disease (inflammation of the colon)
   Poor dieting; diets high in fats and low in fiber,
    calcium, and folate
   Smokes

   Diarrhea or constipation
   Feeling that your bowel is not empty
   Blood in stool
   Stools narrower than usual
   Pains associated with gas
   Weight loss with no known reasons
   Constant fatigue
   Nausea or vomiting

   Physical exam
   Blood Tests
     – Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT)
         Finds blood in the stool
         Checks for intestinal
           abnormalities or colorectal
   Colonoscopy
         Lesions may be detected and
         Start at age 50 and repeat
           every 5 to 10 years

   Surgery
     – Colonoscopy: removal of polyps
     – Laparoscopy: removal of growth through tubules
     – Open surgery: removal of tumor with surgery
   Chemotherapy
   Biological therapy: use of antibodies to hinder
    cancerous cell growth
   Radiation therapy

   Get screened early and get checked out if
    you show any of the “signs”
   Eat a well balanced diet
   Maintain a healthy body weight
   Keep up an active lifestyle
   Don’t smoke

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