Unit 2 PPT Observation Inference Scientific Method

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Unit 2 PPT Observation Inference Scientific Method Powered By Docstoc
					 OBSERVATION


Information we gather
 by using our senses
(see, hear, smell, touch, taste)
    A WORD OF CAUTION
   Although we may use all 5 senses to make
    observations, you must NEVER taste or
    smell unknown materials in science class!!

   Unless the teacher specifically tells you to
    taste or to smell something, DON’T DO IT!

   Safety is our first and most important
    concern in science lab!
PROPERTY or ATTRIBUTE
   A characteristic that distinguishes
    one substance from another

   Examples: color, size, shape,
    weight, odor, taste, texture, sound

   Observations should include as
    many attributes or properties as
    possible
 TWO KINDS OF OBSERVATIONS

1.   Quantitative – Observations that
     involve numbers or measurements
     *Remember: N= Number

     Examples:2 meters
              4 desks
              10 people
TWO KINDS OF OBSERVATIONS
2.   Qualitative – Observations that
     do NOT involve numbers or
     measurements.

     Examples: red
               smooth
               shiny
               salty
               loud
INFERENCE

A statement that explains or
      makes sense of an
        observation
PREDICTION

   The outcome (or result) you expect
    to take place in the future
HYPOTHESIS

o   A prediction that can be tested by
    an experiment

o   3 Parts:
      1. Cause
      2. Effect
      3. Testable
Hypothesis

   Cause = The ONE thing (variable)
    that is changed in an experiment

   Effect = The results, the outcome,
    what happened in the experiment

   Testable = Can be tested
Writing a Hypothesis

   Write a hypothesis as an IF….,
    Then…. statement
   If = Cause
   Then = Effect

   Example: If I cool water to 0
    degrees Celsius, then the water will
    freeze.
Identify the cause and the effect

1.   The higher the temperature of the
     water, the faster the eggs will
     cook.
2.   People who drink fluoridated water
     will have less tooth decay than
     those who don’t
3.   Refrigeration will slow the growth
     of mold on bread.
Identify the Cause and the Effect
4.   Talking to plants will make them
     grow taller.
5.   When soil is wet, it weighs less
     than when it is dry.
6.   Putting a metal object in the outlet
     will shock you.
7.   If you put wet clothes in your
     clothes hamper and leave them
     there until laundry day, mold will
     grow on them.
Writing a Hypothesis- If… Then…
1.   If the temperature of the water is
     higher, then the eggs will cook
     faster.
2.   If people drink fluoridated water,
     then they will have less tooth
     decay than those who don’t.
3.   If bread is refrigerated, then the
     refrigeration will slow the growth
     of mold on the bread.
Writing a Hypothesis- If… Then…
4.   If you talk to plants, then the plants
     will grow taller.
5.   If soil is wet, then it will weigh less
     than soil that is dry.
6.   If you put a metal object in the
     outlet, then it will shock you.
7.   If you put wet clothes in your
     clothes hamper and leave them
     there until laundry day, then mold
     will grow on them.
Controlled Experiment

   An experiment where only one
    variable is changed.

   All other variables are controlled, or
    kept the same.

   Only CONTROLLED experiments are
    FAIR and RELIABLE!!!
VARIABLE

   A factor that can affect the outcome
    of an experiment

   It is IMPORTANT to keep all but
    ONE of the variables the same in
    different trials of the experiment
The Control

   The part of the experiment that
    does NOT receive the change to the
    variable.

   At the end of an experiment, we
    compare our results to the
    CONTROL to see the change more
    clearly
SCIENTIFIC METHOD

   A way of thinking about nature that
    involves the use of certain skills to
    solve problems in an orderly
    manner.

   SOLVE PROBLEMS – ORDERLY
    MANNER
7 Step Scientific Method
1.   Ask a question/define problem
2.   Gather background information
3.   Form a hypothesis
4.   Test hypothesis w/an experiment
5.   Make observations and record data
     (take notes)
6.   Analyze data
7.   Draw a conclusion
Define The Problem

   State the problem as a CLEARLY
    worded QUESTION
Gather Background Information

   Collect any information related to
    the question you are trying to
    answer.

   Make as many qualitative and
    quantitative observations as you
    can before the experiment!!!
Form the HYPOTHESIS

   Write the BEST POSSIBLE answer
    that you can think of to the
    question.
   Be sure to include a CAUSE and an
    EFFECT!!!!
   Write it as an If… Then… Statement.
   Remember, you have to be able to
    test your hypothesis!!
Test the Hypothesis
   Perform an experiment designed to
    test your answer to the investigative
    question

   When performing an experiment…
       Make certain that you and those in your
        group are being accurate in what you
        observe and measure.

       If something does not make sense with
        the other data, then RETEST the
        conflicting data!
Make Observations
   During the experiment, make as
    many qualitative and quantitative
    observations as you can!!

   Remember to:
       Make sure to pay attention to any
        changes that occur during the
        experiment.
       Make sure your measurements are
        always as accurate as possible.
Analyze Data

   When studying your data from an
    experiment, be sure to look for
    relationships.

   Ask yourself these questions:
       Is there a relationship?
       Is there a pattern?
Draw Conclusions
   After analyzing the data, summarize
    the results of the experiment.

   The conclusion should answer the
    investigative question.

   Example:
     Question-Which ball will bounce the
              highest?
     Conclusion-The golf ball bounced the
                highest.
Communicate Results
   When sharing the results of an
    experiment, be clear and concise in
    the information your group presents
    to the class.

   Share the relationships or lack of
    relationships (anomalies) that are
    found in the results of the
    experiment.

				
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