# Unit 2 PPT Observation Inference Scientific Method

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```					 OBSERVATION

Information we gather
by using our senses
(see, hear, smell, touch, taste)
A WORD OF CAUTION
   Although we may use all 5 senses to make
observations, you must NEVER taste or
smell unknown materials in science class!!

   Unless the teacher specifically tells you to
taste or to smell something, DON’T DO IT!

   Safety is our first and most important
concern in science lab!
PROPERTY or ATTRIBUTE
   A characteristic that distinguishes
one substance from another

   Examples: color, size, shape,
weight, odor, taste, texture, sound

   Observations should include as
many attributes or properties as
possible
TWO KINDS OF OBSERVATIONS

1.   Quantitative – Observations that
involve numbers or measurements
*Remember: N= Number

Examples:2 meters
4 desks
10 people
TWO KINDS OF OBSERVATIONS
2.   Qualitative – Observations that
do NOT involve numbers or
measurements.

Examples: red
smooth
shiny
salty
loud
INFERENCE

A statement that explains or
makes sense of an
observation
PREDICTION

   The outcome (or result) you expect
to take place in the future
HYPOTHESIS

o   A prediction that can be tested by
an experiment

o   3 Parts:
1. Cause
2. Effect
3. Testable
Hypothesis

   Cause = The ONE thing (variable)
that is changed in an experiment

   Effect = The results, the outcome,
what happened in the experiment

   Testable = Can be tested
Writing a Hypothesis

   Write a hypothesis as an IF….,
Then…. statement
   If = Cause
   Then = Effect

   Example: If I cool water to 0
degrees Celsius, then the water will
freeze.
Identify the cause and the effect

1.   The higher the temperature of the
water, the faster the eggs will
cook.
2.   People who drink fluoridated water
will have less tooth decay than
those who don’t
3.   Refrigeration will slow the growth
Identify the Cause and the Effect
4.   Talking to plants will make them
grow taller.
5.   When soil is wet, it weighs less
than when it is dry.
6.   Putting a metal object in the outlet
will shock you.
7.   If you put wet clothes in your
clothes hamper and leave them
there until laundry day, mold will
grow on them.
Writing a Hypothesis- If… Then…
1.   If the temperature of the water is
higher, then the eggs will cook
faster.
2.   If people drink fluoridated water,
then they will have less tooth
decay than those who don’t.
3.   If bread is refrigerated, then the
refrigeration will slow the growth
Writing a Hypothesis- If… Then…
4.   If you talk to plants, then the plants
will grow taller.
5.   If soil is wet, then it will weigh less
than soil that is dry.
6.   If you put a metal object in the
outlet, then it will shock you.
7.   If you put wet clothes in your
clothes hamper and leave them
there until laundry day, then mold
will grow on them.
Controlled Experiment

   An experiment where only one
variable is changed.

   All other variables are controlled, or
kept the same.

   Only CONTROLLED experiments are
FAIR and RELIABLE!!!
VARIABLE

   A factor that can affect the outcome
of an experiment

   It is IMPORTANT to keep all but
ONE of the variables the same in
different trials of the experiment
The Control

   The part of the experiment that
does NOT receive the change to the
variable.

   At the end of an experiment, we
compare our results to the
CONTROL to see the change more
clearly
SCIENTIFIC METHOD

   A way of thinking about nature that
involves the use of certain skills to
solve problems in an orderly
manner.

   SOLVE PROBLEMS – ORDERLY
MANNER
7 Step Scientific Method
2.   Gather background information
3.   Form a hypothesis
4.   Test hypothesis w/an experiment
5.   Make observations and record data
(take notes)
6.   Analyze data
7.   Draw a conclusion
Define The Problem

   State the problem as a CLEARLY
worded QUESTION
Gather Background Information

   Collect any information related to
the question you are trying to

   Make as many qualitative and
quantitative observations as you
can before the experiment!!!
Form the HYPOTHESIS

   Write the BEST POSSIBLE answer
that you can think of to the
question.
   Be sure to include a CAUSE and an
EFFECT!!!!
   Write it as an If… Then… Statement.
   Remember, you have to be able to
Test the Hypothesis
   Perform an experiment designed to
question

   When performing an experiment…
   Make certain that you and those in your
group are being accurate in what you
observe and measure.

   If something does not make sense with
the other data, then RETEST the
conflicting data!
Make Observations
   During the experiment, make as
many qualitative and quantitative
observations as you can!!

   Remember to:
   Make sure to pay attention to any
changes that occur during the
experiment.
   Make sure your measurements are
always as accurate as possible.
Analyze Data

   When studying your data from an
experiment, be sure to look for
relationships.

   Is there a relationship?
   Is there a pattern?
Draw Conclusions
   After analyzing the data, summarize
the results of the experiment.

   The conclusion should answer the
investigative question.

   Example:
Question-Which ball will bounce the
highest?
Conclusion-The golf ball bounced the
highest.
Communicate Results
   When sharing the results of an
experiment, be clear and concise in
to the class.

   Share the relationships or lack of
relationships (anomalies) that are
found in the results of the
experiment.

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