Boyd PPT ch6 F by 4tgqWO

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									                   Chapter 6:
Social and Personality Development
                          in Infancy
In This Chapter
   Theories of Social and Personality
             Development
 Psychoanalytic Perspectives: Freud and Erikson

Freud: psychosexual          Erikson: psychosocial
   stage related to infant       stage in which
   attempts at needs             attending to infant
   satisfaction                  needs and social
    Oral stage                  development important
    Mother-child                Trust versus
       symbiotic                     mistrust
       relationship              Relationship goes
    Nursing; fixation               beyond feeding
                Attachment
   The Parent’s Attachment to the Infant


Synchrony: Opportunity for parent-infant
  development of mutual, interlocking pattern
  of attachment behaviors
 Takes practice to develop
 Provides developmental benefits
   Theories of Social and Personality
             Development
   Ethological Perspectives: John Bowlby

Attachment: Emotional bond in which a
   person’s sense of security is bound up in the
   relationship
 Strong emotional bond-making is innate
 Bonds maintained by instinctive behaviors
   that create and sustain proximity
                Attachment
    The Parent’s Attachment to the Infant

Mother’s bond with infant
 Bond dependent on synchrony
 Mothers provide more routine caregiving
  than fathers.
 After first few weeks, mothers talk to and
  smile more at baby.
                Attachment
    The Parent’s Attachment to the Infant

Father’s bond with infant
 The relationship depends on synchrony.
 Fathers have same repertoire as mothers.
 After first few weeks, fathers begin to spend
   more time playing with baby.
               Attachment
   The Infant’s Attachment to the Parents

Characteristics of attachment
 Safe haven
 Secure base
 Proximity maintenance
 Separation distress

   Now let’s look at how several theorists
         operationalize this construct.
               Attachment
  The Infant’s Attachment to the Parents

Establishing attachment: Bowlby’s 4 phases
   Nonfocused orienting and signaling
     (0–3 months)
   Focus on one or more figures
     (3–6 months)
   Secure base behavior (6–24 months)
   Internal model (24 months and beyond)
               Attachment
  The Infant’s Attachment to the Parents

Establishing attachment: Bowlby’s 4 phases

How would you recognize each of Bowlby’s
                 phases?
 What behaviors would you expect to see?
               Attachment
   The Infant’s Attachment to the Parents

Attachment behaviors
               Attachment
     Secure and Insecure Attachments

Mary Ainsworth
Protocol: The Strange Situation
Attachment styles:
 Secure attachment
 Insecure/avoidant attachment
 Insecure/ambivalent attachment
 Insecure/disorganized attachment
                Attachment
       Stability of Attachment Quality

Attachment stability
 Dependent on consistency of child’s life
   circumstances
 Influenced by major upheavals
 Internal models elaborated from year 1 until
   the age of 4 or 5
                 Attachment
 Caregiver Characteristics and Attachment

Caregivers and attachment
Several characteristics influence the attachment
  process:
   Emotional availability
   Contingent responsiveness
              Attachment
     Secure and Insecure Attachments

Insecure attachments

   Insecure/avoidant attachment

   Insecure/ambivalent attachment

   Insecure/disorganized attachment
               Attachment
 Caregiver Characteristics and Attachment

Other caregiver characteristics influencing
   secure attachment
   Marital status
   Education
   Age
   SES
   Mental health
         Questions To Ponder

What kind of attachment do you have with your
  parents? Has it changed since you were a
  child, or does it reflect the type of
  attachment you had when you were
  younger?

What factors will influence your choice of
  childcare if the one or both parents decide to
  work? What would be best for your child?
                 Attachment
       Attachment Quality: Long Term
              Consequences
The securely attached:
   More sociable
   More positive in relationships with friends
   Less clingy and dependent on teachers
   Less aggressive and disruptive
   More emotionally mature

Continues into adolescence
   More likely to be leaders
   Have higher self-esteem
                 Attachment
       Attachment Quality: Long-Term
              Consequences

Attachment quality and consequences
    Increased sociability throughout early,
     middle, and late adulthood
    Influence on parenting behaviors
    Foundation for future social relationships
Figure 6.1 Cross-Cultural Comparisons of
          Attachment Categories
     Personality, Temperament, and
             Self-Concept
                 Definitions
Personality: Stable patterns in how people
   relate to those around them

Temperament: Basic behavioral and emotional
  predispositions
    Personality, Temperament, and
            Self-Concept
       Dimensions of Temperament

Dimensions of temperament: How are these
   theorist alike? Different?
   Thomas and Chess
   Buss and Plomin

How might results differ when temperament
      is viewed as a trait rather than a
                 category?
    Personality, Temperament, and
            Self-Concept
   Origins and Stability of Temperament

Heredity
   Identical twins more alike in temperament
     than fraternal twins

Long-term Stability
   Stable across long periods of time
     Personality, Temperament, and
             Self-Concept
           Neurological Processes
Heredity
   Basic differences in behaviors related to
     underlying neurological processes
   Neurotransmitters regulate brain
     responses to new information and
     unusual situations.
   Still difficult to demonstrate conclusively
     that neurological differences are cause or
     effect
     Personality, Temperament, and
             Self-Concept
    Origins and Stability of Temperament
Environment
Sandra Scarr
   Niche-picking
Thomas and Chess
   Goodness of fit

Synchronous relationships
 Parental influence with children at
  temperamental extremes
Personality, Temperament, and
        Self-Concept
Understanding Infant Sense of Self


             Subjective
                Self



      Emotional      Objective
        Self           Self
             Stop and Think!

During the same months in which infants are
   developing an internal model of attachment
   and exploring their own unique
   temperament, they are also developing a
   unique sense of self.

    What implication does this have for
          parents and caregivers?
      Personality, Temperament, and Self-
                    Concept

Self-concept                   Self-concept
The subjective self            The objective self
      Awareness by the             Toddler comes to
       child that he is              understand he is
       separate from others          an object in the
       and endures over time         world.
      Appears by 8–12              The self has
       months at the same            properties, such as
       time as object                gender.
       permanence
 Personality, Temperament, and Self-
               Concept
          Studying Self-Awareness

Rouge test (Lewis and Brooks)
 Children at 21 months show self-recognition
  in a mirror.

   What does this tell us about children’s
     development? How do you know?
Figure 6.2: The Rouge Test
  Personality, Temperament, and Self-
                Concept
              The Emotional Self

 First, babies learn to identify changes in
  emotional expression.

 Gradually they learn to “read” and respond
  to facial expressions.

 With age and experience, infants learn to
  interpret emotional perceptions of others to
  anticipate actions and guide own behavior.
          True or False?




Nonparental, quality care is beneficial
            for all children.
       Effects of Nonparental Care
                   Overview

   Arrangements vary considerably.
   Time in care varies.
   Some children in multiple care settings
   Younger children less likely to receive
    nonparental care
Figure 6.3 Nonparental Care Arrangements for
         Children under 6 in the U.S.
       Effects of Nonparental Care
     Effects on Cognitive Development

 High-quality daycare has beneficial effects,
  especially for children from poor families.

 Later scores in reading and math related to
  daycare entry age and poverty
      Effects of Nonparental Care
       Effects on Social Development

 Infant daycare has negative effects on
  attachment if started under 1 year.

 Parents whose behaviors are associated
  with insecure attachment have children who
  are negatively affected by early daycare.

 Early day care associated with greater risks
  for social problems in school-age children
      Effects of Nonparental Care
            Research Challenges


 Complex interaction among numerous
  variables in all care types
 Nonparental care varies in quality and
  structure.
 Maternal attitudes toward care arrangement
  vary.
 Multiple care settings difficult to separate
       Effects of Nonparental Care
            What’s Responsible?

 Nonparental care may induce child stress,
  causing higher levels of cortisol.

 Variations in ways stress-induced related to
  child age and temperament

 Individual and gender differences interact
  with nonparental care.

								
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