Instrument Academic Refresher

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					Instrument Academic Refresher
    1-212 Aviation Regiment
        UH60 IPC/MOI
      Instrument Academic Refresher

• Why?

• Less than desired proficiency among
  many US Army aviators

• Not our primary mission, but an essential
  skill nonetheless, especially in IIMC
  procedures
       Instrument Academic Refresher


• The intent of this training:

• A basic review of the major concepts of
  IFR planning and flying

• Sustain essential skills to be continually
  trained and kept in the aviators “flying
  kitbag”
       Instrument Academic Refresher



• The three tenets of our approach to this
  training plan:

• Plan it
• File it
• Fly it
        Instrument Academic Refresher



• References: (items needed for training)

•   TC 1-212
•   FM 1-240
•   DOD FLIP
•   Aeronautical Information Manual
              PLANNING


• Lets begin by looking at the IFR planning
  process
                 PLANNING

• A macro look at the IFR mission begins the
  process where you start to gather information

           destination of mission
           pax/equipment loads
           weather
           availability of IFR routing and approaches
           aircraft equipment limitations
           NOTAMs
           flight plan filing locations or availability
               Scenario

• Transport DART to Marianna Airport from
  Cairns AAF at 1200Z
• 4 passengers
• 4 toolboxes, 70 lbs each
• 4 personal bags, 50 lbs each
• If needed, vehicle transportation is
  available at Dothan Airport
                   PLANNING
               Can’t we just go VFR?

• AR 95-1 is specific on this-

• All Army aircraft that are instrumented for IFR flight and
  are flown by an instrument rated pilot will operate on IFR
  flight plans except when—

  (a) Flight is primarily for VFR training
  (b) Time will not permit mission completion under IFR
                 PLANNING

(c) Mission can only be accomplished under VFR

(d) Excessive air traffic control (ATC) departure, en
route, or terminal area delays are encountered

(e) Hazardous weather conditions must be avoided

(f) Requirements of paragraph 4-24b are not met
              PLANNING


• A Checklist for Success – Appendix B of
  FM 1-240 (supplemented by TC 1-212,
  Task 1002, Plan an IFR Flight)
             IFR Planning

• Lets begin…

• Once we gathered all mission data, let’s
  start by getting preliminary weather
  information

• Where do we obtain our weather data?
                 Weather Briefing

• Priority should be given to military weather forecasters
  via the responsible Operational Weather Squadron
  (OWS) for your area (FIH, Section C lists these OWS
  facilities)

• Outlook briefings can also be obtained from the nearest
  Flight Service Station (FSS) by calling 1-800-WXBRIEF.
  (Flights over 6 hours away can begin obtaining planning
  weather by telling the briefer you need an “Outlook
  Briefing.”) FAA weather may also used for weather
  information if military weather forecasters are not
  available
               Weather Briefing


• Local commanders will establish policies
  specifying when DD Form 175-1 (Flight Weather
  Briefing) is required to be filed with DD Form 175
  (Military Flight Plan)
• Weather information for the DD Form 175-1 will
  be obtained from a military weather facility. If a
  military forecaster is not available, the PC will
  obtain a weather forecast per DOD FLIP
                 Weather Briefing

• Automated or computer based systems may be used to
  obtain weather information if the system is approved by
  USAASA and the commander establishes a program to
  ensure aviators are thoroughly familiar with the system in
  use
• For all IFR and VFR cross country flights, the weather
  forecast will be void 1 hour and 30 minutes from the time
  the forecast is received provided the aircraft has not
  departed
• Weather forecast may be extended after coordination
  with a weather facility. The crew should update weather
  briefing information on stopover flights
         Evaluate the Aircrew

• RL status
• Medical status (DA 4186)
• Currency per AR 95-1, para 4-18. Two aviators
  current in the aircraft category being flown are
  required for flights in forecast instrument
  meteorological conditions (IMC). Flight trainees
  meet this requirement when undergoing
  instrument training and an IP or IE current in the
  mission, type, design, and series aircraft being
  flown is at one set of controls
          Evaluate The Aircraft

• Equipment
  status IAW Table
  5-2, AR 95-1,
  and your
  aircrafts logbook
  status
            FLIP Research


• First, a review of DOD FLIP products
  available to assist you in your planning
  (reference GP, Chapter 3)

  – NOTE: All DOD FLIP is now available online
    at www.nga.mil
          General Planning (GP)

• Published every 32 weeks

• This publication contains
  general information on all
  Flight Information
  Publications, terms,
  explanation of the divisions
  of United States Airspace,
  Flight Plans and Codes,
  common worldwide pilot
  procedures, ICAO
  procedures, Operations and
  Firings over the High Seas
  and Aviation Weather Codes
       AREA PLANNING (AP/1, 2, 3 and 4)



• AP/1, 2, and 3 are
  published every 24
  weeks

• These documents
  contain planning and
  procedure information
  for a specific region or
  geographic area
         AREA PLANNING (AP/1A, 2A, 3A and 4A)
              (SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE)


• Published every 48
  weeks

• These documents contain
  all Prohibited, Restricted,
  Danger, Warning and
  Alert Areas listed by
  country. Military
  Operations and known
  Parachute Jumping Areas
  are also listed
         AREA PLANNING (AP/1B)
      (MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES)

• Published every 8
  weeks. It contains
  information relative to
  military routes,
  including IFR Military
  Training Routes (IR),
  VFR Military Training
  Routes (VR), and
  other types of military
  routes
             FLIGHT INFORMATION
                 HANDBOOK
•   This handbook contains
    aeronautical information required
    by DoD aircrews in flight, but
    which is not subject to frequent
    change

•   Sections include information on:
     – Emergency Procedures
     – FLIP and NOTAM
       Abbreviation/Codes
     – National and International
       Flight Data and Procedures
     – Meteorological Information
     – Conversion Tables
     – Standard Time Signals

•   Publication cycle is every 32
    weeks.
       ENROUTE AND TERMINAL
           PUBLICATIONS
• These publications are designed to provide radio
  navigation, departure, airway structure, letdown,
  approach and landing information for use during
  the in-flight phase of IFR Operations

• The publications are updated by Notices to
  Airmen (NOTAMs), Enroute Change Notices
  (ECNs) or Terminal Change Notices (TCNs) on
  an issue basis, or by Urgent Change Notices
  (UCNs) as required
     ENROUTE LOW ALTITUDE
           CHARTS
• These charts portray the airway system and
  related data required for IFR Operations at
  altitudes below 18,000 feet MSL
• Twenty-six variable scale charts are printed on
  thirteen sheets, L-1 through L-26, covering the
  entire United States
• An additional sheet, Charts L-27 and L-28
  duplicating data shown on L-20, L-22, L-24 and
  L-25, is available for those who frequently plan
  flights North and South along the East Coast
  within the area of coverage. Publication cycle is
  every 8 weeks
ENROUTE LOW ALTITUDE
      CHARTS
ENROUTE LOW ALTITUDE
      CHARTS
      ENROUTE IFR SUPPLEMENT

• This supplement contains an alphabetical
  IFR Airport/Facility Directory, Special
  Notices and Procedures required to
  support the Enroute and Area Charts.
  Publication cycle is every 8 weeks
• Additionally, in some cases the Airport
  Facility Directory may be your only source
  of information
ENROUTE IFR SUPPLEMENT
      ENROUTE VFR SUPPLEMENT




• This supplement contains an alphabetical
  listing of selected VFR airports with
  sketches. Publication cycle is every 24
  weeks
ENROUTE VFR SUPPLEMENT
       TERMINAL HIGH LOW ALTITUDE

• Twenty-five bound booklets contain:

  – Instrument Approach Procedures
  – Airport Diagrams
  – Standard Instrument Departures and Radar
    Instrument Approach Minimums
  – The set contains all DoD terminal instrument
    procedures and civil terminal instrument
    procedures requested by the military
TERMINAL HIGH LOW ALTITUDE
VFR SECTIONAL
VFR SECTIONAL
              NOTAMS
• NOTAM information for DoD aircrews is
  obtained using the DoD Internet NOTAM
  Distribution System (DINS)



     https://www.notams.jcs.mil/
               NOTAMS
• The primary DINS system NOTAM Web
  page incorporates many features to assist
  the user when retrieving NOTAM requests

• Real time NOTAM data is available, and
  contains all NOTAMs validated by the U.S.
  NOTAM System (USNS), which includes
  domestic, international, military and from
  Flight Data Centers (FDC)
                 NOTAMS
• Aircrews using DINS will not need to consult
  FLIP to determine if a location has NOTAM
  support. DINS will provide a plain language
  notice, highlighted in red, when a requested
  location is not in the U.S. NOTAM System

• ALTERNATE LOCATION – Use
  www.notams.faa.gov to retrieve NOTAMs
  should the primary DINS server be out of service
                    NOTAMS
• If a proposed flight will terminate at a civil airport,
  aircrews should obtain/review all Federal
  Aviation Administration “D” and “L” series
  NOTAMs including those contained in the
  “NOTICES TO AIRMEN” publication (NTAP)

• Flight Service Station briefers will not provide
  NOTAMs from the NTAP unless specifically
  requested
                NOTAMS

• "L" Series: These "Local" NOTAMs must
  be obtained from the Flight Service Station
  (FSS) which serves the destination airport

• Obtain the commercial phone number for
  the destination Flight Service Station from
  the FLIP civil Airport/Facility Directory, or
  any Flight Service Station
              NOTAMS

• "D" Series: These "Distance" NOTAMs,
  which are similar to the DoD NOTAM, may
  be obtained from any Flight Service
  Station
• This type civil NOTAM is included in the
  DINS for those locations covered by the
  DoD
                NOTAMS
• "NOTICES TO AIRMEN": This publication
  is issued every 28 days. Data in this
  publication which is current on the
  effective date of the next Airport/Facility
  Directory (AFD) will be transferred to the
  AFD and removed from this publication.
  The NTAP is available on line at

          http://www.faa.gov/NTAP
Notice to Airman Publication
ROUTE PLANNING
               Departure Airfield




   How can we safely
    takeoff from the
    departure airfield?
          Departure Airfield

• Diverse Departure:

• If the airport has at least one instrument
  approach procedure (IAP), and there are
  no published IFR departure procedures
  then an aircraft departing under IFR can
  ensure obstacle clearance by executing a
  “diverse departure”
            Departure Airfield
• ATC will not specifically clear an aircraft for a
  diverse departure; the clearance may simply be
  cleared as filed
• In order to fly a diverse departure, fly runway
  heading until 400 feet above the field elevation
  before executing any turns while maintaining a
  minimum climb gradient of 200 feet per nautical
  mile (unless a higher gradient is published) until
  reaching a minimum IFR altitude
          Departure Airfield

• For heliports and helipads, instrument
  departure obstacle clearance is based on
  helicopters climbing 352’ per nautical mile
  and climbing to 400 feet above takeoff
  area elevation before turning
Diverse Departure Airfield
          Departure Airfield
• SIDs or DPs
• Non standard take off minima
• Most important: Be sure you can comply
  with any takeoff minima and you know
  what climb rate you can achieve by use of
  the Climb/Descent chart in your operator’s
  manual
           Route Selection

• Always include hazardous weather
  information in your decisions regarding
  enroute selection

• 2 methods of selecting routing:
  – Published routing
  – Direct routing
           Route Selection

• Published Routing- using routing as
  published from DOD FLIP, this method
  may be used to insure terrain and obstacle
  clearance plus navaid reception, but may
  lead to a much longer route of flight
Published Routing
            Route Selection
• Direct routing per FAR 91.177. If this method is
  used, adhere to the following:
• Determine the course to be flown; mark 4 nm on
  each side of the route on a VFR sectional to
  include start and end points
• Obstacle clearance per FARs (1000 non
  mountainous/2000 mountainous) (FAR 91.177)
• Our only reference to determine mountainous or
  nonmountainous terrain is now the AIM, Figure
  5-6-2
Route Selection
          Route Selection

• Check to make sure that the route does
  not penetrate any Special Use Airspace



• TYPES OF SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE:
       Special Use Airspace


• (1) ALERT AREA - Airspace which may
  contain a high volume of pilot training
  activities or an unusual type of aerial
  activity neither of which is hazardous to
  aircraft
ALERT AREA
       Special Use Airspace

• (2) CONTROLLED FIRING AREA -
  Airspace wherein activities are conducted
  under conditions so controlled as to
  eliminate hazards to nonparticipating
  aircraft and to ensure the safety of
  persons and property on the ground
        Special Use Airspace
• (3) MILITARY OPERATIONS AREA
  (MOA) - A MOA is airspace established
  outside of Class A airspace area to
  separate or segregate certain non
  hazardous military activities from IFR
  traffic and to identify for VFR traffic where
  these activities are conducted
MOA
        Special Use Airspace

• (4) PROHIBITED AREA - Designated
  airspace within which the flight of aircraft is
  prohibited
PROHIBITED AREA
        Special Use Airspace
• (5) RESTRICTED AREA - Airspace
  designated under Federal Air Regulations,
  Part 73, within which the flight of aircraft,
  while not wholly prohibited, is subject to
  restriction.Most restricted areas are
  designated joint use and IFR/VFR
  operations in the area may be authorized
  by the controlling Air Traffic Control facility
  when it is not being utilized by the using
  agency
RESTRICTED AREA
       Special Use Airspace

• (6) WARNING AREA - Airspace which
  may contain hazards to nonparticipating
  aircraft in international airspace
WARNING AREA
             Route Selection
• Consider navaid reception per the IFR
  Supplement, to include no reception areas
• Examples include:
  Nondirectional Radio Beacon (NDB)
  – MH - Non-directional radio beacon, power less than
    50 watts (25 NM)
  – H - Non-directional radio beacon, power 50 watts to
    less than 2000 watts (50 NM)
  – HH - Non-directional radio beacon, power 2000 watts
    or more (75 NM)
           Route Planning
• VOR, VOR-DME, VORTAC, TACAN
 – HA - Normal anticipated interference-free
   service below 14,500’ AGL - 40 NM; 14,500’ -
   60,000’ AGL 100 NM (contiguous 48 states
   only); 18,000’ - 45,000’ AGL 130 NM
 – L - Normal anticipated interference-free
   service 40 NM up to 18,000’ AGL
 – T - Normal anticipated interference-free
   service 25 NM up to 12,000’ AGL
           Route Planning
• Now lets review some of the enroute terms
  and descriptions:
  – MCA
  – MEA
  – MIA
  – MOCA
  – MVA
  – MRA
               Enroute Terms
MINIMUM CROSSING ALTITUDE/MCA
  – The lowest altitude at certain fixes at which an aircraft
    must cross when proceeding in the direction of a
    higher Minimum Enroute Instrument Flight Rules
    Altitude (MEA)

MINIMUM ENROUTE IFR ALTITUDE/MEA
  – The lowest published altitude between radio fixes
    which assures acceptable navigational signal
    coverage and meets obstacle clearance requirements
    between those fixes
                Enroute Terms
MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDES/MIA

• Minimum altitude for Instrument Flight Rules operations
  as prescribed in Federal Air Regulations Part 91. The
  following minimum IFR altitude applies:

   – (1) In mountainous areas, 2000 feet above the
     highest obstacle within a horizontal distance of 5
     statue miles from the course to be flown; or

   – (2) Other than mountainous areas, 1000 feet above
     the highest obstacle within a horizontal distance of 5
     statue miles from the course to be flown
              Enroute Terms

MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE ALTITUDE/
  MOCA

  – The lowest published altitude in effect between radio
    fixes on VOR airways, off-airway routes, or route
    segments which meets obstacle clearance
    requirements for the entire route segment and which
    assures acceptable navigation signal coverage only
    within 25 statue miles (22 nautical miles) of a VOR
                 Enroute Terms
MINIMUM VECTORING ALTITUDE/MVA

  – The lowest mean sea level altitude at which an IFR aircraft will
    be vectored by a radar controller
  – The altitude meets Instrument Flight Rules obstacle clearance
    criteria. It may be lower than the published Minimum Enroute
    Altitude along an airway or J-route segment
  – It may be utilized for radar vectoring only upon the controllers'
    determination that an adequate radar return is being received
    from the aircraft being controlled
  – Charts depicting minimum vectoring altitudes are normally
    available only to the controllers and not to pilots
              Enroute Terms
MINIMUM RECEPTION ALTITUDE/MRA



  – The lowest altitude at which an intersection can be
    determined
               Enroute Terms

CHANGEOVER Points

  – The COP is located midway between the navigation
    facility for straight route segments, or at the
    intersection of radials or courses forming a dog leg in
    the case of dog leg route segments

  – When the COP is not located at the midway point,
    aeronautical charts will depict the COP location and
    give the mileage to the radio aids
          IFR Cruising Rules

• IFR cruising altitudes become only mandatory in
  uncontrolled airspace. You may select any
  altitude you desire and should get it from ATC
• In uncontrolled airspace, the IFR cruising
  altitudes are as follows:

  – 0 to 179 degrees magnetic – ODD thousands
  – 180 to 359 degrees magnetic – EVEN thousands
            Route Planning

• At this time, plan the routing to Marianna
  Airport using the route planning methods
  previously shown
           IFR Supplement

• This document should then be consulted
  for items such as airport hours, Class
  airspace effective hours, availability of
  fuel, navaid reception, and any other
  pertinent information that may affect the
  outcome of the mission
IFR Supplement
             Selecting an Approach
• Generally an approach to the lowest minima will suffice.
  Consideration should be given, however, to the forecast
  weather. Precision approaches should be used if ceiling
  is a factor, non precision approaches should be used if
  visibility is a factor. (Non precision approaches usually
  get you closer to the runway threshold.)

• Check availability of all approaches via the index of
  Instrument Procedure Charts (there may be radar
  approaches)           INDEX

• All equipment requirements must be met (DME, radar,
  etc) to include equipment needed for the MISSED
  APPROACH!
                       VOR-B MAI
            Selecting an Approach
All weather requirements must be met per AR 95-1:
• Destination weather must be forecast to be equal to or
   greater than the published weather planning minimum
   for the approach procedure to be flown at ETA through 1
   hour after ETA
• When there are intermittent weather conditions,
   predominant weather will apply
• Aviators flying helicopters may reduce destination and
   alternate Category A visibility minimums by 50 percent,
   but not less than 1/4 mile or metric equivalent.
   Reduction of visibility for approaches labeled “copter
   only” is not authorized

                          175-1        VOR-B MAI
         Selecting an Approach



• Do you require an alternate airport? Let’s
  review the following
               Alternate Airfield

• An alternate airfield is required when filing IFR to a
  destination under any of the following conditions:


• (1) Radar is required to execute the approach procedure
  to be flown


• (2) The instrument approach navigational aids to be
  used are unmonitored

                             VOR-B MAI       IFR SUPPL
                 Alternate Airfield
• (3) The predominant weather at the destination is
  forecast at ETA through 1 hour after ETA to be less
  than—

   – (a) Ceiling 400 feet above the weather planning minimum
     required for the approach to be flown

   – (b) Visibility 1 mile (or metric equivalent) greater than the
     planning minimum required for the approach to be flown

• (4) An alternate is not required if descent from en route
  minimum altitude for IFR operation, approach, and
  landing can be made in VFR conditions
                                         175-1         VOR-B MAI
           Alternate Airfield


• If you do require an alternate, what is the
  selection criteria?
               Alternate Airfield
• 1) An airfield may be selected as an alternate
  when the worst weather condition for that
  airfield is forecast for ETA through 1 hour after
  ETA to be equal to or greater than—
   – (a) Ceiling 400 feet above the weather planning
     minimum required for the approach to be flown and
     visibility 1 mile (or metric equivalent) greater than the
     weather planning minimum required for the approach
     to be flown;
                              OR
                                       175-1
         Alternate Airfield

– (b) VFR minimums and descent from
  enroute minimum altitude for IFR operation,
  approach, and landing can be made in VFR
  conditions




                            175-1
             Alternate Airfield
• (2) An airfield will not be selected as an alternate
  except per f(1)(b) above—

   – (a) If the approach procedure to be used at
     the alternate is shown not authorized (NA) in
     FLIP
   – (b) If radar is required for the approach
     procedure to be used at the alternate
   – (c) If the instrument approach navigational
     aids to be used is unmonitored
                             ILS 32       IFR
                             DHN          SUPPL
          Alternate Airfield

– (d) If a Class B, C, D, or E surface area
  airspace does not exist or is not in effect at
  the airport to be used
– (e) If the global positioning system (GPS) is
  required for the approach



                                     IFR SUPPL
            Airport Lighting

• Be familiar with the types of runway
  lighting per the FIH, Section B, Lighting,
  even if flight is to be conducted during the
  day as even reduced visibility will
  sometimes require the use of runway
  lighting

           IFR SUPPL   VOR-B MAI
Airport Lighting
                               Fuel
• FM 1-240 references fuel planning in Appendix B. Most aviators use
  the acronym
                              REARA
• Runup
• Enroute- use the actual time for an approach, not just a default
  amount of time
• Alternate- ETE from the MAP to missed approach holding pattern to
  include 1 circuit in holding and then to the alternate airfield for
  landing
• Reserve- 30 mins at cruise per AR 95-1, Chapter 5
• Additional time- any planned delays
• Remember to calculate surplus fuel when you leave the departure
  airfield, It is the amount of fuel in excess of required fuel converted
  to minutes at the appropriate burn rate
                       FILING
• The purpose of an IFR flight plan is to communicate the
  pilots desires to ATC. The reference for filling out the
  the DD 175 is the GP, Chapter 4. Other types of flight
  plans may be used dependent on the situation, i.e., DD
  Form 1801, FAA 7233-1, etc

• AR 95-1 Aircraft will not be flown unless a flight plan
  (military or civil) has been filed or an operation’s log
  completed. When FAA Form 7233-1 (Flight Plan), DD
  Form 1801 (DOD International Flight Plan), or DD Form
  175 are used, they will be filed per DOD FLIP

• Local commanders will establish policies specifying the
  flight plan or operations log to be used
                  FILING

• FILLING OUT THE DD 175
• Not all blocks of the flight plan will be
  covered today in order to save time
• The following blocks are highlighted as
  essential knowledge:
                FILING



• Blocks 1-8 per Chapter 4, GP
DD175
                        FILING

• Block 9-The first point in the route of flight should be the
  planned Navigational Aid or fix for entering the enroute
  structure; ie. VOR, TACAN, TACAN/DME fix, named
  intersection, etc


• If a Standard Instrument Departure is used, enter the
  SID coded identifier (if none is available, enter the SID
  name and number), following by either the SID
  termination point, or the transition fix

                                                  175
                     FILING
• For IFR flight plans the last fix entered is either:
  (1) The identifier of the nearest appropriate
  Initial Approach Fix, Navigational Aid, first point
  of intended landing, or published fix which most
  clearly establishes the route of flight to the
  destination or
  (2) The coded identifier of a Standard Terminal
  Arrival (STAR), e.g. "BOIDS9," placed after the
  transition fix
                                               175
                        FILING
• Stopover Flight Plans

  Each leg after the initial leg of a stopover flight plan is
  entered as described in ITEMS (4) through (11)

  In parenthesis following the last entry of successive
  legs, enter the hours of fuel on board (e.g., (3+30))

  If an alternate is required, enter the airport identifier and
  the ETE to the alternate in parenthesis with the fuel on
  board entry (e.g., 3+30 SKF 0+30)
                        FILING
Terminal area delays

• Enter the delay location airport identifier as the last item
  in the route of flight

• Do not make an entry in the TO block; enter the time
  required to fly the segment in the ETE block

• Explain the delay as a remark on the next line in the
  ROUTE OF FLIGHT block; do not make entries in any
  other blocks on this line
                        FILING
Terminal area delays

• Precede the delay remark with a circled "R" to indicate
  that the information to following should be transmitted as
  a remark

• Enter a "D" and the length of the delay, the delay
  location airport identifier, and the airport of the final
  destination (e.g., (R) D 0+15 BSM RND). Complete
  ITEMS (4) through (11) for the subsequent leg of flight
                     FILING
• Estimated Time Enroute

• The time from take-off or departure from a
  Terminal or Special Use Airspace enroute delay
  location to the last fix shown in the ROUTE OF
  FLIGHT exclusive of planned enroute delays

• NOTE: For Army Aircrews, the ETE for IFR flight
  plans is the elapsed time until over the first point
  of intended landing
                     FILING
Alternate Airfield

• Alternate airports will be selected on the
  basis of criteria contained in AR 95-1

• If IFR on a stopover flight plan, the
  alternate listed is for the first point of
  intended landing              175
               Alternate Airfield
Alternate Airfield

• Alternates required for subsequent stops will be included
  in the ROUTE OF FLIGHT section of the flight plan

• Use the location identifier to indicate alternate airports. If
  there is no location identifier, enter the installation name

• ETE TO ALTERNATE - Enter the time required to fly
  from original destination to the alternate airport, based
  on flight at the last cruising altitude
                                                  175
DD 175
                  FILING
• Flight Plans filed with a military Base
  Operations are passed to Federal Aviation
  Administration Flight Service immediately
  after aircraft departure. Flight Service then
  notifies the destination base of each
  aircraft's ETA. Pilots should file IFR flight
  plan at least 30 min (1 hour in some
  areas) prior to ETD
                 FILING

• Prior to departing civil airports, file the
  Flight Plan with the nearest Flight Service
  Station (FSS)

• This may be done in person using Federal
  Aviation Administration Form 7233-1, by
  telephone, or by aircraft radio if other
  means are not available
FAA Form 7233
                        FILING

• When departing civilian fields, the pilot must insure that
  the actual departure time is passed to the TIE-IN Flight
  Service Station serving that departure field

• This can be done by the pilot direct to the TIE-IN Flight
  Service Station

• If the take-off time is not passed to the TIE-IN Flight
  Service Station, the aircraft will arrive unannounced at
  the next destination
        FLYING THE PLAN



With all flight planning accomplished and
the IFR flight plan filed, it is time to
execute the mission. For flying the IFR
mission, here a few essential items to
highlight:
              FLYING THE PLAN

OBTAINING THE CLEARANCE

• At airports where a Control Tower is in operation, Air Traffic Control
  IFR Clearances normally are relayed to pilots of departing aircraft by
  the Tower "Ground Control" position

• At many busy airports, however, a Tower "Clearance Delivery"
  position has been established and a separate radio frequency has
  been designated for this purpose

• No visual surveillance or control over the movement of traffic is
  exercised by the Tower "Clearance Delivery" position of operation
         FLYING THE PLAN
INITIAL RADIO CONTACT
 Pilots in their initial radio communication
 with the facility concerned will state:
• Aircraft Identification
• Location on the Airport
• Type of Operation Planned (IFR)
• Point Of First Intended Landing And Requested
  Action (Taxi/Clearance On Request/Etc)
           FLYING THE PLAN
• IFR CLEARANCE ITEMS - IFR Clearances to departing
  aircraft are issued prior to take-off and will include the
  following items as appropriate, in order listed:

   (1) Aircraft identification
   (2) Clearance limit
   (3) Departure procedure or SID
   (4) Route of flight
   (5) Altitude data in the order flown
   (7) Holding instructions
   (8) Any special information
   (9) Frequency and beacon information
           FLYING THE PLAN
    Common acronym: C R A F T S

•   C - Clearance limit
•   R - Route of flight
•   A - Altitudes
•   F -Frequencies
•   T - Transponder Codes
•   S - Special Instructions
         FLYING THE PLAN
• Avionics checks- IAW the 237-10 and the
  following:

  – VOR test facility (VOT) (on selected civil and
    joint use airfields)

  – VOT frequencies are listed opposite
    "Navigational Aids" in the Airport/Facility
    Directory listings in the Enroute Supplement
          FLYING THE PLAN

• Taxi Instruction Readback - Pilots will
  acknowledge by readback all runway
  assignment and hold short instructions

• Pilots shall read back all altimeter settings
  received from Approach agencies when inbound
  during penetrations, letdowns, entering and
  departing holding patterns and during all
  approaches to a landing
          FLYING THE PLAN
• Once the clearance is received and the aircraft
  is ready for departure, consideration must be
  given to departure weather minimums and
  procedures:

• Remember the parameters for the diverse
  departure if you are performing one

• All aviators will comply with published
  nonstandard IFR takeoff minimums and
  departure procedures in flight information
  publications
        FLYING THE PLAN

• The aviator flying the aircraft on takeoff
  who has logged 50 hours, or more, of
  actual weather time as pilot-in-command
  has no Army takeoff minimums.
  Instrument time flown in a simulator does
  not apply
         FLYING THE PLAN

• The aviator flying the aircraft on takeoff
  who has not logged 50 hours of actual
  weather time has the following minimums:
• Helicopters—ceiling 100 feet and either
  visibility 1/4 mile, RVR 1200 feet or metric
  equivalent RVR may be used when takeoff
  is made from the runway for which RVR is
  reported
        FLYING THE PLAN

• Determine the need for blade deice and
  antic-ice equipment prior to takeoff by
  checking the forecast and observed
  weather concerning visible moisture and
  temperatures, and ensure this crosscheck
  continues on the climbout
          FLYING THE PLAN
• ENROUTE Procedures

• Transponder Procedures

  – Pilots of aircraft equipped with a transponder with
    operable Mode 3/A and/or Mode C will "squawk" the
    appropriate mode(s) and code(s) during all phases of
    flight, unless directed by Air Traffic Control to Squawk
    Standby or Stop Squawk
          FLYING THE PLAN

• Transponders will be operating in "standby"
  while taxiing for take-off and either "off" or
  "standby" as required after landing

• Departing pilots should turn transponders to "on“
  as late as practicable before take-off, and
  landing pilots should turn transponders to either
  "off" or "standby" as soon as practicable after
  landing
          FLYING THE PLAN

• Unless otherwise requested by Air Traffic
  Control, transponders shall be operating at all
  times, VFR or IFR, while airborne

• Additional transponder codes:

  – 7500- Hijack in progress
  – 7600- Lost commo
  – 7700- Emergency
          FLYING THE PLAN
TWO WAY RADIO FAILURE

• IFR FLIGHT PLAN

• (a) During two-way radio communications
  failure, when confronted with a situation not
  covered in the regulation, pilots are expected to
  exercise good judgment in whatever action they
  elect to take. Should the situation so dictate,
  they should not be reluctant to use the
  emergency actions contained in flying
  regulations
          FLYING THE PLAN
TWO WAY RADIO FAILURE


• (b) In areas of FAA jurisdiction, should the pilot
  of an aircraft equipped with a coded radar
  beacon transponder experience a loss of two-
  way radio capability, the transponder should be
  adjusted to reply on Mode 3/A, Code 7600
         FLYING THE PLAN
TWO WAY RADIO FAILURE

• (c) Pilots can expect ATC to attempt to
  communicate by transmitting on guard
  frequencies and available frequencies of
  navaids
          FLYING THE PLAN
TWO WAY RADIO FAILURE

• (d) VMC - If able to maintain flight in VMC
  continue flight under VFR and land as soon as
  practicable and notify ATC
  It is not intended that the requirement to "land as
  soon as practicable" be construed to mean "as
  soon as possible"
          FLYING THE PLAN
TWO WAY RADIO FAILURE

• The pilot retains his prerogative of exercising his
  best judgment and is not required to land at an
  unauthorized airport, at an airport unsuitable for
  the type of aircraft flown, or to land only minutes
  short of his intended destination

• The primary objective of this provision is to
  preclude extended IFR operations in the air
  traffic control system in VMC
         FLYING THE PLAN
TWO WAY RADIO FAILURE

• When operating "on top" and unable to descend
  VMC prior to destination, the procedures
  contained in paragraph (e) below apply

• (e) IMC - If VMC is not encountered, continue
  the flight according to the following:
          FLYING THE PLAN

ROUTE (FAR 91.185)

•   a. By the route assigned in the last ATC
    clearance received;

•   b. If being radar vectored, by the direct route
    from the point of radio failure to the fix, route,
    or airway specified in the vector clearance;
         FLYING THE PLAN
ROUTE (FAR 91.185)

  • c. In the absence of an assigned route, by the
    route that ATC has advised may be expected
    in a further clearance; or

  • d. In the absence of an assigned route or a
    route that ATC has advised may be expected
    in a further clearance, by the route filed in the
    flight plan
         FLYING THE PLAN
ALTITUDE –

 At the highest of the following altitudes or flight
 levels for the route segment being flown:

 a. The altitude or flight level assigned in the last
 ATC clearance received;
        FLYING THE PLAN

b. The minimum altitude (converted, if
appropriate, to minimum flight level) for IFR
operations (see Section B, Altimeter
Changeover Procedures); or

c. The altitude or flight level ATC has advised
may be expected in a further clearance
         FLYING THE PLAN
LEAVE CLEARANCE LIMIT

• a. When the clearance limit is a fix from which
  an approach begins, commence descent or
  descent and approach as close as possible to
  the expect further clearance time if one has
  been received
• If one has not been received, as close as
  possible to the expected time of arrival as
  calculated from the filed or amended (with ATC)
  estimated time enroute
          FLYING THE PLAN
LEAVE CLEARANCE LIMIT

• b. If the clearance limit is not a fix from which an
  approach begins, leave the clearance limit at the
  expect further clearance time if one has been
  received,
• if none has been received, upon arrival over the
  clearance limit, and proceed to a fix from which
  an approach begins
• commence descent or descent and approach as
  close as possible to the estimated time of arrival
  as calculated from the filed or amended (with
  ATC) estimated time enroute
        FLYING THE PLAN
LOST COMMO ON RADAR APPROACHES

 – initiate lost communications procedures if no
   transmissions are received for approximately
   one minute while being vectored to final, 15
   seconds while on ASR final approach, or five
   seconds while on PAR final approach
         FLYING THE PLAN
LOST COMMO ON RADAR APPROACHES
• Attempt contact on a secondary frequency, the
  previously assigned frequency, the tower
  frequency, or guard
• If unable to re-establish communications and
  unable to maintain VMC, proceed with a
  published instrument approach procedure or
  previously coordinated instructions
          FLYING THE PLAN
LOST COMMO ON RADAR APPROACHES

• Change transponder to appropriate codes

• Maintain the last assigned altitude or the
  minimum safe/sector altitude (emergency safe
  altitude if more than 25 NM from the facility),
  whichever is higher, until established on a
  segment of the published approach
          FLYING THE PLAN
MINIMUM SECTOR ALTITUDES
• Altitudes depicted on approach charts which
  provide at least 1,000 feet of obstacle clearance
  within a 25-mile radius of the navigation facility
  upon which the procedure is predicated
• Sectors depicted on approach charts must be at
  least 90 degrees in scope
• These altitudes are for emergency use only and
  do not necessarily assure acceptable
  navigational signal coverage
          FLYING THE PLAN
EMERGENCY SAFE ALTITUDES

• Altitudes depicted on approach charts which
  provide at least 1,000 feet of obstacle clearance
  in non-mountainous areas and 2,000 feet of
  obstacle clearance in designated mountainous
  areas within a 100-mile radius of the
  navigational facility upon which the procedure is
  predicated and normally used only in military
  procedures

• These altitudes are identified on published
  procedures as "Emergency Safe Altitudes"
MSA




ESA
           FLYING THE PLAN
POSITION REPORTS – FAA

• Federal Aviation Regulations require pilots to maintain a
  listening watch on the appropriate frequency and furnish
  position reports passing certain reporting points
• Reporting points are indicated by symbol on enroute
  charts
• The designated compulsory reporting point symbol is the
  solid triangle and the "on request" reporting point symbol
  is an open triangle. Reports passing an "on request"
  reporting point are only necessary when requested by
  ATC
          FLYING THE PLAN
POSITION REPORTS – FAA
• When operating in a nonradar environment:
• (a) On initial contact, the pilot should inform the
  controller of the aircraft’s present position,
  altitude and time estimate for the next reporting
  point
          Example: (Name) CENTER (aircraft
           identification), (position), (altitude),
       ESTIMATING (reporting point) AT (time)
          FLYING THE PLAN
POSITION REPORTS – FAA
• (b) After initial contact, when a position report
  will be made, the pilot should give the controller
  a complete position report

Example: (Name) CENTER (aircraft identification),
              (position), (time), (altitude),
   (type of flight plan), (ETA and name of next
       reporting point), (the name of the next
     succeeding reporting point), and (remarks)
          FLYING THE PLAN
POSITION REPORTS – FAA

• When operating in a radar environment:

• (a) On initial contact, the pilot should inform the
  controller of the aircraft’s assigned altitude
  preceded by the words "level", or "climbing to",
  or "descending to", as appropriate; and the
  aircraft’s present vacating altitude, if applicable
         FLYING THE PLAN
• POSITION REPORTS – FAA

      Examples: (Name) CENTER, (aircraft
   identification), AT (altitude or flight level), or if
   appropriate, LEAVING (exact altitude or flight
     level) (CLIMBING or DESCENDING) TO
          MAINTAIN (altitude or flight level)
          FLYING THE PLAN

• When informed by ATC that their aircraft are in
  "RADAR CONTACT," Pilots should discontinue
  position reports over designated reporting points

• They should resume normal position reporting
  when ATC advises "RADAR CONTACT LOST"
  or "RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED"
            FLYING THE PLAN

Additional Reports - The following reports should be made
  to ATC or FSS facilities without a specific ATC request:

  At all times:

   – 1. When vacating any previously assigned altitude or
     flight level for a newly assigned altitude or flight level

   – 2. When an altitude change will be made if operating
     on a clearance specifying "VFR ON TOP“
         FLYING THE PLAN
Additional Reports
– 3. When unable to climb/descend at a rate of at least
  500 feet per minute

– 4. When approach has been missed. (Request
  clearance for specific action; i.e., to alternative airport,
  another approach, etc.)

– 5. Change in the average true airspeed (at cruising
  altitude) when it varies by 5 percent or 10 knots
  (whichever is greater) from that filed in the flight plan
       FLYING THE PLAN
Additional Reports
– 6. The time and altitude or flight level upon
  reaching a holding fix or point to which
  cleared
– 7. When leaving any assigned holding fix or
  point
   NOTE: The reports in subparagraphs 6 and
  7 may be omitted by pilots of aircraft involved
  in instrument training at military terminal area
  facilities when radar service is being provided
       FLYING THE PLAN
Additional Reports
– 8. Any loss, in controlled airspace, of VOR,
  TACAN, ADF, low frequency navigation
  receiver capability, complete or partial loss of
  ILS receiver capability or impairment of
  air/ground communications capability
– 9. Any information relating to the safety of
  flight
          FLYING THE PLAN
Additional Reports

  When not in "radar contact“

• 1. When leaving final approach fix inbound on
  final approach (nonprecision approach) or when
  leaving the outer marker or fix used in lieu of the
  outer marker inbound on final approach
  (precision approach)
• 2. A corrected estimate at anytime it becomes
  apparent that an estimate as previously
  submitted is in error in excess of three minutes
         FLYING THE PLAN
Additional Reports

• Pilots encountering weather conditions which
  have not been forecast, or hazardous conditions
  which have been forecast, are expected to
  forward a report of such weather to ATC
       FLYING THE PLAN
• HOLDING

 Airspeeds: Copter/STOL only approaches
 100 KIAS. You may hold at a copter
 holding pattern at this airspeed, however,
 once you begin and are established on the
 inbound portion of the Copter approach,
 airspeed is limited to 90 KIAS
          FLYING THE PLAN
HOLDING
• Whenever an aircraft is cleared to a fix other
  than the destination airport and delay is
  expected, it is the responsibility of the Air Traffic
  Control controller to issue complete holding
  instructions (unless the pattern is charted*), an
  Expect Further Clearance time and the best
  estimate of any additional enroute/terminal delay
            FLYING THE PLAN

HOLDING

• If the holding pattern is charted and the controller doesn't
  issue complete holding instructions, the pilot is expected
  to hold as depicted on the appropriate chart.* Holding
  instructions that contain only the holding direction (i.e.,
  "Hold East") inform pilots that the pattern is charted

  *NOTE: Only those holding patterns depicted on United
  States Government Low/High Altitude Enroute,
  Area/Terminal charts or STARs should be used
          FLYING THE PLAN
HOLDING
• An Air Traffic Control clearance requiring an
  aircraft to hold at a fix where the pattern is not
  charted will include the following information:
• (a) Direction of holding from the fix in terms of
  the eight cardinal compass points (i.e., North,
  Northeast, East, Southeast, etc.)
• (b) Holding fix (the fix may be omitted if included
  at the beginning of the transmission as the
  clearance limit)
         FLYING THE PLAN
HOLDING

• (c) Radial, course, bearing, airway or route on
  which the aircraft is to hold
• (d) Leg length in miles if Distant Measuring
  Equipment or Area Navigation is to be used (leg
  length will be specified in minutes on pilot
  request or if the controller considers it
  necessary)
          FLYING THE PLAN
HOLDING

• (e) Direction of turn if left turns are to be made,
  the pilot requests, or the controller considers it
  necessary

• (f) Time to expect further clearance and any
  pertinent additional delay information
        FLYING THE PLAN

HOLDING

• Outbound timing begins when over or
  abeam the holding station, whichever
  occurs later
         FLYING THE PLAN
HOLDING

      • Determine abeam the station:

 – TO-FROM indicator change
 – Setting course 90 degrees and centered needle
 – Bearing pointer points to the 90 degree to the
   course
         FLYING THE PLAN

HOLDING



• During intersection holding, time starts
  when wings level on the outbound
  heading
       FLYING THE PLAN

HOLDING


• T or F Compensate for known effect of
  wind, except when turning

                 • TRUE
         FLYING THE PLAN

HOLDING

• Make all turns during entry and while
  holding at:
  – 3 degrees / second
  – not to exceed 30 degrees
  – 25 degree with flight director system
        FLYING THE PLAN

HOLDING

• The angle of bank required to achieve a
  standard rate turn is about 15% of the true
  airspeed. An airspeed of

          100-120 knots = 15-18 deg
                      HOLDING
             • Determine the correct entry:
                      (B) 160
                   Direct




                                EAD            (C) 260
                                VOR
                                              Tear Drop

  Parallel
   (A) 060

Hold NW of the EAD VOR on the R-320, EFC ___
         FLYING THE PLAN

HOLDING

• If you know the following, holding entries
  are simple:

  – Your heading as you cross the station
  – The outbound heading
  – Turns - Right (std) or left
           HOLDING
           Example (B)
              160
                     Tear Drop
Parallel
           110         70      230



050              180


                            320 Outbound Heading
                 Direct
        FLYING THE PLAN

HOLDING

T or F If you cross the EAD VOR and you
  are within 5 degrees of either entry, you
  may pick whichever one you prefer



                  • TRUE
          FLYING THE PLAN

HOLDING

         • Write this information down:
•   Inbound            060 degrees
•   Outbound           240 degrees
•   TAS                     93 knots
•   Wind                    020 / 15
        FLYING THE PLAN
HOLDING

• Inbound course should require a 6 degree
  left correction

              • 052 degrees
         FLYING THE PLAN

HOLDING

• If the 6 degree left correction is correct,
  what will be your outbound heading?

•    R 12 (252 degrees) FM 1-240
•    R 18 (258 degrees) AIM
         FLYING THE PLAN

HOLDING

• FM 1-240

• Double the inbound correction

  – If the inbound correction is over 10, add 10
        FLYING THE PLAN

• HOLDING


• AIM

  – Triple the inbound correction.
           FLYING THE PLAN
Enroute Weather

• The USAF weather units operate a Pilot to Metro Service
  (PMSV) at selected AFBs and AAFs to provide aircrews
  a direct contact
• "Full Service" facilities are manned by fully qualified
  personnel
• "Limited Service" facilities are manned by individuals not
  qualified to prepare, issue or interpret forecasts and who
  will identify themselves as a "weather apprentice”
• The radio call for PMSV is "METRO", e.g., "Travis
  METRO
          FLYING THE PLAN
Enroute Flight Advisory Service (EFAS)
• A service specifically designed to provide
  enroute aircraft with timely and meaningful
  weather advisories
• It is normally available throughout the
  conterminous U.S. and Puerto Rico from 6 a.m.
  to 10 p.m
• EFAS provides communications capabilities for
  aircraft flying at 5,000 feet above ground level to
  17,500 feet MSL on a common frequency of
  122.0 MHz
          FLYING THE PLAN
EFAS

• Contact flight watch by using the name of the
  ARTCC facility identification serving the area of
  your location, followed by your aircraft
  identification, and the name of the nearest VOR
  to your position
• EFAS is not intended to be used for filing or
  closing flight plans, position reporting, getting
  complete preflight briefings, or obtaining random
  weather reports and forecasts
            FLYING THE PLAN
Arrival procedures

• When an instrument approach is necessary, an
  approved procedure will be flown. Approved procedures
  are published by the military services and FAA in DOD
  and NOS FLIPs

• An approach may be initiated , regardless of ceiling and
  visibility

• Practice hooded approaches may be made to the
  decision height or minimum descent altitude when the
  aircraft has dual controls and a pilot or aerial observer is
  at one set of controls. In all other cases, hooded
  approaches may not be made lower than 500 feet AGL
            FLYING THE PLAN
TYPES OF APPROACHES

• CONTACT APPROACH - An approach wherein an
  aircraft on an IFR flight plan, having an Air Traffic Control
  authorization, operating clear of clouds with at least 1
  mile flight visibility and a reasonable expectation of
  continuing to the destination airport in those conditions,
  may deviate from the instrument approach procedure
  and proceed to the destination airport by visual reference
  to the surface. This approach will only be authorized
  when requested by the pilot and the reported ground
  visibility at the destination airport is at least 1 statue mile
          FLYING THE PLAN
TYPES OF APPROACHES

• CRUISE - Used in an Air Traffic Control
  clearance to authorize a pilot to conduct flight at
  any altitude from the minimum IFR altitude up to
  and including the altitude specified in the
  clearance

• The pilot may level off at any intermediary
  altitude within this block of airspace

• Climb/descent within the block is to be made at
  the discretion of the pilot
          FLYING THE PLAN
TYPES OF APPROACHES

• However, once the pilot starts descent and
  verbally reports leaving an altitude in the block
  he may not return to that altitude without
  additional Air Traffic Control clearance

• Further, it is approval for the pilot to proceed to
  and make an approach at the destination airport
         FLYING THE PLAN
TYPES OF APPROACHES

• STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH, IFR - An instrument
  approach wherein final approach is begun
  without first having executed a procedure turn.
  Not necessarily completed with a straight-in
  landing or made to straight-in landing minimums
          FLYING THE PLAN
TYPES OF APPROACHES

• VISUAL APPROACH - An approach conducted
  on an instrument flight rules (IFR) flight plan
  which authorizes the pilot to proceed visually
  and clear of clouds to the airport
• The pilot must, at all times, have either the
  airport or the preceding aircraft in sight
• Reported weather at the airport must be ceiling
  at or above 1,000 feet and visibility of 3 miles or
  greater
          FLYING THE PLAN
PROCEDURE TURNS

• A procedure turn is the maneuver prescribed
  when it is necessary to perform a course
  reversal to establish the aircraft inbound on an
  intermediate or final approach course

• The procedure turn or hold in lieu of procedure
  turn is a required maneuver
         FLYING THE PLAN
• PROCEDURE TURNS

• The procedure turn is not required when:

     -the symbol “No PT” is shown
     -when RADAR VECTORING to the final
     approach course is provided
     -when conducting a timed approach
     -when the procedure turn is not authorized
          FLYING THE PLAN
PROCEDURE TURNS

• The hold in lieu of procedure turn is not required
  when RADAR VECTORING to the final
  approach course is provided or when “No PT” is
  shown

• The altitude prescribed for the procedure turn is
  a minimum altitude until the aircraft is
  established on the inbound course

• The maneuver must be completed within the
  distance specified in the profile view
         FLYING THE PLAN
DECISION HEIGHT/DH
 With respect to the operation of aircraft, means
 the height at which a decision must be made,
 during an Instrument Landing System,
 Microwave Landing System or Precision
 Approach Radar instrument approach, to either
 continue the approach or to execute a missed
 approach
        FLYING THE PLAN
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/MDA

 The lowest altitude, expressed in feet above
 mean sea level, to which descent is authorized
 on final approach or during circle-to-land
 maneuvering execution of a standard instrument
 approach procedure where no electronic glide
 slope is provided
        FLYING THE PLAN
AR 95-1 Landing

 An aircraft will not be flown below the published
 MDA or an approach continued below the DH
 unless the following exist:

 -the approach threshold of the runway

 -the approach lights or other markings,
 identifiable with the approach end of the runway
 or landing area, must be clearly visible to the
 pilot
        FLYING THE PLAN
AR 95-1 Landing



 -The aircraft must be in a position from which a
 safe approach to the runway or landing area can
 be made
        FLYING THE PLAN
Missed Approach

  When a landing cannot be accomplished upon
 reaching the missed approach point defined on
 the approach procedure chart, the pilot must
 comply with the missed approach instructions for
 the procedure being used or with an alternate
 missed approach procedure specified by ATC
          FLYING THE PLAN
Missed Approach
• Protected obstacle clearance areas for missed
  approach are predicated on the assumption that
  the missed approach is initiated at the decision
  height (DH) or at the missed approach point and
  not lower than minimum descent altitude (MDA)

• A climb of at least 200 feet per nautical mile is
  required, (except for Copter approaches, where
  a climb of at least 400 feet per nautical mile is
  required), unless a higher climb gradient is
  published on the approach chart
         FLYING THE PLAN
Missed Approach

• Reasonable buffers are provided for normal
  maneuvers. However, no consideration is given
  to an abnormally early turn

• Therefore, when an early missed approach is
  executed, pilots should, unless otherwise
  cleared by ATC, fly the IAP as specified on the
  approach plate to the missed approach point at
  or above the MDA or DH before executing a
  turning maneuver
IFR Supplement

				
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