Mexico by lanyuehua


A Proud Nation, A Turbulent Past,
     A Promising Tomorrow
          The Land & Its People
• 756,000 sq.mi. (approx. 3X
  the size of Texas)
• 106 million pop. (2005CIA)
   – 60% Mestizo
   – 30% Amerindian
   – 89% Roman Catholic
• Urban pop.= 74%
• GNP (2005) = $5840           GDP/cap = $9600 (US=$40.5K)
   – 2000 GNP = $3680,
                               Unemployment = 3%
   – 2000 growth =6.9%,
                               Poverty =40%
     2001 = -.3%
                                         Historical Eras
                1500 B.C.E.- 1200 A.D. –
                Mayan culture thrives & spreads

1200-1300 -- Aztec empire gains
    – Tenochtitlan is capital,
      Montezuma rules 1502-1520

                       1519-1546 and later -- Spanish Conquistadors dominate
                       and enslave millions following leaders Pizarro & Cortes.
•   1810-1821 War of Independence vs. Spain
•   1850 - France’s Napoleon III places governor in Mexico    Events
•   1862 – Cinco de Mayo victory over the French/Mexican Army
•   1876-1911 Porfirio Diaz is Dictator
•   1910-1921 The Mexican Revolution
     – Pancho Villa, Zapata, Cardenas emerge as leaders
•   PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) is formed and takes power in
    1929, not to lose it until 2000.
•   1994 A Turning Point for Mexico
     – Colosio assassinated
     – NAFTA is in effect
     – Uprising in Chiapas
Heroes of Mexico’s Past
       •   Miguel Hidalgo -priest and
           revolutionary who led peasant
           rebellion against the Spanish army
           and won for 7 years. (1810-1817)

                      Mexican Revolutionary war hero Emiliano
                      Zapata, father of the agricultural reform.
   Heroes of Mexico’s Past
• Revolutionary Bandit Pancho Villa,
  Outlaw and Hero to the Mexican

Lazaro Cardenas – pres. (1934-40).
   – expropriated foreign-held
     properties (nationalized oil =
   – distributed land to peasants
   – instituted reforms to benefit
     indigenous peoples & workers.
               Population Issues
• Mexico City is one of the most densely populated
  metropolitan areas in the world, currently home to over 26
  million people, spread over 1160 mi.sq., at an altitude of
  7100 ft.

#28 is the Southern Mexican State of Chiapas, occupied by Mestizo
(called “Ladinos” there) and Amerindians of Mayan descent
    Chiapas & the Zapatistas
• January 1, 1994, Zapatista rebels attack
  several cities in Chiapas, battle the
  Mexican army for 12 days before a
• purpose of this war - to draw attention
  to gross injustices under which the
  Mayan population lives.
   – Until 1974, the Chiapas State
      constitution: all Indians had to dress
      in their native costumes or trajes and
      that if a ladino passed on the
      sidewalk, the Indian had to walk in
      the street.
      Chiapas’ Amber Mines
• Working 8 to 10 hours each
  day & ideal because of their
  small size, children between 9
  & 14 years constitute the
  majority of the mining
• For the chance to obtain
  multiple bronchial ailments,
  these children receive
            Agriculture & Economy
•   Primary exports include: corn, beans, feed grains, fruit, coffee, sugar
    cane, beef cattle, cotton textiles.
•   1917 Constitution established goal of land distribution…
     – Goal of establishing “safe subsistence livelihood farming”
     – Smaller farms are riskier/ less attractive to outside investors
     Currently 5 million farmers.
       65% subsidized by PROCAMPO policy

•   Other exports: motor vehicle parts, electronic equipment, oil, oil, & oil.
    Oil accounts for 33% of GDP, 62% of all exports. State owned Pemex is
    a “constitutionally-established monopoly”.
•   How much oil are we talking about? Let’s see . . .
                 Petroleum Production
•   2001 EIA #’s for net imported crude oil to U.S. per day from:
     – Saudi Arabia          1,454 barrels
     – Canada                1604 bbl
     – Venezuela             1257 bbl
     – Nigeria               1038 bbl
     – Iraq                  528 bbl
     – Mexico 1524 BARRELS!!!
     – (For those who hate math, that puts them second only to the Cheeseheads!)
     – (oh, by the way, those figures are x 1,000)
     – (Ouch!)
     Still they suffer a $6 billion trade deficit. Why?
         state subsidies and incentive programs cost money . . .
         And unirrigated land is too risky with el nino/la nina hanging around…
     Oil production (2004)            Oil Exports (2004)
•   1)Saudi Arabia 10.37     1)Saudi Arabia          8.73
•   2)Russia        9.27
                             2)Russia               6.67
•   3)United States 8.69
•   4)Iran          4.09     3)Norway                2.91
•   5)Mexico        3.83     4)Iran                 2.55
•   6)China         3.62     5)Venezuela            2.36
                             6)U. Arab Emirates 2.33
                             7)Kuwait               2.20
                             8)Nigeria              2.19
                             9)Mexico               1.80
 (The 1994 North American Free Trade
     Agreement) & Mexico Today
•68% of all Mexico’s trade $ come from the U.S.
•An increasing amount comes from Canada (2001 = 11.5%)

•Complaints from the U.S. are declining, while those from Canada are

•“Pollution Havens” primary U.S. issue.
    -1983 La Paz Accord promised to discourage hazardous waste
    imports/dumping in Mexico
    -Mexican maquiladoras are responsible for much waste
    -Mexico wishes the U.S. to pay for cleanup and waste-handling sites
                       Mexico Today
•   Political parties: Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), National
    Action Party (PAN), Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), Green
    Ecological Party (PVEM), Labor Party (PT), and several small parties.
•   A stable and politically balanced government elected in one of the freest
    and fairest elections in Mexico’s history. (coalition headed by PAN)
•   23% increase in education spending from 1994-2000, education
    represents 27% of the budget (Washington State 2001 = 51%)
•   Growing industry & foreign direct investment (#1 in the world)
•   5th largest producer of petroleum in the world.
•   Social-reform minded president who is active in every state.
•   Strong voice in WTO and “effective partner” to the EU
    = Mexico has earned a seat in the world arena and may be
       on its way to a position of global leadership.
• For Wednesday: Find one current article (no
  more than 15 days old) that refers to any of
  the topics brought up in this presentation on
  Mexico. You will called on randomly to
  discuss it.
    Viva Mexico!!!

Thank you for paying

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