RENEWABLE ENERGY IN ARMENIA STATE OF THE ART AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

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					NATO ARW “Assessment of Hydrogen Energy for Sustainable Development: Energy & Environmental Security“ Istanbul , Turkey , 7 - 10 Aug 2006

VARDAN SARGSYAN, SUREN GEVORGYAN Armenian State University of Economics

RENEWABLE ENERGY IN ARMENIA: STATE OF THE ART AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

THE FRAMEWORK OF PRESENTATION
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Examination of the current status of the Armenian energy system the situation, importance and strategies for development of alternative renewable energy and the limitations of opportunities connected with environmental and other aspects Following questions, which presented specific interest, are in the focus: in what extent Armenia succeeded in keeping up the world tendencies of renewable energy, what are the preconditions for the speeded up development of renewable energy in Armenia?

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Armenia
parliamentary Republic • Population - approx. 3.2 million • Capital - Yerevan (1.25 million)

• Total area is 29740 sq. km
• Borders with Turkey, Iran, Republics of Georgia and Azerbaijan and does not have sea coastline.

• Average height - 1800 m
• Uppermost - 4090 m. (Aragats) • Lowest -360 m. (Ararat Valley)

Why the role of the renewable energy has greater importance for the present Armenia?
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absence of own fossil fuel resources geopolitical situation solar and wind resources scientific potential environmental degradation necessity of stopping nuclear station

ENERGY PRODUCTION IN ARMENIA
power 30-40%  Hydroelectric plants 20-35%  Thermal power plants 3035%  Wind, Solar Power 0.1-0.2%
 Nuclear

ARMENIAN NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
Operated by Russian Company “RAO UES INTERNATIONAL”
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Installed capacity equals 815 MW Average output amounts to 2.0 billion kW.h of electric power per year generates more than 40% of the electric power produced in Armenia The main consumer is Armenian power market In 1989 the Armenian NPP was shut down due to pressure from environmental groups and safety concerns following the 1988 earthquake In 1995 NPP was reopened in order to resolve its energy shortages. As of today, one of two blocks of the plant is under operation

RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECT FOR ARMENIA
The World Bank approved a Renewable Energy Project for Armenia started in 2005 totaling US$25 million

Main objectives of the project are:
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Removing the barriers for renewable energy (REN) development in Armenia Increasing the share and penetration level of renewable power production in Armenia Preparing the establishment of Renewal Resource Revolving Fund as a self sustaining and market based mechanism to support REN developments in Armenia

RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECT FOR ARMENIA: PROPOSED OUTPUT
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contribution to the development of about 80 MW of additional renewable energy generation capacity adding 200 gigawatt hour (GWh) annual renewable generation to the electricity generation mix Carbon dioxide emissions are expected to be lowered by around 130,000 tons annually.

RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY SECURITY IN ARMENIA: POLICY AND LEGISLATION

Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)) prepared in 2003 emphasizes “Maintaining and strengthening energy independence by developing indigenous and alternative energy sources and promoting energy efficiency. Regarding the development of indigenous resources, priority should be given to developing renewable energy production.”

RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY SECURITY IN ARMENIA: POLICY AND LEGISLATION
Armenia's Energy Law, which was enacted in 1997 and revised by the national assembly in 2001 states among others (Article 5) that the main principles of the state policy in the energy sector are: “… (v): Efficient use of local energy resources and energy renewables and the application of relevant economic and legal measures for that purpose; … (viii): Ensuring energy security; (ix): Promotion of the energy independence of the republic, including the diversification of local and imported energy resources and ensuring maximal use of capacities; (x): Ensuring environmental security”.

RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY SECURITY IN ARMENIA: POLICY AND LEGISLATION

On November 9, 2004 legislation was passed on the „Law of the Republic of Armenia on Energy Saving and Renewable Energy‟

HYDRO ENERGY IN ARMENIA
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The only main indigenous energy resource in Armenia Installed capacity - around 1000 megawatt Hydro power generates 20%-35% of Armenia‟s energy needs. Mainly provided by the Sevan-Hrazdan and Vorotan cascades

Lake Sevan
Altitude - 1916.2 m a. s. (1934) Surface - 1416 km2 Volume - 58.5 km3 Sevan is the greatest lake of Transcaucasus Region and one of the greatest freshwater high-mountain lakes of Eurasia. At present, the water level is lower almost on 20m. Lake Sevan‟s waters have been used for decades to generate electricity

HYDRO ENERGY IN ARMENIA LAKE SEVAN – ENVIRONMENTAL LIMITATIONS
Annual Water Release and Monthly Variations of Lake Sevan for 1990-1999 (source: Ministry of Statistics RA)

Water Release mln m3/year 1990 1991 1992 1993 195.4 380.8 957.1 1643.4

Water Level (beginning of the year) 1897.81 1898.01 1897.95 1897.82

Water Level (end of the year) 1898.02 1897.95 1897.83 1897.33

Annual Variations (cm) +21 -6 -12 -49

1994
1995 1996 1997 1998

1279.7
514.4 348.8 247.2 245.4

1897.32
1896.81 1896.75 1896.69 1896.74

1896.81
1896.75 1896.69 1896.74 1896.62

-51
-6 -6 +5 -12

1999

195.1

1896.62

1896.51

-11

Water level Reduction of Lake Sevan 1920 1915 1910 1905 1900 1895 1890 1885 1933 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000, Jan

Meter

Year

Sevan Lake Water Outflow Via Hrazdan River 2000

mln/m3 Water

1500 1000 500 0

1933

1937

1941

1945

1949

1953

1957

1961

1965

1969

1973

1977

1981

1985

1989

1993

Year

1997

Armenia: Energy Generation Mix during 1993-1997

Type of Generation Thermal Hydro Nuclear

1993 33% 67% 0

1994 38% 62% 0

1995 60% 35% 5%

1996 37% 26% 37%

1997 50% 23% 27%

HYDRO ENERGY IN ARMENIA: CONCLUSIONS
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Armenia has hydro energy resources that can cover up to 35% of country‟s energy demand Hydropower development has no much perspective in the country due to environmental limitations The system of small hydropower plants on mountainous rivers could be developed as a support to Armenian energy grid.

WIND ENERGY IN ARMENIA
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economically viable capacity for wind energy is comparable with nuclear wind energy development in Armenia is in its infancy generated wind energy in Armenia in 2006 formed only 0.1% from total produces energy wind resources in Armenia allows to generate as much as 10% of electricity in this way (government plan) several prospective sites where wind farms could be erected are already defined

WIND ENERGY IN ARMENIA: DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY no solo windmills
Result of soviet industrialization – developed energy grid. Nearly every place in Armenia has access to the electricity grid. Future for wind power in Armenia, therefore, is in large wind farms that generate electricity that is then added to the grid.

There is no remote location that might otherwise need to generate its own energy.

WIND ENERGY IN ARMENIA: STATE OF THE ART
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Monitoring of wind energetic potential in Armenia was started in 1999. “ArmNedWind” company have established 5 monitoring stations, 14 more were setup by “Solaren” company and together with US National renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was worked out the Atlas of Winds in Armenia

WIND ENERGY IN ARMENIA: CALCULATED POTENTIAL
Wind speed m/s Area sq.km % from total area Total Capacity of Installed Wind Turbines MW

7.5-8.1 8.1-8.6 8.6-9.5 >9.5

451 207 169 85 912

1.6 0.7 0.6 0.3 3.2

2250 1050 850 400 4550

Total

WIND ENERGY IN ARMENIA: INITIATED PROJECT
„Zod Wind‟ Company is involved in a 25 million dollar project to build a set of wind turbines in the east of Armenia. The identified sites in EasternSevan Ridge have potential for wind farm development with capacity of 50 MW and with power output of 153,000 MWh/year that can reduce over 100,000 t/year of greenhouse gas emissions.

SOLAR ENERGY IN ARMENIA
Armenia has sufficient solar energy resources
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Solar energy generation capacity in Armenia is currently around 650 MW, but estimates for future capacity are as high as 3,500 MW. in Yerevan one square meter of land receives about 1,700 kWh of sun power annually, which is 70% more that in Europe, where weighable shifts for solar energy applications are going on.

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SOLAR ENERGY IN ARMENIA: SUCCESSFUL EXPERIENCE
Engineering Research Center (ERC) of American University of Armenia (AUA)

Solar Monitoring Station (SMS) project
collects solar radiation data to assist with evaluating and developing solar energy devices.

Solar Monitoring Station (SMS) project: output data
Sun Power on one Square Meter of Land Annually in Different Areas of Armenia (kWh)

Stations
Yerevan Kalinino Giumri Sevan

Sun Power Stations ((kWh/sq.m)
1674.2 1404.0 1624.0 1670.0 Martuni Jermuk Qochbeq Kapan

Sun Power ((kWh/sq.m)
1740.0 1682.0 1786.4 1647.2

SOLAR ENERGY IN ARMENIA:

SUCCESSFUL EXPERIENCE
Engineering Research Center (ERC) of American University of Armenia (AUA)

DESODEC

“Design and Installation of a Solar Driven Desiccant Cooling Demonstration System.” project – provides the University with heat in the winter, and cooling in the summer. DESODEC is the first solar driven combined system in the former Soviet Union, and one of a handful in the world.

DESODEC
This exclusive project involved more than three years of collaborative work of five partners: the DER/INETI (Portugal), ISE/Fraunhofer (Germany), InterSolarCenter (Russia), Contact-A and ERC/AUA (Armenia). The main objective of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of building air conditioning using an alternative and environmental friendly energy source, solar energy.
The solar driven desiccant cooling system has been designed for a 154 seats Auditorium of American University of Armenia and is installed on the rooftop of the building.

The combined system is based on a 64m2 solar field of flat plate collectors.
The economic interest of this application is clear due to the possibility of using the same solar field for heating in winter and cooling in summer.

SOLAR ENERGY IN ARMENIA:

SUCCESSFUL EXPERIENCE
Engineering Research Center (ERC) of American University of Armenia (AUA)

Solar Photovoltaic Power Station project
solar photovoltaic system, installed on the roof, provides electricity to the system that makes the university building independent from the electricity grid, and which serves to backup the university internet servers.

SOLAR ENERGY IN ARMENIA:

SUCCESSFUL EXPERIENCE
Engineering Research Center (ERC) of American University of Armenia (AUA)

The 72 solar photovoltaic panels are installed on a special seismic isolated structure on the roof of the University.
Each panel has approximately 0.7 square meters of surface and has been produced at Heliotechnics Laboratory of SEUA (Armenia). Total surface of the panels is around 50 square meters with total peak power of 5 kilowatt. The photovoltaic converter cells used in the solar panels were made by Krasnoye Znamye, Russia.

HYDROGEN ENERGY IN ARMENIA
Armenia is in the stage of research in this field and these production technologies are being investigated, which have the potential to produce essentially unlimited quantities of hydrogen in a sustainable manner.

HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS: SMALL BUT FIRM STEPS IN ARMENIA
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Investigation of hydrogen energy applications in Armenia are being realized mainly by small companies, such as H2ECOnomy, located in the Ararat valley, Armenia H2 ECOnomy was set up in 2002. It currently employs about 30 people Main activity of the company is creation of fuel cells for the educational and demonstration markets, sold worldwide through distributors in the US, Europe and Asia The United States government provided a $500,000 scientific grant to this company for the development of fuel cells, a forward-looking technology to transform hydrogen and oxygen into electricity

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HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS: SMALL BUT FIRM STEPS IN ARMENIA
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For H2 ECOnomy, a more realistic goal now is to become a big research center that would sell fuel cell know-how to foreign manufacturers. H2 ECOnomy's latest product is a fuel cell-based UPS extender with a capacity of 1 kilowatt. It can simultaneously power three personal computers.

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According to several estimations, transition to a hydrogen-based energy system in Armenia can occur in the 20 to 40-year time frame if government will make a strong focused effort to bring it about.

Indicators of renewable energy utilization in Armenia
Used Energy Type Power Production mln. kWh/year
1275 120 200

Fuel Prevention of substitute CO2 1000 t. Emission 1000 t.
420.8 39.6 28.9 690 64.9 47.4

Hydropower Wind Energy Solar energy

THANK YOU


				
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