The Driver by jianghongl


									                    Health and Safety Standards

           MFP Midland Filter Products Ltd

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                               Health and Safety Standards

               DRIVER HANDBOOK


                                                                 Paragraph No’s

               Introduction                                       1–4

               How well can you see                               5-9

               Watching your speed                                10 - 16

               Planning your journey                              17 -19

               Tiredness and fatigue                              20 - 31

               Seat belt safety                                   32 – 37

               Head restraints and air bags explained             38 - 42

               Mobile phones                                      43 - 48

               Personal safety behind the wheel                   49

               Driving alone – How to deal with incidents         50 – 56

               Keeping your vehicle maintained                    57 - 59

               Vehicle security                                   60

               Coping with severe weather conditions              61 - 65

               Parking at night                                   66 - 75

               What to do if you break down                       76 - 79

               What to do if you are involved in an incident      80

               First Aid                                          81 - 82

               Taking your vehicle abroad                         83 - 86

               Further driver training                            87 - 88

               Appendix I - Useful addresses and publications

               Appendix II - Incident Recording Form

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The following information is on Road Safety. We at MFP regard the safety of it’s
employees as the number one priority. Therefore you are required to read and
understand the information within this booklet.

1.     We all have a responsibility to ensure that we drive safely, maintain our vehicles
       in roadworthy condition and make every effort to promote our safety and that
       of others for the benefit of the environment.

2.     This has been written for the Local Authority Road Safety Officers
       Association ((LARSOA) now Road Safety GB) to help road safety officers,
       employers, voluntary organisations and all vehicle operators to impart important
       information to their drivers.

3.     So why a handbook? Average drivers cover about 10,000 miles a year and have
       a one in seven chance of a collision during that time. National statistics for
       private vehicle users show that 1 in 5 drivers make an insurance claim each year,
       while for those at work it is as high as one in two. More than 95% of traffic
       collisions involve an element of human error.

4.     This handbook should be kept in a safe and readily accessible place. Please read
       the contents thoroughly and refer to it as and when you feel necessary.

                             HOW WELL CAN YOU SEE?

5. The driver of a motor vehicle is the most important component. The driver decides
   which way to turn, when to use the accelerator and when to use the brakes.
   Drivers need to see and react to changing conditions very quickly.


6.     Legal Requirements
       You must be able to read in good daylight, with glasses or contact lenses if
       necessary, a stationary number plate from a minimum distance of 20.5 metres
       (67 feet). From September 2001, you must be able to read a new style number
       plate from a distance of 20 metres (66 feet). Passing this test does not imply
       perfect vision.

7.     Choose your spectacles carefully

        Always make sure your spectacles or contact lenses are clean and carry a
         spare pair in the glove box.

        Choose frames for maximum all round vision. Thin metal rims are best.

        Choose your lenses carefully; plastic is tough, light, has a good resistance to
         impact and is well suited to metal frames.

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        Anti reflection coated lenses for night driving are best.

        Never use tinted lenses or sunglasses at night, in conditions of poor
         visibility, heavy rain, fog and snow showers.

8.     To Aid Clearer Vision

        Keep the windscreen and windows clean both inside and out and clear of
         unnecessary stickers.

        Top up your windscreen washer bottle regularly.

        Replace worn windscreen wiper blades.

        Don’t spray the windscreen or windows with tints.

        Check the adjustment of all mirrors before driving.

        Check your lights, keep them clean and carry spare bulbs.

9.     Remember:

        Alcohol can affect your vision as can tiredness. If taking medicine or drugs,
         check with your doctor regarding possible side effects.

        Have your eyes tested regularly. Have them examined at least every two
         years, or as advised, by an optometrist or a qualified dispensing optician.

                               WATCHING YOUR SPEED

10.    Driving too fast for road and traffic conditions and misjudging speed and
       distance are the two most common causes of crashes.

11.    Always drive at a speed that will allow you to stop well within the distance you
       can see to be clear.

12.    Leave enough space between you and the vehicle in front so that you can pull up
       safely if it slows down or stops suddenly.

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13.     National Speed Limits
                     Built-up areas        Single Carriageways   Dual Carriageways   Motorways
Type of vehicle             MPH                    MPH                  MPH               MPH
Cars and
Including vehicle
derived vans up to
                            30                     60                   70                70
2 tonnes maximum
unladen weight.
Cars towing
caravans or
Including vehicle
                            30                     50                   60                60
derived vans and
Buses and
Not exceeding 12
                            30                     50                   60                70
metres in overall
Goods vehicles
Not exceeding 7.5
tonnes maximum
laden weight
                            30                     50                   60                70

Goods vehicles
Exceeding 7.5
tonnes maximum
laden weight
                            30                     40                   50                60

14.     Stopping distances depend on:

         careful observation and concentration which gives you extra time to see,
          think and react to hazards.

           how fast you are going.

         how far you can see ahead.

           the effects of tiredness/fatigue/stress/drink/drugs.

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          the weather and state of the road.

          whether you are travelling level, up or downhill.

          the condition of your brakes and tyres.

        your driving ability and reaction time.

Why not take a driver assessment or further driver training (see section 87-88)?

15.    Keeping a safe distance

       A useful way of keeping a safe distance in light vehicles is to use the two-
       second rule. As the vehicle in front passes a fixed object (e.g. road sign or lamp
       post) start saying slowly “only a fool breaks the two second rule”. If you pass
       the same object before you finish the saying, you’re too close. This should give
       you adequate time to react in good conditions.

       Double the gap in wet weather by saying the phrase twice. In icy conditions you
       need ten times the distance.

       Large Goods and Passenger Carrying Vehicles require longer distances to stop.

16.    Give yourself the opportunity to remain safe

       Check your vehicle regularly and have it serviced according to the
       manufacturer’s instructions.

       Always make allowances for variations in the road surface, the effect of
       weather conditions and the possible unexpected actions of other road users,
       especially children.

                              PLANNING YOUR JOURNEY

17.   When driving on long or unfamiliar routes or spending some time away from home
      or base, driving can become much safer and less stressful if a little time is spent
      beforehand preparing for the journey. The following guidance is recommended:-

      The Driver

       Take your driving licence, certificate of insurance and MOT, if appropriate,
        with you in case you are stopped by the Police and asked to produce them.
        This could save time and inconvenience later.

       Ensure that you are safe to drive. Do not drive if you feel tired, unwell or are
        under the influence of alcohol or drugs. See advice on eyesight, “How well can
        you see?” 5 to 9 above.

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       You should have at least 11 hours rest before starting out on a long journey.

       Ensure the vehicle is well ventilated.

       Wear comfortable shoes, high heels and slippery soles are not recommended.

18.   The Vehicle

        Make sure your vehicle is roadworthy before you set out. Referring to
         ”Keep your vehicle maintained” will give some guidance.

        Do not overload your vehicle (refer to manufacturers recommendations).
         You must secure any load and it must not stick out dangerously. Make sure
         nothing is left loose on seats or in the foot-wells. If your load doesn’t fit
         safely try an alternative vehicle.

19.   The Route

        Plan and note your route before you set out scheduling places where you
         intend to take a rest. There are a number of web sites that can help.
         Estimate how long the journey will take and leave plenty of time to get to
         your destination.

           You may wish to inform someone of your travel plans (intended route,
           expected arrival time, vehicle details and mobile phone number). You can
           phone them on arrival. If you are delayed or change your plans, don’t forget
           to give them a call.

        Try to avoid travelling in peak times. Check teletext information before
         starting out for traffic information. Keep your radio tuned into the RDS
         mode for up to date information.

        Consider joining a motoring organisation such as the AA, GEM, Green Flag, or
         RAC. In addition to providing breakdown services, they can provide very
         useful travel plans and a host of other services.

        The following sections should also be referred to when planning a journey,

                     Tiredness and fatigue                      20 - 31
                     Mobile phones                              43 – 48
                     Coping with severe weather conditions      61 - 65
                     Taking your vehicle abroad                 83 - 86

                             TIREDNESS AND FATIGUE

20.    Make sure you are fit to drive. Do not undertake a long journey (longer than 1
       hour) if you feel tired. Driving when tired reduces concentration and greatly

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        increases your risk of having a crash. Long journeys without adequate breaks
        are recognised as contributing to driver fatigue.

21.    Sleep does not occur spontaneously or without warning. If you begin to feel
       drowsy look for a safe place to stop for a break. Temporarily winding down the
       window for fresh air and turning on the radio may aid concentration prior to

22.    The best countermeasure to falling asleep at the wheel is to stop and take a nap
       of between 4 and 20 minutes to maintain performance. Longer than 20 minutes
       can develop into a full sleep with all the problems of waking up with heavy limbs
       and lethargy.

23.    Caffeine from two cups of coffee or a high caffeine drink taken immediately
       before a nap can also prove beneficial. Be aware this is only a short-term
       measure lasting around 40 minutes.

24.    None of the above techniques should be used to prolong driving. Fatigue is a
       highly dangerous state which has the potential for minor errors to develop into
       life threatening situations.

25.    If you are feeling tired and there is someone else to share the driving let them
       take over. If you are alone, find somewhere safe for a longer rest.

26.    To help prevent boredom you could plan your route to include a variety of roads
       where the scenery and traffic conditions change. This may also offer more
       opportunities for breaks.

27.    Large meals before a journey can make you lethargic. Take frequent breaks, a
       minimum fifteen minutes every 2 hours. Drink plenty of water during these
       breaks to reduce lethargy caused by de-hydration. This is also a good time to
       take a little exercise.

28.    A comfortable seating position is essential. If you share the driving, don’t be
       tempted to use the seating position of the other driver, the strain on your body
       can add to mental fatigue.

29.    Keep your vehicle well ventilated to prevent drowsiness. Avoid wearing thick or
       tight fitting clothes as these can restrict movement and may induce tiredness.

30.    Avoid driving for longer than 8 hours a day. A rest period of 11 hours is
       recommended before the next driving period begins. A break of at least 15
       minutes following 2 hours continuous driving is recommended - the maximum
       uninterrupted driving time should be no more than 2.5 hours.

31.     Avoid undertaking long journeys between midnight and 6.00am when natural
        alertness is at a minimum.

      Concentration and alertness are the keys to making good driving decisions.
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                                       SEAT BELT SAFETY

32.      Wearing seat belts saves lives and reduces the risk of serious injury in an crash.
         The Law requires everyone to wear a seat belt if one is available, unless you are
         exempt (exemption certificates are only available via your GP). It is illegal to
         carry an unrestrained child in the front of any vehicle.

33.      Summary of the Law
                                   FRONT SEAT                   REAR SEAT                   WHOSE
                                    (all vehicles)        (Cars & small minibuses*)     RESPONSIBILITY
Driver                      Seat belt must be worn if                                        Driver

Child under 3 years of      Appropriate child restraint   Appropriate child restraint       Driver
age                         must be used                  must be worn if available

Child aged 3 to 11 and      Appropriate child restraint   Appropriate child restraint       Driver
under 1.5 metres            must be worn if available.    must be worn if available.
(approx. 5ft) in height     If not, an adult seat belt    If not, an adult seat belt
                            must be worn                  must be worn if available

Child aged 12 or 13 or      Adult seat belt must be       Adult seat belt must be           Driver
younger child 1.5 metres    worn if available             worn if available
(approx. 5ft) or more in

Passenger (over the age     Seat belt must be worn if     Seat belt must be worn if        Passenger
of 14)                      available                     available

                           Minibuses with an unladen weight of 2540 kg or less

34.      Child Restraints

         An appropriate child restraint is a Stage 1 - Baby seat (up to 10 kg.), Stage 2 -
         Child Seat (9 to 18 kg.) and Stage 3 – Booster seat (9 to 25 kg), Harness or
         Booster cushion (15 to 36 kg).

35.      Secure Fitting

         There has been a lot of publicity about badly fitted child seats in vehicles and
         many parents have expressed their concern. Local Authority Road Safety
         Officers may be able to advise you or direct you to organisations who can
         advise. Remember, not all child seats fit all cars or all children!

36.      Do not put a child seat in any position in a vehicle where an inflated airbag might

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37.    Pregnant Drivers

       If you are pregnant there is no need to give up driving. Pregnancy gives no
       exemption to wearing a seat belt. For safety and comfort, try to ensure that
       the straps cross the body above and below the bump, not over it.


38.    Head Restraints

       Head restraints are provided for safety not for comfort.

        A head restraint prevents the occupant’s head from being violently jerked
         backwards during an impact, reducing the risk of severe injuries to the neck
         and/or spine.

        A head restraint should be positioned at or above eye level and as close to
         the back of the head as possible.

39.    Air Bags

       Airbags create an energy absorbing cushion between an occupant’s upper body
       and the structure of the vehicle.

40.    In moderate or severe crashes, sensors signal inflators to fill the bags with
       harmless gas. The bags fill in milliseconds and deflate as they cushion

41.    The speed and force of air bag inflation can cause very minor injuries. Choose a
       seating position that does not put your face or chest close to the steering wheel
       or dashboard.

42.    It is important to remember when travelling in vehicles fitted with air bags that
       seat belts must still be used.

                                  MOBILE PHONES

43.   A mobile phone can greatly enhance your security and peace of mind, especially
      when travelling alone. It can be used for summoning help quickly.

44.   On a motorway, roadside emergency phones sited every mile, should be used for
      obtaining help. The operator will know your precise location and most are also
      linked to video cameras monitored by traffic police operations centres.

45.    Using a mobile phone whilst driving distracts attention from the road. Never
       use a hand-held or hands-free mobile phone whilst driving. Switch it off, let
       the passenger use it or find a safe and legal place to park before use.

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46.    Research shows that a driver using a mobile phone whilst driving is about four
       times more likely to be involved in a crash (the risk is the same as being just
       over the legal drink/drive alcohol limit).

47.   Some mobile telephones have a voice mail or call divert facility so messages can
      be left when the phone is switched off. You can return calls when it is safe.
48.   In law you must have proper control of your vehicle at all times. If the use of a
      phone affects your control of the vehicle, causes you to drive without due care
      and attention or causes you to drive in a careless or dangerous manner, you could
      be prosecuted, receive a fine, disqualification or a prison sentence.


49.    The following should help minimise the risks to you and your possessions:

        Keep a check on your vehicle and have it regularly serviced. See paragraph
         57 to 58 for checklist.

        If possible, travel by day on main or well-used roads. If you have to make a
         journey after dark try to advise someone of your destination and your
         estimated time of arrival. Also tell them the route you plan to take.

        Carry a mobile phone, some small change for a phone call or vehicle parking,
         phonecard, torch, first aid kit, road atlas, reflective jacket.

        Keep all doors locked, especially in town. Lock your vehicle when paying for
         fuel. Keep valuables and bags out of sight, preferably locked in the boot.
         Never leave anything where it can be seen tempting others.

        Park in well lit areas where security measures are used and other people are

        If your vehicle starts to play-up, stop in a busy, well-lit area, near a phone
         box. Don’t try to make it home regardless. On motorways, stop on the hard
         shoulder as far away from the main carriageway as possible. Get any
         passengers out of the vehicle through nearside doors and on to the area
         behind the crash barrier. Use the hazard warning lights.

        Never give lifts to strangers.


50.   When driving alone don't under any circumstances give hitch-hikers a lift.

51.   If you see an incident, crash or someone tries to flag you down, think first. Is it
      genuine? Could you help? It might be safer and more practical to report what
      you have seen at the next convenient police station or make a phone call when

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      stationary in a safe place. You may use the emergency telephones on a motorway
      to get police assistance.

52.   If you think you are being followed, don't go home, keep calm and continue
      driving until you come to a busy place; a police, fire or ambulance station; pub or
      garage forecourt and ask for assistance. If you are afraid to get out of your
      vehicle on arrival, simply sound your horn repeatedly, you will quickly draw
      attention to yourself.

53.   If a vehicle pulls up alongside you and the occupants try to attract your
      attention, ignore them and don't make eye contact. If they persist, follow
      instructions as indicated in the previous paragraph.

54.   Beware of other drivers signalling faults on your vehicle, it could be a ploy to get
      you to pull over. Instead, drive on slowly until it is safe to stop and check for
      yourself in a busy well lit area.

55.   If a vehicle pulls up in front of you and causes you to stop, never turn off the
      engine. Stay calm and if the driver approaches you, reverse as far as possible
      without causing danger, continually sound the horn and activate your hazard
      lights, regardless of whatever time of day or night it is. Ensure that all your
      windows are closed and the doors locked. If you have a mobile phone, use it to
      call the Police.

56.   If someone tries to force down a partially open window, retaliate by hitting their
      hand with anything available such as a shoe, especially a stiletto heel, or a bunch
      of keys etc. Continue to make lots of noise, sounding your horn, shouting or
      flashing your lights.

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57.    By keeping your vehicle in good running order you can reduce the risk of
       breakdown and be safer. The safety of the vehicle is the driver’s
       responsibility. If the vehicle is your own you may choose to do some
       maintenance yourself, but work on the brakes and steering should be checked
       (or done) by a qualified mechanic. Follow the manufacturer's handbook for
       servicing and regular checks.

58.   Your handbook should illustrate the location of the main items to check every
      day/week and before major journeys. The following mnemonic POWER may help
      you to remember to check:

       PETROL (fuel)
       Have you enough fuel to complete the journey, or at least to reach a filling
       station? Fill up regularly. A spare fuel can is a fire risk, so we recommend you
       do not carry one.

       OIL (including engine oil, brake & power steering fluids)
       Check the dipstick when the engine is cold and the vehicle is on level ground.
       Too little or too much oil can cause damage. Cheap oil is a false economy, as is
       delaying an oil change.

       Check brake fluid and power steering fluid levels. If the levels drop sharply or
       frequently, the systems must be checked for faults or leaks.

       WATER (including radiator and screen-wash)
       When the engine is cold check the radiator reservoir. Top up if necessary
       with the correct coolant mix.

       It is illegal to drive without working screen-washers, so keep them topped up.
       Add some screen-wash fluid to help clear grease and prevent freezing.

       All the glass must be kept as clean as possible inside and out to maximise your

       ELECTRICS (including lights and battery)
       All lights fitted to the vehicle must be working, clean and adjusted to prevent
       dazzle. Check all your warning lights and instruments work too. Keep a spare

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       set of bulbs and fuses in the vehicle; replace blown ones promptly. Battery
       terminals should be tight and greased to prevent corrosion.

       RUBBER (including tyres, wipers and drive belts)
       Tyres must be properly inflated and free from cuts and other defects.
       Check pressures when they are cold including the spare. Refer to your
       handbook. Keep valve caps screwed on firmly.

       Look for wear and damage to tyres. Any worn or damaged tyre should be
       replaced before it reaches the legal limit.

        The tread depth must be at least 1.6mm round the entire circumference of
         the tyre in the central 3/4 of it’s breadth. However, the Police and
         motoring organisations recommend a minimum of 2mm.

        Use the tread wear indicators moulded into the grooves round the tyre to
         help judge when to change them. Uneven wear could indicate a fault.

        Replace a tyre if it has a cut in excess of 25mm or 10% of the section width
         of the tyre, whichever is the greater, measured in any direction and deep
         enough to reach the ply or cord.

        Clean the wiper blades to prevent smearing and replace them when worn.

        Check the engine drive belts (e.g. fan belt) for tension and signs of wear.
         The battery may not charge correctly with a worn or loose belt.


       Learn how to change a wheel – it may save you a lot of time, frustration and
       expense. Read your vehicle handbook so you will know what to do.

                                  VEHICLE SECURITY

60.    To avoid your vehicle being stolen or broken into, the following may help:

             Remove the ignition key and engage the steering lock. Fit a visible
              security device over the handbrake, clutch or steering wheel.

             Lock the vehicle and set the alarm, if fitted, even if leaving it for only a
              few minutes.

             Close all windows completely. Never leave young children alone in the

           Remove all valuables/contents and lock them in the boot. Nearly a third
            of all stolen credit cards are from vehicles.

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             Never leave the vehicle documents inside.

             Use attended or secure vehicle parking areas. Park in a well lit area.
              Never leave a soft-top vehicle where it will be vulnerable.

             Have the vehicle registration number etched on all windows.

             Install a security coded or removable radio if possible.

           For further advice contact the Police


                          REMEMBER - LOCK IT OR LOSE IT


61.    Bad weather is often blamed for causing crashes, but the real cause is
       inappropriate driving for the conditions. Extreme weather conditions, either
       very hot or very cold, will show up any deficiencies in both driver and vehicle.

62.    Whatever the weather, make sure your vehicle and equipment are in good
       condition, regularly checked and serviced. See the checklist at 57 and 58.

63.    Never start a journey before ensuring that all glass areas are clean and clear,
       free of frost and snow. An ice scraper/squeegee is essential. Don’t rely on
       demisters and internal heating to do this for you whilst you are travelling

64.    Before setting off in hazardous conditions ask yourself ‘is the journey
       absolutely necessary’? If it is:

        check national and local weather forecasts.

        tell someone you are going, an estimated time of arrival, your proposed
         destination and the route.
        going to be a long journey, consider taking food and a hot drink with you as
         well as a thick rug and mobile phone.

        make sure you have plenty of fuel.

65.    When driving:

           see and be seen - if you cannot see clearly use dipped headlights.

           use front and rear foglights if visibility is seriously reduced, only when
            you cannot see more than 100 metres. Switch them off when visibility

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           Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front. You should always be able
            to stop within the distance you can see to be clear.

           In fog, don’t get too close to the tail lights of the vehicle in front and
            use the edge of the carriageway, hazard lines and cat’s eyes as a guide.

           Be aware of your speed. Keep your speed down where the road has been
            gritted, there are wet leaves, rain, oil, loose dust or gravel and mud.

           Pay particular attention to the road surface. Snow and ice will greatly
            reduce the grip of the tyres - drive slowly in a high gear to avoid wheel

           Keep a careful watch on other road users, especially pedestrians, horses
            and their riders, motor and pedal cyclists.

                                 PARKING AT NIGHT

66.    You must not park on a road at night facing against the direction of the traffic
       flow unless in a recognised parking place.

67.    All vehicles must display parking lights when parked on a road or lay-by on a
       road with a speed limit greater than 30mph.

68.   When parking the vehicle always place it in a well lit area. Take a moment or two
      to look around before you get out.

69.   Park where security measures are used and other people are present.

70.   If you park in the daytime and don't intend to return to the vehicle until after
      dark, try to imagine what the vehicle park will look like then. Are there trees,
      bushes or any other obstructions which could hide a person?

71.   When returning, ensure you have your keys ready and check the rear seats
      before entering the car. Do this with a torch.
72.   Never leave your keys in the ignition, even if you are only popping into a shop for
      a few seconds. Always lock the doors and take the keys with you.

73.   Keep headlights on when opening garage doors at night. This may help you see if
      there is anyone lurking in the vicinity.

74.   When arriving home have your house keys ready before leaving the vehicle to
      avoid standing around in the dark, searching for them.

75.   Women who carry a spare pair of shoes for driving, should ensure that these are
      kept out of sight when leaving the car. If they are left in view, they will give an
      indication of the driver's sex to a would be thief or attacker.

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76.    Many breakdowns are the result of neglect, failing to make routine checks and
       abuse of the vehicle, in particular running out of fuel.

77.    The following guidance may help:

        Stay calm, breakdowns are common and can be dealt with easily.

        If you have enough warning of an impending breakdown, try and pull up in a
         busy well-lit place.

        If anyone offers help, ask them to drive to the nearest telephone and call an
         emergency breakdown service. Do not get in their car.

        Membership of a recognised recovery service is highly recommended.

        Consider carrying a fluorescent/reflective jacket, warning triangle, torch,
         blanket and first aid kit.

        It is a good idea to practice changing a wheel using the jack provided before
         you really need to.

        Always know where your locking wheel nut key is located if you have one.


       Think of other traffic:

        If you have enough warning of an impending breakdown, try and pull up in a
         busy well-lit place. If possible, move your vehicle off the carriageway.

        Use your hazard warning lights (plus side lights at night).

        Use a red warning triangle (at least 45m behind your vehicle on the same
         side of the road) to warn approaching traffic. Always take great care when
         placing them and NEVER use them on motorways.
        Keep passengers and animals well under control and away from the road.

        Contact a breakdown service if you are unable to rectify the fault.

        Contact the nearest police station if your vehicle is causing an obstruction,
         you are travelling alone or want advice.


        Do not stop on the carriageway. Move over to the nearside carriageway as
         soon as you feel the problem developing. Take your time, don’t panic or
         cause other traffic to brake.

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        Leave the motorway at the next exit or pull into a service area.

       If you cannot do so:

       Move your vehicle slowly onto the hard shoulder. Stop as far to the left of
        the hard shoulder as possible.

       Try to stop near an emergency telephone. They are one mile apart and the
        arrows on the marker posts point to the nearest one.

       Switch on your hazard warning lights. Keep your sidelights on at night.

       Exit your vehicle by the left hand door and make passengers do the same
        (leave any animals inside or keep them under proper control on the verge).
        Wait near the vehicle, well away from the motorway and hard shoulder,
        behind the crash barrier or on grass verge.

       Wear a fluorescent/reflective jacket if you have one.

       Use the motorway telephone to seek assistance. It is free and connects
        directly to the police. If alone, tell them. Most motorway telephones are
        monitored by video cameras linked to the local police.

       Every motorway emergency telephone is fitted with an inductive coupler for
        people with hearing impairment who are wearing a hearing aid. Those who
        are profoundly deaf should take the phone off the hook, this will alert the
        emergency services who will investigate.

        Inside the door of the telephone box you will find a list of all the
         information you need to give motorway control:
                   -   your name and address
                   -   your vehicle make, model, registration number and vehicle colour
                   -   nature of breakdown
                   -   your motoring organisation membership number

        If you are travelling alone, tell the police. They will alert a police vehicle to
         check you are all right.
          If someone should approach you whilst you are on the telephone, tell the
           police the car's registration and a description of the driver. Then return to
           your vehicle and lock yourself in. Do not lower the window more than half
           an inch to speak.

          If you see a woman driver whose vehicle has broken down think before
           stopping. Rather than stop and risk your actions being misinterpreted,
           carry on until you reach a phone. Let police know that a woman’s vehicle has
           broken down, appears to be alone and give the location.

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                              Health and Safety Standards

          The Highway Code advises you to decide whether or not to stay in the
           vehicle or stand on the verge. The Department of Transport, Police, RAC
           and AA advice is to stay on the verge, only re-entering if you feel in danger.
           10% of all fatal motorway incidents take place on the hard shoulder.
           Consider the weather, time of day and if it is dark and deserted or busy
           and well lit.

          When the breakdown truck arrives, check that the driver knows your name
           and has in fact been sent to you.

          When rejoining the motorway, build up speed along the hard shoulder, signal
           and move onto the nearside lane when it is safe.

          Remember: never attempt repairs yourself.


80.    These steps should be followed if you are involved in an incident:

        You must stop and exchange details with any third parties involved. This is a
         legal requirement. Use of the form at Appendix 2 will help you record the
         information that will be required by your insurers. If you think you were
         deliberately hit don’t stop, don't go home, keep calm and continue driving
         until you come to a busy place; a police, fire or ambulance station; pub or
         garage forecourt and ask for assistance. If you are afraid to get out of
         your vehicle on arrival, simply sound your horn and flash your lights
         repeatedly, you will quickly draw attention to yourself. This occurrence is
         rare and will often be preceded with other abnormal circumstances.

        If you are involved in an incident resulting in someone being injured, or, if
         you are unable to exchange particulars with the third party, you must inform
         the police within 24 hours.

        Give your name, and the vehicle owner’s name and address, registration
         number and insurance details to anyone having reasonable grounds to require

        No statements admitting fault or liability should be made to third parties.
         The police should be given all reasonable assistance.

        You should obtain the name and address of the owner/driver of the other
         vehicle(s) involved along with the registration number(s), and the name(s) of
         their insurers.

        You should obtain the names and addresses of independent witnesses.

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                                Health and Safety Standards

        If the police are involved you should obtain the police officer’s name,
         number and station.

        Try to show in a sketch details of width of road, position of vehicles involved
         and of any traffic, skid marks, positions of road signs, traffic islands,
         turnings etc.

                                       FIRST AID

   According to the RAC, over half of those killed in road crashes die before they reach
  hospital. And well over a third of those could have been saved by first aid at the scene.

81.    Always carry a first aid kit. You could save a life by learning emergency aid and
       first aid from a qualified organisation, such as the local ambulance services, the
       St John Ambulance Association and Brigade, St Andrew's Ambulance
       Association, the British Red Cross or any suitable qualified body.

82.    In the event of an crash, you can do a number of things to help, even if you have
       had no training

    Deal with danger
     Use your hazard warning lights to warn other traffic. Further collisions and fire
     are the main dangers following an accident. Approach any vehicle involved with
     care. Switch off all engines and, if possible, warn other traffic. Stop anyone
     from smoking. Move uninjured people away from the vehicles to safety; on a
     motorway this should, if possible, be well away from the traffic, the hard
     shoulder and the central reservation

    Get help
     Try to get the assistance of bystanders. Get someone to call the appropriate
     emergency services as soon as possible. They will need to know the exact
     location of the crash and the number of vehicles involved. Stay at the scene
     until emergency services arrive.

    Help those involved
       DO NOT move casualties still in vehicles unless further danger is threatened.
       DO NOT remove a motorcyclist's helmet unless it is essential.
       DO NOT give the casualty anything to eat or drink.
       DO try to make them comfortable and prevent them from getting cold, but
       avoid unnecessary movement.
       DO give reassurance confidently to the casualty. They may be shocked but
       prompt treatment will minimise this.
       DO ensure they are not left alone. Calm hysterical people in firm, quiet tones.

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                               Health and Safety Standards

       DO pay particular attention to those who are very quiet they may need further
       attention. Even apparently uninjured persons could be in shock.

       BE PREPARED to give first aid as shown below.

   Provide emergency care - follow the ABC of first aid
        A is for Airway - check for and relieve any obstruction to breathing. Remove
         any obvious obstruction in the mouth. Breathing may begin and colour

        B is for Breathing - if breathing does not begin when the airway has been
         cleared, lift the chin and tilt the head very gently backwards. Pinch the
         casualty's nostrils and blow into the mouth until the chest rises; withdraw,
         then repeat regularly once every four seconds until the casualty can breathe

        C is for Circulation - prevent blood loss to maintain circulation. If bleeding is
         present apply firm hand pressure over the wound, preferably using some
         clean material, without pressing on any foreign body in the wound. Secure a
         pad with a bandage or length of cloth. Raise the limb to lessen the bleeding,
         provided it is not broken.

                          TAKING YOUR VEHICLE ABROAD

83.    Taking your vehicle abroad or hiring one is now commonplace. This summarises
       what you need to do to prepare for your journey.

84.    Documentation

        Driving Licence - A pink, pink and green or photocard EC format licence is
         valid in all EU and EEA (European Economic Area) countries. Many non-EC
         countries require an International Driving Permit (IDP).

           NOTE: In many countries the minimum age for driving is 18.

          Vehicle Registration document - If the vehicle does not belong to you a
           letter of authority from the owner should be obtained.

          Certificate of Roadworthiness (M.O.T.) if the vehicle is 3 years or older.

        Certificate of insurance - it is essential to confirm extent of insurers cover.
         An incident report form is usually included with your document (Green Card).

        Bail Bond – required in Spain if you are imprisoned. Your insurers can advise.

        Form E111 - free medical treatment entitlement, available from post office.

        Passport – valid until after the date of your return to the UK.

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                               Health and Safety Standards

85.    The Vehicle

       Have it thoroughly checked, serviced and the headlights adapted before the
       journey. Equipment such as a set of replacement bulbs, spare fuses, GB sticker,
       warning triangle (or 2), spare spectacles, first aid kit and fire extinguisher are
       required at all times in particular countries. Travel operators will advise and
       many will hire these as part of their service although it is a good idea to carry
       these items at anytime.

86.    The Route

        Plan regular stops.

        Never drive longer than two and half hours without a break.

        Never compromise your comfort for sake of carrying more luggage.

        Carry appropriate currency - many motorways in Europe are toll roads.

        Drink/Drive laws and penalties abroad are often more severe than in the UK.

        It can take time to adjust to driving on the right. Use all mirrors before
         making a manoeuvre and remember a direct visual check is always advisable.

        Make certain you are fit for the trip.

The major motoring organisations can help you plan the details of your trip. They can
also advise on individual variations in national driving laws.

                            FURTHER DRIVER TRAINING

87.    Research shows that drivers who have taken further training have a far lower
       accident and conviction rate than those who have not. Many insurance companies
       offer a discount on premiums for those passing a further training qualification.

88.    Practical training - the Institute of Advanced Motoring and RoSPA Advanced
       Drivers Association local groups run training courses, offering driver
       assessment leading to self improvement and a test if you would like one for a
       nominal fee.

        COURSE AIMS                           BENEFITS
           Raise driving standards              Improves your driving safety
           Reduce road collisions               More economical motoring
           Reduce driving offences              Reduces stress levels
           Increase understanding               Increases driving enjoyment
       Drivers who have taken further training are 50% less likely to be involved
       in a road collision.

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                             Health and Safety Standards

       A variety of other driving courses may be found such as :
         Defensive driving techniques        Motorway driving
         Hazard perception                   Skid control and avoidance
         Speed awareness                     Four wheel drive

       For more information contact your Local Authority Road Safety Officer.

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                               Health and Safety Standards

                                                                           APPENDIX I
                         USEFUL ADDRESSES & PUBLICATIONS

RoSPA Advanced Drivers Association            Driving Standards Agency
Edgbaston Park                                Stanley House
510 Bristol Road                              56 Talbot Street
BIRMINGHAM                                    NOTTINGHAM
B5 7ST ??????????                             NG1 5GU
Tel: 0121 248 2099                            Tel: 0115 9012500
Fax 0121 248 2001           
Institute of Advanced Motorists               Driver & Vehicle Licensing Agency
I.A.M. House                                  DVLA
359 Chiswick High Road                        SWANSEA
London                                        SA99 1AN
W4 4HS
Tel: 0181 994 4403                            Tel: 01792 772134                      
Automobile Association                        RAC Motoring Services
Fanum House                                   Great Park Road
Basingstoke                                   Bradley Stoke
Hampshire                                     BRISTOL
RG21 2EA                                      BS32 4ZZ
Tel: 01256 20123                              Tel: 0800 550550                     


THE HIGHWAY CODE – The Stationery Office
This is essential reading for all drivers. It is regularly updated, so have the latest
edition. It contains advice and rules on how to conduct yourself on the road. Many of
its rules are legal requirements.

THE DRIVING MANUAL - Driving Standards Agency
Sub-titled “Safe Driving for Life” it is written in an easy to read style with full colour
graphics. Its twenty chapters give advice on all aspects of motoring.

ROADCRAFT – The Stationery Office
The aim of this Police Driver’s Handbook are to improve the skill and safety of your
driving so that you can make the best use of road and traffic conditions. It is the
authoritative text on Defensive Driving and is used to train police officers. It is also
used by the RoSPA Advanced Drivers Association and the Institute of Advanced
Motorists as the basis for their training programmes.

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                                          Health and Safety Standards
                                                                                                              APPENDIX II
INCIDENT RECORDING SHEET                                     -      to be completed at time of incident.
 Other                                                                 Owner of vehicle
 vehicle or        Title, initials & surname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 involved          Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        Male / Female

                   Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                   Drivers name and address (if different from owner of vehicle)

                   Title, initials & surname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                   Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        Male / Female

                   Make of vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            Registration no. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                   Details of damage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                   Type of injury suffered by driver (if any) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                   Insurance company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Policy number . . . . . . . .

                   Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


 Persons           Title, Initials, Surname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 (other than
                   Age . . . . . . . . .       Male / Female
 the Driver
 of third          Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Was injured person hospitalised? Yes/No

                   Category (i.e. passenger? Pedestrian etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                   In which vehicle? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                   Was injured person wearing a seat belt?                                  Yes / No

                   Type of injury suffered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                    (If more injured persons, give the same information as above on separate

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                                          Health and Safety Standards

 information       Date . . . / . . . / . . . . .        Time . . : . .         Speed of Insured’s vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                   Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      Speed of other vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                   Purpose of journey . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 Speed limit for road . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                   Weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          What lights were in use? (if any) . . . . . . . . .
 information       Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Full description of incident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


                   ............................................................... .......
 Witnesses         Independent: Name                                               Address

                   1.     ........................................................... .......

                   2.      .................................................... .............

                   3.      ........................................................... ......
                   Passengers in Insured’s Vehicle
                                  Name                                              Address

                   1.     ........................................................... .......

                   2.     ..................................................................
 Police            Were the Police informed? Yes / No                                 Did the Police attend? Yes / No

                   Give Officer’s name, number and station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                   Are proceedings pending? Yes / No                                    If yes, against whom?


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                           Health and Safety Standards

 Draw sketch of Accident scene overleaf.

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