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URBAN TREE GROWTH Conference Proceedings


									                                           URBAN TREE GROWTH
                                              An International Meeting
                                              and Research Symposium

         4100 Illinois Route 53            Conference Proceedings
          Lisle, Illinois 60532
              United States
                                              September 12—13, 2011
   For information on future programs,         The Morton Arboretum
please visit           Lisle, Illinois
Welcome                                                                                                                                                Acknowledgements

The International Society of Arboriculture (ISA), Urban Tree Growth &                    Symposium Committee
Longevity Working Group, and The Morton Arboretum welcome you to this two-day
symposium. This meeting brings together internationally renowned researchers and         Thank you to the ISA Urban Tree Growth & Longevity Working Group for the many
practitioners to discuss the current state of knowledge concerning urban tree growth,    hours spent planning and implementing this symposium. Members of the Working
mortality, and longevity. With this collaboration among professionals and researchers    Group and Symposium Committee are:
we hope to identify important gaps in our knowledge, discuss promising new
methodologies, prioritize research and education needs, and outline a course of action       Greg McPherson (USDA–Forest              Rachel Leibowitz (ISA)
for future research and outreach on urban tree health.                                       Service)                                 Ward Peterson (Davey)
                                                                                             Paula Peper (USDA–Forest                 Julia Bartens (U. California–Davis)
Thank You to Our Sponsors                                                                     Service)                                Lara Roman (U. California–Berkeley)
                                                                                             Bryant Scharenbroch                      Jason Grabosky (Rutgers U.)
Just as the Urban Tree Growth & Longevity Working Group aims to bring many                   (The Morton Arboretum)                   Jessica Sanders (Rutgers U.)
individuals and organizations together to work towards a common goal, funding this           Megan Dunning
                                                                                                                                      Richard Hauer (UW–Stevens Point)
symposium is a collaborative effort among many organizations and industry groups.            (The Morton Arboretum)
We thank and recognize the generosity of our sponsors.                                       Sharon Lilly (ISA)

                                                                                            The mission of the ISA Urban Tree Growth & Longevity Working Group is to foster
                                                                                            communication, enrich scientific exchange, and enhance the quality, productivity,
                                                                                               timeliness of research on urban tree growth, mortality, and longevity through
                                                                                              collaboration. A coordinated approach will provide involved professionals with
                                                                                                 information they need to make decisions that improve tree performance.
                                                                                          Understanding how factors interact to influence tree growth, mortality, and longevity
                                                                                           is fundamental to actualizing the full value of urban forests through improved: tree
                                                                                           selection and matching trees with site conditions, modification of site conditions to
                                                                                         foster desired tree performance, targeting tree care and monitoring to improve return
                                                                                          on investment, predicting tree replacement needs due to mortality, and modeling of
                                                                                                                          tree benefits and costs.

                                                                                         The mission of The Morton Arboretum is to collect and study trees, shrubs, and other
                                                                                          plants from around the world, to display them across naturally beautiful landscapes
                                                                                              for people to study and enjoy, and to learn how to grow them in ways that
                                                                                         enhance our environment. Our goal is to encourage the planting and conservation of
                                                                                               trees and other plants for a greener, healthier, and more beautiful world.
Notes                                           Table of Contents
                                                Schedule…………………………………………………………………………………………................................. 2
_____________________________________________   Location & Transportation................................................................................................... 5

_____________________________________________   Topic 1 – Descriptive studies on tree growth, longevity, and mortality…………………........... 6

_____________________________________________   Topic 2 – Roles of tree production and sales on tree growth and longevity.…………………... 17
_____________________________________________   Topic 3 – Impacts of site design and tree selection on tree growth and longevity..…......... 23
_____________________________________________   Topic 4 – Effects of tree and site management on tree growth and longevity……………….... 30
                                                Poster presentations………………………………………………………………………….……………………………. 39
                                                Visitor information….…………………………………………….………………..............................………...... 51
_____________________________________________   Notes………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………… 52

_____________________________________________   Announcements
                                                       Please wear your name badge during symposium events. Please silence your cell
_____________________________________________          phone during presentation and discussions.
_____________________________________________          International Society of Arboriculture continuing education credits are offered for
                                                       educational sessions on both days (7 CEUs for Day 1 and 5.5 CEUs for Day 2).
_____________________________________________          Conference registration fees include educational sessions, refreshment breaks, a
_____________________________________________          hot buffet lunch on Monday and a box lunch on Tuesday.
                                                       A program evaluation will be circulated during the conference. Please complete
_____________________________________________          and return your evaluation—your feedback helps us improve our programs.
_____________________________________________          Many of the papers presented at this conference will be submitted for publication
                                                       in a special issue of the journal Arboriculture & Urban Forestry.
_____________________________________________          Shuttles run from Hilton Lisle/Naperville Hotel to Thornhill Education Center at
_____________________________________________          The Morton Arboretum for registered guests. See location & transportation for
                                                       details on arrivals and departure times.
                                                       Participants are invited to take an Arboretum Tram Tour on Wednesday, Sept. 14,
_____________________________________________          2011. If you wish to attend the Tram Tour, please pick up your tickets at Thornhill
                                                       during the meeting Monday or Tuesday at the conference registration desk. The
_____________________________________________          Tram Tour will depart from the Tram Circle outside the Visitor Center (between
_____________________________________________          the VC and the Children's Garden). Please be at the Tram Circle by 9:25 am on
                                                       9/14 to board the tram. The tour will take just over an hour, and will take place
_____________________________________________          entirely on the tram.
_____________________________________________          Post-conference announcements and information can be found at:
                                              or by contacting Bryant
_____________________________________________          Scharenbroch at
At a Glance Schedule                                                                                                        Notes

Monday, September 12, 2011                                                         _____________________________________________
All presentations will be in the Arbor Room at Thornhill Education Center.         _____________________________________________
8-8:30 am           Welcome and orientation
                    Gerard Donnelly, The Morton Arboretum                          _____________________________________________
Topic 1: Descriptive studies of tree growth, longevity and mortality
8:30-9 am         Keynote: Tree growth studies: propelling arborists to new
                  heights                                                          _____________________________________________
                  Greg McPherson and Paula Peper, USDA – Forest Service            _____________________________________________
9-9:30 am         Tree growth and health in Phoenix
                  Chris Martin, Arizona State University                           _____________________________________________
9:30-10 am        Linking composition, structure, and productivity across the      _____________________________________________
                  Chicago’s urban forest
                  Robert Fahey and Marlin Bowles, The Morton Arboretum
10-10:30 am         Break (refreshments and posters in the Founder’s Room)         _____________________________________________
Topic 1: Descriptive studies of tree growth, longevity and mortality (cont.)       _____________________________________________
10:30-11 am       Urban tree mortality rates: concepts from demography             _____________________________________________
                  Lara Roman, University of California – Berkeley
11-11:30 am       A soil quality index for urban trees
                  Bryant Scharenbroch, The Morton Arboretum                        _____________________________________________
11:30 am-12 pm Live oak growth in the streets of Jacksonville, FL: Can we          _____________________________________________
                  predict its future?
                  Julia Bartens, University of California - Davis                  _____________________________________________
12-1 pm             Lunch (downstairs in the Gallery and classrooms)
Topic 2: Roles of tree production and sales on tree growth and longevity           _____________________________________________
1-1:30 pm          Keynote: Nursery production strategies impact tree              _____________________________________________
                   longevity and performance, don’t they?
                   Ed Gilman, University of Florida                                _____________________________________________
1:30-2 pm          Propagation and production for dispersed root systems           _____________________________________________
                   Ed Mulrean, Arid Zone Trees
2-2:30 pm          What should we plant? New York City’s plan to diversify its
                   urban forest one tree at a time                                 _____________________________________________
                   Matthew Stephens, New York City Parks Department                _____________________________________________
2:30-3 pm          Habitat studies as a selection model in the search for future
                   urban trees                                                     _____________________________________________
                   Henrik Sjöman, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences      _____________________________________________
2                                                                                                                              59
Notes                                                                                                  At a Glance Schedule

_____________________________________________   Monday, September 12, cont.
_____________________________________________   3-3:30 pm        Break (refreshments and posters in the Founder’s Room)
                                                Topic 3: Roles of site design and tree selection on tree growth and longevity
_____________________________________________   3:30-4 pm         Keynote: Site design and tree growth
_____________________________________________                     Susan Day, Virginia Tech
_____________________________________________   4-4:30 pm         Growing trees in an urban plaza environment
                                                                  Tom Smiley, Bartlett Tree Research
_____________________________________________   4:30-5 pm         Urban site index for urban forest planning
_____________________________________________                     Alan Siewert, Ohio Department of Natural Resources
                                                5-5:30 pm         An organizational approach to urban tree management and
_____________________________________________                     longevity
_____________________________________________                     Jason Grabosky, Rutgers University
                                                5:30-6:30 pm     Reception
_____________________________________________                    Networking and poster viewing in Founder’s room. Light
_____________________________________________                    snacks and a cash bar will be on-hand.
_____________________________________________   Tuesday, September 13, 2011
                                                Topic 4: Roles of tree and site management on tree growth and longevity
_____________________________________________   8-8:30 am          Keynote: Making the most of what science offers us
_____________________________________________                      James Clark, HortScience, Inc.
_____________________________________________   8:30-9 am          Roadwork and street trees: the high cost of coexistence
                                                                   Alessandro Pestalozza, Monza Dendrotec
_____________________________________________   9-9:30 am          The effect of repeated pruning cycles on tree structure and
_____________________________________________                      physiology of sycamore maple depends on pruning method
                                                                   Alessio Fini, University of Florence
_____________________________________________   9:30-10 am       Break (refreshments and posters in Founder’s Room)
                                                Topic 4: Roles of tree and site management on tree growth and longevity
_____________________________________________                      (cont.)
_____________________________________________   10-10:30 am        Tree planting depth impacts tree growth
                                                                   Gary Watson, The Morton Arboretum
_____________________________________________   10:30-11 am        Rooting volume and tree growth responses in the urban
_____________________________________________                      environment
_____________________________________________                      Nina Bassuk, Cornell University

_____________________________________________                                                                 Continued on next page

58                                                                                                                                3
At a Glance Schedule                                                                                                     Notes

Tuesday, September 13, cont.                                                    _____________________________________________
11-11:10 am      Purpose and logistics for roundtable discussion                _____________________________________________
                 Greg McPherson, USDA – Forest Service                          _____________________________________________
11:10-11:40 am Research priorities related to impacts of tree production
               and sales on tree growth and longevity and facilitated           _____________________________________________
               discussion. Led by Ed Gilman, University of Florida              _____________________________________________
11:40-12:10 pm Research priorities related to impacts of site design and tree   _____________________________________________
               selection on tree growth and longevity and facilitated           _____________________________________________
               discussion. Led by Susan Day, Virginia Tech
12:10-12:30 pm Box lunch (pickup downstairs)                                    _____________________________________________
12:30-1:00 pm    Research priorities related to impacts of tree and site man-
                 agement on tree growth and longevity and facilitated           _____________________________________________
                 discussion. Led by James Clark, HortScience, Inc.              _____________________________________________
1:00-1:30 pm     Research priorities related to descriptive studies on tree
                 growth, longevity, and mortality and facilitated discussion.   _____________________________________________
                 Led by Greg McPherson, USDA – Forest Service                   _____________________________________________
1:30-1:45 pm     Break (refreshments and posters in Founder’s Room)             _____________________________________________
1:45-3:00 pm     Voting and tallying period, facilitated discussion, followed
                 by conference synopsis
3:00-3:30 pm     Break (refreshments and posters in Founder’s Room)             _____________________________________________
3:30-5:30 pm     Next steps for the ISA Urban Tree Growth & Longevity           _____________________________________________
                 Working Group                                                  _____________________________________________
Wednesday, September 14, 2011.                                                  _____________________________________________
9:30-10:30 am    Tram Ride for Conference Participants. Please pick up
                 tickets Monday or Tuesday and meet in the Tram Circle at
                 the east side Visitor Center by 9:25 am.                       _____________________________________________
4                                                                                                                           57
Notes                                                                                               Location and Transportation

_____________________________________________   Location
_____________________________________________   The Urban Tree Growth Conference will be held at the Thornhill Education Center,
_____________________________________________   which is located on the west side of The Morton Arboretum. The Morton Arboretum is
                                                located 25 miles west of Chicago, IL and 20 miles southwest of O’Hare airport.
_____________________________________________   Conference Hotel
_____________________________________________   The conference hotel is the Hilton Lisle/Naperville, 3003 Corporate West Drive, Lisle, IL
_____________________________________________   60532 (phone number is 630-505-0900). From The Morton Arboretum, take Route 53
                                                south to Warrenville Road and turn right. Go 1.5 miles west. The hotel is on the left.
_____________________________________________   Shuttles will pick up conference attendees and return them to the hotel at the begin-
                                                ning and end of each day.
_____________________________________________   Shuttle Schedule from the Hilton Lisle/Naperville
                                                Monday, September 12, 2011
_____________________________________________   7:30 am             Shuttles depart Hilton Lisle/Naperville for Thornhill
_____________________________________________                       Education Center at The Morton Arboretum

_____________________________________________   6:30 pm             Shuttles depart Thornhill Education Center at The Morton
_____________________________________________                       Arboretum for the Hilton Lisle/Naperville
_____________________________________________   Tuesday, September 13, 2011
_____________________________________________   7:30 am             Shuttles depart the Hilton Lisle/Napervillefor Thornhill
                                                                    Education Center at The Morton Arboretum
_____________________________________________   3:30 pm             Shuttles depart Thornhill Education Center at The Morton
                                                                    Arboretum for the Hilton Lisle/Naperville
_____________________________________________   5:45 pm             Shuttles depart Thornhill Education Center at The Morton
_____________________________________________                       Arboretum for the Hilton Lisle/Naperville

56                                                                                                                                      5
Topic 1- Descriptive studies on tree growth, longevity and mortality                                                                  Notes
TITLE:              Tree Growth Studies: Propelling Arborists to New Heights
AUTHOR:             Greg McPherson and Paula Peper                                           _____________________________________________
                    Research Forester and Ecologist
                    USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station
                    Urban Ecosystems and Social Dynamics Program                             _____________________________________________
                    1731 Research Park Drive
                    Davis, CA 95618 USA                                                      _____________________________________________
BIOGRAPHY:                                                                                   _____________________________________________
Dr. Greg McPherson is a Research Forester with the USDA Forest Service’s Pacific             _____________________________________________
Southwest Research Station located in Davis, CA. Greg grew up under a canopy of
American elm trees in Howell, Michigan. Despite attempts to save the trees, all were         _____________________________________________
lost to Dutch elm disease, and having felt the sting of that loss he became a "green"
accountant, developing new methods and tools for quantifying the value of nature’s
benefits from city trees. He works with a team of 3 other scientists who measure and         _____________________________________________
model effects of trees on energy use, urban heat islands, air pollutant uptake, carbon
sequestration, and rainfall interception. Their research is helping justify investments in
urban forest planning and management. In 2000 Greg received the International                _____________________________________________
Society of Arboriculture’s L.C. Chadwick Award for Research. Greg chaired the ISA
Science and Research Committee and serves on the California Urban Forest Council’s           _____________________________________________
Policy Advisory Committee. He attended University of Michigan (BGS), Utah State              _____________________________________________
University (Masters in Landscape Architecture), and SUNY College of Environmental
Science and Forestry (Ph.D. Forestry).                                                       _____________________________________________
Paula is an ecologist with the USDA Forest Service’s Pacific Southwest Research Station
located in Davis, CA, having worked for the Forest Service and the National Park             _____________________________________________
Service since 1972 in jobs ranging from wilderness patrol to timber forestry and
revegetation management. She received her undergraduate degree and teaching
credential in English and studied forestry at the University of Nevada, Reno. During the     _____________________________________________
past 15 years, she supervised the field data collection and analyses on over 15,000
trees for the i-Tree Streets reference city projects, developing predictive growth
models for 365 species growing in cities from Honolulu to New York City. Currently,          _____________________________________________
her research is focused on developing a master tree growth database and improved
growth models, to be made available online for use by other researchers and                  _____________________________________________
modelers. She has authored 3 books and 18 urban forestry publications, co-authoring          _____________________________________________
or contributing to an additional 24 urban forest research publications.
ABSTRACT:                                                                                    _____________________________________________
Trees grow in apparently mysterious ways. Science has done little to explain the
complex dynamics of growth in response to myriad of influential factors. Yet the need        _____________________________________________
for characterizing urban tree growth is great as we move to more accountability for
tree performance and provisioning of ecosystem services. Furthermore, in order to
provide more intensive care, arborists need to know if normal or abnormal growth is          _____________________________________________
6                                                                                                                                        55
Notes                                                                                                            Topic 1, continued
                                                Continued from previous page
                                                occurring. Ultimately it would be ideal to predict how trees will grow in response to
_____________________________________________   management, site, age, etc. This paper will: (1) review important previous work, (2)
_____________________________________________   describe current descriptive studies by US Forest Service, (3) identify gaps, promising
                                                approaches, research priorities, and (4) describe the need for and outcomes from in-
_____________________________________________   vestment in tree growth science.
54                                                                                                                                        7
Topic 1, continued                                                                                                                 Notes
TITLE:             Long-term Monitoring of Tree Growth, Health, and Mortality in the
                   Phoenix Metropolitan Basin
AUTHOR:            Chris Martin
                   Professor and Senior Sustainability Scientist
                   Arizona State University Polytechnic                                   _____________________________________________
                   Department of Applied Sciences and Mathematics
                   6073 South Backus Mall, Wanner 301G                                    _____________________________________________
                   Mesa, AZ 85212 USA                                                     _____________________________________________
BIOGRAPHY:                                                                                _____________________________________________
Dr. Chris Martin is a Professor of Urban Horticulture at Arizona State University. Dr.
Martin conducts research and teaches courses in urban landscape ecology and horti-        _____________________________________________
culture. Dr. Martin has joint appointments in the Department of Applied Sciences and
Mathematics and the School of Sustainability. The main focus of Dr. Martin's research
interests are investigations into the effects of urban landscape design and manage-       _____________________________________________
ment on landscape sustainability and urban microclimates and the interactions of
landscape tree management practices and high temperature stress. Dr. Martin has
authored numerous science articles and is a co-principle investigator for the Central     _____________________________________________
Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research Project and the Urban Vulnerability to
Climate Change Project both funded by the National Science Foundation.                    _____________________________________________
Sustainable urban forests in the southwestern United States should be designed, in-       _____________________________________________
stalled and managed by people in ways that over the course of time are able to im-        _____________________________________________
prove human health, quality of life and commerce without excessive consumption of
natural resources. Within this context, ecosystems services can provide a measurable      _____________________________________________
framework for assessing landscape site sustainability. Ecosystem services may be
thought of as the capacity of natural processes and components to provide goods and
services that satisfy human needs either directly or indirectly. The importance of eco-   _____________________________________________
system services to urban landscapes sustainability is framed by the unique interactions
of natural and built systems and should be weighted according to local ecoregion and
ecosystem resiliency factors. Within the United States, public focus on global environ-   _____________________________________________
mental issues such as climate change and ecosystem degradation is increasing the
number of urban ecosystems services that are perceived as fundamental for people’s        _____________________________________________
quality of urban life beyond only landscape amenity and access to ‘nature’. Thus, a       _____________________________________________
holistic knowledge of the impact of landscape design and management practices on
overall urban ecosystem function is essential to ensure that urban landscapes, particu-   _____________________________________________
larly the vast portion of landscapes that are structured in residential land uses, are    _____________________________________________
conceived and managed in a sustainable manner. In Phoenix, present day emphases
on cultural, aesthetic, and habitat formation ecosystem services within an arid ecore-    _____________________________________________
gion of low natural resilience coupled to a complex matrix of socioeconomic stratifica-
tion, excessive landscape water use and pruning practices has had the undesired effect
of degrading urban forest sustainability. Two long-term studies of tree growth, health    _____________________________________________
and mortality in the Phoenix metropolitan basin have been undertaken since 1998 as
8                                                                                                                                     53
Notes                                                                                                           Topic 1, continued
                                                Continued from previous page
                                                part of the Central Arizona Long Term Ecological (CAP LTER) research project. For one
_____________________________________________   study, records of tree growth, health and mortality were made annually (2001-2009)
_____________________________________________   during winter months at 50 non-residential sites across an urban to rural gradient of
                                                seven previously-defined zones of urban heating. In another study, a dual-density,
_____________________________________________   randomized, tessellation-stratified design was used to obtain a spatially-dispersed,
_____________________________________________   unbiased data set of tree mortality during 2000, 2005 and 2010, and tree health in
                                                2010, at 206 sites (710 m2 per site) across a 6400 km2 (2,471 square mile) area encom-
_____________________________________________   passing both the Phoenix metropolitan basin and in the surrounding Sonoran Desert.
_____________________________________________   In general, tree mortality rates within urban areas were found to range at or below 5%
                                                per annum. Physical/mechanical injury to roots and crowns were found on about 50%
_____________________________________________   of trees within the metropolitan basin, and abiotic injuries were observed on approxi-
_____________________________________________   mately 20% of urban trees. Moreover, 80% of urban trees rated poor having biotic
                                                problems such as wood decay, Verticillium wilt, sooty canker and ash decline. This
_____________________________________________   presentation will review findings from these studies and give implications for manag-
                                                ing sustainable urban forests in an arid climate. Based on these findings, urban forest
_____________________________________________   managers in desert cities such as Phoenix may improve long-term tree health and
_____________________________________________   landscape sustainability by implementing 1) water-conserving irrigation technologies
                                                to optimize rates of water delivery to evapotranspirational demand, 2) give preference
_____________________________________________   to oasis landscape designs motifs that use strategic size and placement of landscape
_____________________________________________   elements such as turf grass surrounded by native and/or desert-adapted trees, 3) im-
                                                plement infrequent, conservative tree pruning strategies that are tailored to the site
_____________________________________________   specific patterns of vegetative and reproductive growth of individual tree species, and
_____________________________________________   4) establish a goal of 100% recycling of landscape green waste on site.

52                                                                                                                                    9
Topic 1, continued                                                                                                                                          Visitor Information
TITLE:              Linking Composition, Structure, and Productivity Across the              VISITOR INFORMATION
                    Chicago Region Urban Forest Landscape Continuum
                                                                                             Here is a list of some useful websites for visiting The Morton Arboretum, Lisle and
AUTHOR:             Robert Fahey and Marlin Bowles                                           Chicago, IL.
                    Forest Ecologist and Plant Conservation Biologist                             Visitor information for The Morton Arboretum:
                    The Morton Arboretum                                                          Visitor information for Lisle, IL can be found at:
                    4100 Illinois Route 53                                                        Visitor information for Chicago, IL can be found at:,
                    Lisle, IL 60532 USA                                                        and
                                                                                             DINING IN LISLE, IL
Dr. Fahey is a Forest Ecologist at The Morton Arboretum. His primary research inter-
                                                                                             Please see registration desk if you need recommendations, addresses or directions to
ests are: 1) Development and assessment of silvicultural strategies for restoration of
                                                                                             any of these or other dining establishments.
composition, structure, and function in forest ecosystems. 2) Determining and evaluat-
ing the historical baselines on which forest restoration activities are based. 3) Investi-   Fine Dining ($$$):                           Coffee Shop/Sandwich ($):
gating the impact of introduced pests and pathogens on forest ecosystems and silvicul-            Allgauer’s at the Hilton                     Chill and Grill Restaurant
tural practices. 4) Examining the effect of landscape heterogeneity on the resilience of          Chatfield’s at the Hyatt                     Chock Full o Nuts
forests and accounting for such heterogeneity in management of forest landscapes.                 The Crossings                                Grounds For Hope Café
                                                                                                  Rayme’s Steak & Seafood House                Traviata Chocolate and Gelato Café
Marlin Bowles’ primary research interest is conservation of vegetation of the Chicago             Union Station at the Wyndham                 Breakfast/Lunch Only ($)
Region, including both individual species and the plant communities in which they                                                              Big Apple Pancake House
occur. At the species level, he focuses on the restoration and management ecology of         Ethnic or Specialty ($$):                         The Fox
endangered plants. He has authored or co-authored more than 25 papers and 10 book                 Chinn’s 34th Street Fishery                  John Dough Bakery and Cafe
or proceedings chapters, and has edited two books, including "Restoration of Endan-               Clara’s Pasta di Casa                        Morningside Cafe
gered Species," co-edited with Christopher Whelan and published by Cambridge Uni-                 Fabulous Noodles                             Carry Out/Fast Food ($)
versity Press. He co-authored the description of the federal threatened western prairie           Great Wall Chinese Restaurant                Barraco’s Pizzeria
fringed orchid as a new species, and has served on federal recovery teams for the U.S.            Hong Kong Chef                               Domino’s Pizza
listed eastern prairie fringed orchid, leafy prairie clover, pitcher's thistle, and Mead's        Los Burritos Tapatios                        Dunkin Donuts/Baskin Robbins
milkweed. He has worked with Research Associates to understand the relationship                   Lucky Wok Chinese Restaurant                 Jersey Mike’s
between prescribed burning and long-term changes in the region's native prairies, and             Tanaka Sushi                                 Jimmy John’s
to assess long-term changes in wetlands, savannas, and old-growth forests.                        The Bavarian Lodge                           Johnny’s Red Hots & Gyros
                                                                                                  Tairyo Japanese Steakhouse                   Little Italian Pizza
ABSTRACT:                                                                                         Vini’s Italian Restaurant                    McDonald’s
Management strategies for urban trees and forests are generally segregated among                  Yerbabuena                                   Old Tavern Pizzeria
land use classes (e.g., street trees, parks, natural areas). A comprehensive, landscape-                                                       Papa John’s Pizza
scale approach to managing the urban forest across this continuum of land uses is            Sports Bar/Pub/Casual ($$):                       Popeye’s
needed to accommodate the landscape-scale biotic and abiotic processes that charac-              Arbor Sports Bar and Grill                    Quizno’s Subs
terize this system. This research provides a baseline for such an approach by synthe-            Bono’s Neighborhood Pub                       Starbuck’s
sizing information about variation in the composition, structure, and resilience of the          Evviva! Bar & Eatery                          Subway
urban forest across urban landscape gradients and boundaries; and examining how                  Mullen’s Bar & Grill                          KFC/Taco Bell
components of the urban forest interact as part of an overarching urban ecosystem.               Passero’s Pizza                               The Nook
We studied vegetation across the urban forest continuum using 2010 Tree Census data              Pete & Johnny’s Tavern & Grille               Torch Cookery
compiled from sampling of 1400 plots in 7 counties of the Chicago region by The                  Wheatstack, A Midwestern
Morton Arboretum in conjunction with the US Forest Service. We used these data to                Eatery & Tap
describe patterns in composition and structure of vegetation across the urban forest             Country House
continuum that constitutes the Chicago region. The land use continuum that makes                 Gingko Café
up the Chicago urban forest was classified using three different approaches/data sets:
10                                                                                                                                                                                  51
Poster Presentations                                                                                                                                          Topic 1, continued
TITLE:              Methodology for Urban Soil Site Preparation to Maximize Young           Continued from previous page
                    Tree Survival and Growth
                                                                                            Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP) Land Use Inventory, Illinois Gap
                                                                                            Analysis Project/Illinois Natural History Survey land cover classification, and USFS iTree
AUTHOR:             Alan Siewert and Stephanie Miller
                                                                                            Eco land use categories assigned in the field. We utilized multivariate analytical tech-
                    Urban Foresters
                                                                                            niques to assess compositional patterns in the urban forest across land use categories
                    ODNR Division of Forestry
                                                                                            and also analyzed variation in structural attributes (height to live crown, crown spread)
                    15444 West High Street
                                                                                            of urban forests across this gradient. Overall compositional differences among land
                    Middlefield, Ohio 44062 USA
                                                                                            use categories were not strong (MRPP; A = 0.01, p = 0.06), but some interesting pat-
                                                                                            terns emerged in species composition. For example, plots with high dominance of oak
                                                                                            (Quercus spp.) were largely limited to parks and natural areas and a few residential
                                                                                            areas. In comparison, buckthorn (Rhamnus cathcartica), a problematic invasive spe-
High mortality rates are common among newly planted street trees in Ohio. Failure of
                                                                                            cies, was widely distributed across a variety of land use categories. Tree species diver-
these plantings represents a waste of taxpayers’ money and an undermining of the
                                                                                            sity differed significantly by land use category (ANOVA; F = 3.15, p < 0.01) and was
credibility of an urban forestry program. Following a survey of successful and
                                                                                            greatest in parks/natural areas (Simpson’s index - D’ = 0.46), significantly lower in resi-
unsuccessful plantings in northeast Ohio, a method was developed to improve the soil
                                                                                            dential areas (0.33), and lowest in commercial locations (0.21) and golf courses (0.19).
and improve young tree survival. The presenters will discuss the finding of the survey,
                                                                                            To understand the influence of pre-European woody vegetation on modern urban
the methods used to rebuild the soils and discuss several case studies covering a range
                                                                                            forest vegetation, we overlaid urban tree census data with data collected in the early
of sites over the past decade. The presenters will conclude with suggestions on future
                                                                                            1800s by the U.S. Public Land Survey. These data were previously mapped and ana-
research to quantify the success of the process and the economic feasibility of this site
                                                                                            lyzed by the Plant Conservation Lab at The Morton Arboretum (http://
preparation technique.
                                                                                   The pre-European landscape of the Chicago region
                                                                                            was dominated by grasslands, which made up approximately 70% of the landscape. In
                                                                                            locations with woody vegetation cover, about 65% of the area was made up by savan-
                                                                                            nas (< 50 trees/ha) dominated by white and bur oak. These species also dominated
                                                                                            higher density areas defined as woodland (50-100 trees/ha, ~10%) and forest (>100
                                                                                            trees/ha, ~25%). However, these more closed-canopy forests occurred largely in fire-
                                                                                            protected habitats and tended to have greater abundance of maple, ash and bass-
                                                                                            wood. Much of the modern urban forest (~60%) was classified as timber in the early
                                                                                            land surveys. Whereas, areas dominated by urban land uses and agriculture were
                                                                                            primarily described as prairies in the pre-European landscape (only ~20% classified as
                                                                                            timber). We present additional detailed findings of the impact of original distribution
                                                                                            patterns of tree species and densities on the composition, structure and quality of
                                                                                            modern urban forest vegetation. Lastly we provide results from an analysis of produc-
                                                                                            tivity and resilience of urban trees across an urban forest continuum. We collected
                                                                                            increment cores from trees growing across a gradient in land use within the property
                                                                                            of The Morton Arboretum. Three land use categories were identified: natural areas,
                                                                                            parks (plant collections), and residential/institutional (research/administration and
                                                                                            education areas). Yearly growth patterns were analyzed in relation to fluctuations in
                                                                                            yearly precipitation (especially droughts) and temperature. Sensitivity of growth to
                                                                                            fluctuations in temperature and precipitation/drought severity was assessed by ana-
                                                                                            lyzing variation in detrended yearly growth increments and comparing these to historic
                                                                                            climatic records. Resistance and resilience in productivity were assessed by comparing
                                                                                            pre- and post-drought growth rates. Future work will expand analyses of growth sen-
                                                                                            sitivity and resilience across the full spectrum of urban forests. We also hope to use a
                                                                                            combination of these and other data to refine our understanding of the nature and
                                                                                            regional importance of the urban forest canopy, including its ability to provide ecosys-
                                                                                            tem services such as wildlife habitat.
50                                                                                                                                                                                  11
Topic 1, continued                                                                                                                                         Poster Presentations
TITLE:              Urban Tree Mortality Rates: Concepts from Demography                    TITLE:              Methodology for Developing a Master Planting Design for Any
                                                                                                                Size Community Based on the Urban Site Index (USI) to Ensure
AUTHOR:             Lara Roman                                                                                  Urban Forest Species and Age Diversity
                    Ph.D. Candidate
                    University of California, Berkeley                                      AUTHOR:             Alan Siewert and Stephanie Miller
                    ESPM, UC Berkeley, McBride Lab                                                              Urban Foresters
                    140 Mulford Hall, #3114                                                                     ODNR Division of Forestry
                    Berkeley, California 94720 USA                                                              15444 West High Street
                                                                                Middlefield, Ohio 44062 USA
Lara Roman is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Environmental Science, Policy          ABSTRACT:
and Management at the University of California, Berkeley, under faculty advisor Joe         Urban foresters and community managers are charged with the challenging task of
McBride. Her dissertation research focuses on urban tree mortality, with field sites in     creating a diverse urban forest. The development of the Urban Site Index has offered
northern California: Sacramento County, West Oakland, and East Palo Alto. These             new opportunities for communities to utilize site sensitive species usually discounted
projects represent collaborative partnerships with local urban forestry non-profit          as street trees. In an effort to responsibly address this opportunity to diversify, several
organizations to monitor urban trees for mortality and growth. Lara completed a             Ohio communities have adopted a method for creating a Master Planting Design that
Master of Environmental Studies from the University of Pennsylvania, where she also         has built-in parameters that allow for added insect/disease protection. The method
earned a bachelor’s degree in Biology, with a concentration in ecology and evolution.       theoretically allows for long-term planning with the nursery industry, creates buy-in by
At both universities, Lara has been actively involved with community-based                  citizens and decision makers, and allows for USI ground truthing. The presenters will
participatory research and service learning courses, including service courses in urban     discuss the process for developing a Master Planting Design and experiences with Ohio
forestry and urban environmental health.                                                    communities. The presenters will conclude with suggestions on future research to
                                                                                            quantify and monitor the efficacy of the process in urban forest management
ABSTRACT:                                                                                   planning.
Accurate estimates of urban tree mortality rates and lifespans are crucial to estimating
urban forest benefits and managing tree planting programs. Understanding the urban
tree mortality process is critical to planning for cycles of tree removal and replacement
and modeling tree population changes over time. This presentation addresses urban
tree mortality using concepts and methods from forest demography and epidemiol-
ogy, including survivorship curves, mean life expectancy, population half-life, and
longitudinal analysis. First, a meta-analysis of previous street tree mortality studies
was used to estimate mortality rates and lifespan metrics*. 16 previous studies with
street tree mortality rate data were compiled. A subset of this data was used to
estimate typical annual street tree survival rates, using regression analysis of ln
transformed cumulative survivorship vs. time since planting. The typical annual street
tree survival rate was estimated at 94.9-96.5% (or alternatively, 3.5-5.1% annual
mortality). Lifespan metrics were estimated using the annual survival rates determined
from regression analysis, with mean life expectancy 19-28 years, and population
half-life 13-20 years. This mean life expectancy is considerably higher than the 7-year
street tree average lifespan previously reported in the literature. Second, new field
studies of tree mortality are underway in Oakland and Sacramento, California. In
Oakland, all street trees in a portion of the West Oakland neighborhood are monitored
annually, leading to a size-class-based survivorship curve. Preliminary data indicates
that trees in smaller diameter size classes are more likely to die, which supports the
concept of an establishment period for young, small street trees. In Sacramento, a
cohort of recently distributed shade trees is being monitored during the 5-year

12                                                                                                                                                                                   49
Poster Presentations                                                                                                                                       Topic 1, continued
TITLE:             Evaluation of the Ability of Some Shrub Species to Sequester           Continued from previous page
                   Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
                                                                                          establishment period, leading to an age-based survivorship curve. The shade trees are
                                                                                          distributed by the Sacramento Tree Foundation in a program sponsored by the local
AUTHOR:            Saket Mishra*, Francesco Ferrini and Alessio Fini
                                                                                          utility district to reduce energy usage. Residents are responsible for the planting and
                   *Graduate Student
                                                                                          maintenance of these trees. A random sample of 500 trees that were distributed to
                   Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Science
                                                                                          residents in 2007 are monitored annually for mortality. In the first year after delivery,
                   Viale delle Idee 30, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino
                                                                                          14% of trees were not planted, and an additional 10% died after planting. In 3 years of
                   University of Florence Italy
                                                                                          monitoring this cohort, annual mortality rates have not yet lowered to post-
                                                                                          establishment phase levels that would be expected for mature trees. Based on past
                                                                                          research by the utility district, it is possible that only 50% of distributed trees may
                                                                                          remain alive at 5-10 years after delivery. These results indicate the need for revised
Carbon sequestration describes long term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of
                                                                                          mortality rate assumptions in cost-benefit analyses for urban forests, especially high-
carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming. Carbon dioxide is naturally captured
                                                                                          volume tree distribution programs that rely on residential tree care. With repeated
from the atmosphere through biological, chemical or physical process. Trees grow
                                                                                          observations on the same trees over time, these longitudinal studies will improve our
faster in the tropics; they absorb more carbon than trees in temperate regions. An
                                                                                          understanding of urban tree mortality rates and processes. The approaches used to
average tree can annually remove about 50-53 lbs (23 kg) of carbon dioxide from the
                                                                                          analyze mortality rates in these studies can be applied to other urban forest
atmosphere keeping in view of these the present experiment was conducted with
                                                                                          monitoring programs.
objective “Evaluation of the ability of some shrub species to sequester carbon dioxide
(CO2)”. The present investigation was conducted in 2009-2010 at the Department of
                                                                                          *For more details about the street tree mortality meta-analysis, see the upcoming
plant, soil & environmental Science, University of Florence- Italy. The experiment was
                                                                                          article in Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, which is anticipated to be in issue 4 of the
laid out in Randomized Block Design with Three Replications and Seven treatments i.e.,
                                                                                          2011 volume: Roman, L.A., Scatena, F.N. In press. Street tree survival rates:
Laurus nobilis; Viburnum Tinus.; Viburnum lucidum; Photinia sp ; Arbatus sp.; Eleagnus
                                                                                          Meta-analysis of previous studies and application to a field survey in Philadelphia, PA,
sp ; Ligustrum sp. Maximum fresh weight of leaf (125.21g/ plant) was obtained with
                                                                                          USA. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening (2011).
viburnum lucidum whereas; minimum fresh weight of leaf was recorded in Ligustrum
sp. i.e. 34.1 g/ plant. Maximum fresh weight of stem (755.49 g/ plant) was obtained in
viburnum lucidum whereas; minimum fresh weight of stem was recorded in Ligustrum
sp. i.e. 48.12 g /plant. Maximum fresh weight of root (189.78 g/ plant) was obtained
with Laurus nobilis whereas; minimum fresh weight of root was recorded in Arbatus
sp. i.e. 34.13 g/plant. Maximum dry weight of leaf (63.6 g/ plant) was obtained with
Laurus nobilis whereas; minimum fresh weight of leaf was recorded in Ligustrum sp i.e.
12.79 g/plant. Maximum dry weight of stem (113.23 g/plant) was obtained in Tinus sp.
Whereas; minimum dry weight of stem was recorded in Ligustrum sp i.e. 14.8 g /
plant. Maximum dry weight of root (77.7 g/plant) was obtained with Tinus sp.
Whereas; minimum dry weight of root was recorded in Arbatus sp i.e. 14.31 g/plant.
We propose our investigation on Evaluation of the ability of some shrub species to
sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) with Seven different treatments (species) may con-
cluded as eleagnus has Average highest sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) and stem and
root biomass (equal to tinus & laurus however, has lower assimilation) followed by

48                                                                                                                                                                               13
Topic 1, continued                                                                                                                                       Poster Presentations
TITLE:              A Soil Quality Index for Urban Trees                                     TITLE:             Effects of Photographic Distance on Tree Crown Attributes
                                                                                                                Calculated using UrbanCrowns Image Analysis Software
AUTHOR:             Bryant Scharenbroch and Michelle Catania
                    Urban Soil Scientist and Research Assistant                              AUTHOR:            P. Eric Wiseman and Mason F. Patterson
                    The Morton Arboretum                                                                        Associate Professor and Graduate Research Assistant
                    4100 Illinois Route 53                                                                      Dept. of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation
                    Lisle, IL 60532 USA                                                                         Virginia Tech
                                                                           Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA
Bryant Scharenbroch is a Soil Scientist at the Morton Arboretum in Lisle, IL. Bryant         ABSTRACT:
received a Ph.D. in Soil Science from the U. Wisconsin-Madison, a M.S. in Plant Science      UrbanCrowns is a software program developed by the USDA Forest Service that
from U. Idaho, and B.S. degrees from U. Wisconsin - Stevens Point in Urban Forestry          computes crown attributes using a side-view digital photograph and a few basic field
and Forest Management. He is the primary investigator of the Morton Arboretum Soil           measurements. From an operational standpoint, it is not known how well the
Science laboratory, which has three primary focus areas: 1) improvement of urban             software performs under varying photographic conditions for trees of diverse size,
soils for landscape trees; 2) urban ecosystem biogeochemical cycling; 3) urban soil          which could impact measurement reproducibility and therefore software utility. We
genesis and classification. He is published in numerous peer-reviewed scientific jour-       evaluated the robustness of crown dimension computations made with UrbanCrowns
nals and has presented at many international and regional meetings. Bryant is an             for open-grown sugar maples (Acer saccharum) across a range of sizes from recently
Associate Editor for Arboriculture and Urban Forestry. Bryant’s research has been            transplanted to full maturity. We found that computations of both crown volume and
funded by the International Society of Arboriculture TREE Fund, Illinois Department of       density were highly repeatable across varying photographic distances. For the major-
Natural Resources, United States Department of Agriculture, and National Science             ity of tree size classes, crown volume and density varied less than 5% on average over
Foundation. He is a member of the Soil Science Society of America, Ecological Society        distances ranging from 1.5× to 3.0× tree height; however, crown volume errors of 5 –
of America, Illinois Soil Classifiers Association, International Society of Arboriculture,   10% were common for larger trees (>46 cm trunk diameter). UrbanCrowns
Chicago Wilderness, Midwest Ecological Landscape Association, and International              calculations of crown volume showed strong agreement with calculations derived from
Committee on Anthropogenic Soils.                                                            equations for geometric solids, both in terms of precision (R2 = 0.9783) and accuracy
                                                                                             (Β1 = 1.0033). These findings suggest that UrbanCrowns has potential as an objective,
ABSTRACT:                                                                                    reliable method for measuring tree crown attributes that are commonly assessed
Soil quality assessments are needed to improve our ability to manage urban soils and         during urban forest inventories.
trees. The soil quality concept often refers to the effects of human use and
management on soil function. As a consequence of anthropogenic effects, the quality
of urban soils is often impaired. Urban soils often have high bulk densities and low
porosities, poor soil structure, altered water status, elevated pH, salinity, and
environmental contaminants, reduced organic matter contents, and altered microbial
populations. These degraded soil conditions constrain urban tree growth and health.
Assessment and improvement of urban soil quality is imperative for the establishment,
growth, and longevity of urban trees. A minimum data set (MDS) for inferring soil
quality should include soil physical, chemical, and biological properties, and include
cheap field diagnostic techniques compared to expensive, laboratory measurements.
This research has identified a MDS for assessing urban soil quality in relation to tree
growth and longevity. The urban soil quality MDS included: bulk density, penetration
resistance, texture, water-stable aggregates, water content, pH, electrical conductivity,
C/N ratio, and particulate organic matter. The proposed MDS was well correlated with
urban tree descriptive properties, growth rates, foliar nutrients, and a qualitative tree
condition index. The proposed MDS includes soil physical, chemical, and biological
properties. Many of the MDS parameters are field-measurable and relatively cheap
and easy to perform. Descriptions of these measurements and assessments of their

14                                                                                                                                                                               47
Poster Presentations                                                                                                                                             Topic 1, continued
TITLE:              Establishment and Growth of Community-Planted Trees in                    Continued from previous page
                    Indianapolis, Indiana
                                                                                              potential use for urban forestry and arboriculture were performed. Future research
                                                                                              will test this MDS in other urban systems for its ability to relate soil quality and urban
AUTHOR:             Jessica M. Vogt*, Sarah K. Mincey, and Burnell C. Fischer
                                                                                              tree growth and longevity.
                    *Ph.D. Candidate
                    School of Public and Environmental Affairs
                    Indiana University
                    Bloomington, IA 47405 USA

Keep Indianapolis Beautiful, Inc. (KIB) is a non-profit organization that devotes a
significant amount of resources to tree planting initiatives (25,000th tree planted in
2010) in Indianapolis, Indiana. KIB supports urban forestry efforts at local levels;
through their NeighborWoods Program, they work with neighborhoods to plant trees
and develop a community-led management plan with the intent of increasing the
benefits that these planted trees provide. With KIB and volunteers, we are conducting
a re-inventory of trees KIB planted in neighborhoods in 2005-2006 to answer the
question: What are the environmental and social characteristics that predict successful
tree establishment and growth in Indianapolis NeighborWoods? Variables in this
analysis include attributes of trees planted (species, planting stock, size at planting,
nursery source, geospatial location, etc., in an existing KIB database), neighborhood
socioeconomic/demographic data, management variables (e.g., community watering
strategies), and additional environmental factors (e.g., soil, light availability). We will
conduct an ANOVA to determine factors affecting tree establishment and a
multivariate regression and factor analysis to determine significant variables affecting
tree growth; spatial analysis will be used to determine the effect of location and other
relevant variables (e.g., local canopy cover) on tree success. With these analyses, we
seek not only to present a model of influential tree success factors for KIB, but also to
develop a research protocol for similar databases in cities around the country.

46                                                                                                                                                                                     15
Topic 1, continued                                                                                                                                    Poster Presentations
TITLE:             Live Oak Growth in the Streets of Jacksonville, FL:                    TITLE:             Evaluation of Asian and European Ash (Fraxinus spp.) Biotypes for
                   Can We Predict its Future?                                                                Preference and Susceptibility for the Emerald Ash Borer

AUTHOR:            Julia W.-Bartens                                                       AUTHOR:            Fredric Miller and Devin Krafka
                   Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources                                              Research Associates
                   University of California at Davis                                                         The Morton Arboretum
                   1731 Research Park Drive                                                                  4100 Illinois Route 53
                   Davis, CA 95618 USA                                                                       Lisle, IL 60532 USA

BIOGRAPHY:                                                                                ABSTRACT:
Julia Bartens was recently hired as a post-doctoral scholar by the University of          Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an Asian species discovered
California at Davis. She received her PhD in urban forestry and her MS in urban           attacking ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in 2002, is established throughout much of the
horticulture, both from Virginia Tech. She received her undergraduate (diploma) from      Midwestern and eastern United States. In North America, the emerald ash borer (EAB)
the University of Hannover, Germany, in horticulture. Since the beginning of her          attacks only native ash species. To date, none have not been observed to be resistant.
graduate work, she has worked with a non-profit in England, multiple municipalities on    The objectives of this study were: to determine the relative suitability and preference
the East coast, the Mid-Atlantic chapter of the ISA, and the Arboriculture Research and   of Asian and European ash (Fraxinus spp.) taxa for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus
Education Academy and she became an ISA Certified Arborist. Julia’s research interests    planipennis and to determine if Asian and European ash (Fraxinus spp.) taxa are
include urban forest ecophysiology, urban soils, green infrastructure functions, and      suitable for future ash breeding programs. A study was initiated during the 2009 field
urban forest assessments.                                                                 season to evaluate 15 different Asian and European ash (Fraxinus spp.) biotypes for
                                                                                          preference and suitability for the emerald ash borer (EAB). Laboratory no-choice adult
ABSTRACT:                                                                                 feeding studies were used to test for feeding preference and suitability. Adult beetles
Trees provide many valuable ecologic and economic benefits in the urban                   were reared from infested logs and two to three adult female beetles were placed in
environment, yet human impact, including poor planting designs often jeopardize the       clear plastic cylinders with candidate ash foliage and allowed to feed. Feeding
health and integrity of urban trees. Consequently, urban trees are often too limited to   cylinders were held in a Percival growth chamber at approximately 75oF and 60-70
growth to a substantial size at which benefit provision would be maximal. In addition,    relative humidity, with a 16:8 photoperiod. The beetles were monitored daily for
urban trees often die prematurely sometimes just reaching 7-10 years of age. One          evidence of feeding and mortality and records kept.
reason for inadequate planting designs is limited city budgets while another reason is
limited knowledge on trees’ needs; to optimize the first one has to know more about       Preliminary results indicate that adult EAB beetles lived the longest (mean=14 days) on
the second. The goal of this project was to evaluate the growing conditions of a          F. pennslyvanica (preferred host) compared to the Asian and European species tested.
common urban street tree species and to develop growth prediction models to               Several beetles lived several months on F. pennsylvanica. Beetles lived the second
determine which variables influence growth of this species the most. We evaluated         longest time (mean=8 days) on Fraxinus angustifolia var. australis and consumed
growth patterns of 100 live oak street trees in Jacksonville, Florida, as well as         approximately 22% of the leaf tissue. The mean # of fecal pellets (275) was second
characteristics of their growing environment. Tree parameters included tree height,       only to F. pennsylvanica with a mean of 326 fecal pellets. Beetles feeding on the
canopy dimensions as well as trunk diameter measurements. The growing                     remaining Asian and European ash taxa lived less than six days, consumed less than 5%
environment was assessed by analysing soil samples for nutrient content, pH, and          of leave tissue and had a mean of <100 fecal pellets. The preliminary data seems to
other soil properties as well as determining the available soil volume and the soil’s     suggest that certain Asian and European ash taxa may have a level of resistance to the
resistance to penetration. Growth was assessed by collecting increment cores and          emerald ash borer. Following up on the 2009 laboratory experiments, no-choice (NC),
evaluating the annual growth rings. Twenty seven site and soil variables were used to     multiple-choice (MC), and ovipositional studies are being conducted with methods as
develop regression models to predict tree growth. The usefulness and difficulty of        described above. Preliminary results from 2010, indicate that the most preferred of
using increment cores to determine urban tree growth will be discussed as well as the     the ten ash biotypes evaluated indicate that F. stylosa is highly preferred with 75% of
developed growth prediction models and their application to improving urban forest        the leaf tissue consumed and the least preferred is F. bungeana with less than 5% of
planning, design, and cultivation.                                                        the leaf tissue consumed. Fraxinus chinensis is intermediate in preference with 45% of
                                                                                          the leaf tissue consumed. EAB’s have lived a maximum of 10 days and a minimum of
                                                                                          one day on Asian biotpes. Additional suitability feeding studies are being conducted
                                                                                          for the 2011 field season.

16                                                                                                                                                                             45
Poster Presentations                                                                            Topic 2 - Roles of tree production and sales on tree growth and mortality
TITLE:              Health of Young Street Trees in New York City                           TITLE:              Nursery Production Strategies Impact Tree Longevity and
                                                                                                                Performance, Don’t They?
AUTHOR:             Nancy Falxa-Raymond*, Kristen L. King, and Jennifer Greenfeld
                    *Research Technician                                                    AUTHOR:             Ed Gilman
                    USDA-Forest Service                                                                         Professor
                    NYC Urban Field Station                                                                     Environmental Horticulture Department
                    431 Walter Reed Road                                                                        University of Florida
                    Fort Totten Cluster #2, Box #12                                                             Gainesville, FL 32611 USA
                    Bayside, NY 11359 USA                                                             
ABSTRACT:                                                                                   Dr. Gilman received his PhD from Rutgers and has been on the faculty since 1984 as
The goal of this analysis was to determine how social, biophysical and neighborhood         professor in the Environmental Horticulture Department at the University of Florida in
design factors affect the health of young street trees. During the summers of 2006 and      Gainesville. Ed wrote “Illustrated guide to pruning” which is in its second edition. He
2007 a random sample of 8,113 living street trees were surveyed 3-8 years after plant-      received the Authors Citation Award in 1999, the Educators Award in 2003, and the
ing. Thirty-four variables were measured at each tree, including a tree health rating.      research award in 2007 from the ISA for sustained excellence in research, publishing
We analyzed the data using a linear regression model and used a regression tree to          and teaching timely information on tree care. He has published more than 95 scientific
explore some of the interaction effects between significant variables. 90.4% of trees       peer reviewed journal articles on roots and pruning trees in his 30 years in academia
were found in good or excellent condition, while 7.5% were found in fair condition and      and industry.
2.1% were found in poor condition. Species, tree pit type, and adjacent land use were
all found to have a significant effect on tree health. Some individual tree characteris-    ABSTRACT:
tics, such as the presence of suckers and choking guide wires were found to have a          *Abstract from listed reference: “Significant differences may exist in establishment
significant negative relationship with tree condition (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01 respec-       rate between trees planted from containers and those from field nursery. Container-
tively). At the streetscape level, traffic volume had a negative effect on tree health,     grown plants have root balls with deflected roots which could impact establishment.
and trees located in medians tended to be in worse condition than curbside trees            Slicing root balls at planting could improve postplanting performance of container-
(p < 0.001). The results of this study may have implications for street tree planting and   grown trees. Sixty live oak 170 L containers were planted into landscape field soil. Root
maintenance policy. While our model was statistically significant (p < 0.0001), overall     balls from 30 of these containers were sliced prior to planting. Thirty field-grown trees
fit was relatively low (R2 = 0.08), indicating that the majority of variation in tree       of slightly larger size, and 30 smaller trees from 57 L containers, were also planted.
condition may be explained by biological or environmental variables that are more           During dry periods in the first 432 days after planting (DAP), 57 L container trees had
difficult and expensive to measure, such as pathogens, soil pH, or rooting space.           the least negative xylem potential. Field-grown trees had the most negative xylem
                                                                                            potential when irrigation was withheld 12 DAP. Slicing root balls had little impact on
                                                                                            xylem water potential in drought. Defoliation was greater for 170 L container trees
                                                                                            than for 57 L containers. Trunk diameter increase of 57 L containers and field-grown
                                                                                            trees was greater than for 170 L containers. Field-grown trees grew less in height. Root
                                                                                            system radius was similar for 170 L containers and field-grown trees, and greater than
                                                                                            57 L containers. Small trees appear to establish quicker than larger trees.”

                                                                                            *Gilman, E., C. Harchick, and M. Paz. 2010. Effect of tree size, root pruning, and pro-
                                                                                            duction method on establishment of Quercus virginiana. Arb. Urb. For. 36:183-190.

44                                                                                                                                                                                    17
Topic 2, continued                                                                                                                                          Poster Presentations
TITLE:              Developing and Implementing Propagation and Production                 TITLE:               Results of Chicago’s Study of Tree Performance in Urban Areas
                    Methods that Promote Dispersed Root Systems in Desert-Adapted
                    Landscape Trees in the American Southwest                              AUTHOR:              Michael Elsen
                                                                                                                RLA, ASLA, Landscape Architect
AUTHOR:             Ed Mulrean and Kevin Salamandra                                                             BauerLatoza Studio
                    Marketing Director and Vice President                                                       2241 S. Wabash Ave.
                    Arid Zone Trees                                                                             Chicago, IL 60616 USA
                    P.O. Box 167                                                                      
                    Queen Creek, Arizona 85142 USA
                                                                                           This study presents data collected from 20 project development sites that received
BIOGRAPHY:                                                                                 landscape review approval from the Department of Zoning. These sites were selected
Dr. Mulrean is employed by Harris Cattle Co dba Arid Zone Trees from 1985 to present,      by the City of Chicago Department of Zoning and Land Use Planning from public and
as the Director of Marketing and Sales. Previously he was an Extension Specialist at the   private development records including plans and permit documents. They were
University of Arizona in the College of Agriculture. He received a Ph.D. and M.S. from     selected to provide variety in site size, site orientation, and irrigation usage. The
University of California, Berkeley, Department of Plant Pathology. He has a B.S. from      projects types included Retail (drive-up restaurants & banks and medium & big box
University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, College of Agriculture, in Crop Protection.             stores), Institutional (courthouse, fire station, high school, private institutions, and
                                                                                           churches), and Industrial (factory and auto testing facility). The project sites were
Kevin Salamandra is Vice President, Nursery Manger, and Golf Course Superintendent         distributed throughout the City. The four areas of concern that will be addressed in
of Harris Cattle Co dba Arid Zone Trees. He was President of Green-R Leaf, Inc. from       this presentation of the study are: (1) irrigation type, frequency of installation at sites,
1982-1988, a full service landscape company. He was Landscape Installation and             and effectiveness for plant growth, (2) growth rate of planted trees measured by
Maintenance Manager at Del Camino Nursery from 1979 to 1982. He has a degree in            increase in trunk caliper, (3) health and mortality of planted trees, and (4) soil volume
Business Administration from James Madison University in Harrisburg, Virginia.             and composition in relation to tree health. Key observations will be presented as well
                                                                                           as areas of concern that suggest further study but were outside the scope of this
ABSTRACT:                                                                                  study. These findings can be applied to similar urban sites in the Midwest.
The commercial demand for increased uniformity in desert adapted (Xeric) landscape
trees species has created a thriving market for varieties produced using vegetative
propagation. As roots are significantly more difficult and complicated to assess, the
primary focus when selecting individual “Mother Trees” relies heavily on the above
ground phenotypic characteristics (growth rate, flower color and number, canopy
density, absence of thorns). While these qualities facilitate marketing these tree
varieties, vigorous, well distributed root systems are essential for their growth and
long term durability. An array of physical, genetic and mechanical factors influence
root growth and development in nursery and landscape settings. In the desert south-
west, where there are few serious or fatal tree pests and diseases, compromised root
systems are the most common cause of reduced tree vigor and death (wind throw,
root binding). Careful evaluation of rooting characteristics in selecting “Mother Trees”
is critical to avoid genetically based root defects. This paper presents an integrated
approach to root/ root ball development, in a wholesale nursery environment that
emphasized root enhancements at each step of the production process (from rooted
cuttings to 48” box specimen). These enhancements include the use of commercially
available growing containers that prune root tips, proper soil mixes, root pruning dur-
ing the bumping process and educating the workforce to the importance of a well
distributed and healthy root system. The ultimate goal of this process is to optimize
the density and distribution of the root system, to eliminate kinked or girdling roots
(especially those close to the trunk) and to promote healthy, vigorous growth both in

18                                                                                                                                                                                    43
Poster Presentations                                                                                                                                          Topic 2, continued
TITLE:              Effect of Planting Depth and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on            Continued from previous page

                    Growth and Physiology of Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.                         the nursery and in the landscape. Such quality controls reduce production time and
AUTHOR:             Donita L. Bryan*, Michael A. Arnold, Astrid Volder, Alejandro           expense, decreasing the need for staking and pruning, and reduce the number of cull
                    Alarcόn, Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, and Andrew D. Cartmill                 or unmarketable trees. AZT™ Root Management: Trees in the desert southwest are
                    *Assistant Professor of Ornamental Horticulture                         sold by container size (15 gallon, 24” box, etc) and specified based on their height,
                    School of Agriculture, University of Wisconsin-Platteville              width and caliper, relative to a particular container size. Of these criteria, tree caliper
                     1 University Plaza                                                     is the recognized indicator of root mass. It is the best and most visible way to
                    Platteville, WI, 53818 USA                                              determine if a tree is overgrown to the container it is being sold in or that the
                                                                structure of the root system has been compromised in the process of growing the tree
                                                                                            in the nursery. Root binding is a horticultural time bomb that, if allowed to develop
ABSTRACT:                                                                                   when trees are young, will severely shorten the life of maturing trees by causing crown
Planting depth (location of root collar in relation to substrate surface grade) varies in   girdling or by significantly increasing the risk of wind-throw from poor or delayed root
the container production industry, and optimum planting depth may vary with plant           distribution. From the standpoint of production, root binding slows growth, increasing
species. Most container-produced plants are grown in a soilless substrate to allow          production time and, thereby, costs. Quality control at this level of production involves
better aeration and drainage conditions, so the effects of planting depth observed          taking steps to insure that the root system is vigorous, appropriate to the size and
during landscape establishment may be different from those seen in container-               stage of development of the tree, and well distributed without being overgrown. AZT’s
production. This study determined if inoculation with a mixed isolate of arbuscular         “Root Management Program” utilizes an assortment of measures and inspections that
mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) would enhance the tolerance of container-grown Ulmus                are, collectively, designed to optimize root development throughout the growing proc-
parvifolia Jacq. (lacebark elm) to above or below grade planting depths. The AMF and        ess. Each time trees are bumped the roots are inspected with an eye for a well distrib-
non-AMF inoculated U. parvifolia were planted into 2.1 L black plastic containers with      uted root mass and a fine net of lateral roots. AZT’s planting method uses specially
their root collars at substrate surface (grade), 3 cm above grade, 1 cm above grade, 1      designed air-root pruning containers. These containers have open spaces (holes) and
cm below grade, or 3 cm below grade under greenhouse conditions. Growth (stem               indentations along their insides that create air spaces that, in effect, deflect circling
diameter and total plant dry mass) and physiological responses (chlorophyll concentra-      roots and prune off the tips of the roots. This process also serves to stimulate the
tion and nitrate reductase activity) were measured. In general, AMF plants had greater      development of secondary and lateral roots behind the pruned root tip. The results of
growth when planted above or below grade in comparison to non-AMF plants at the             these root controlling containers are denser, radiating root systems that enhance the
same planting depths. Non-AMF plants at grade had greater growth than AMF plants            root architecture, eliminate circling roots, and support the overall growth of the trees.
at grade. Planting at grade results in optimum growth for U. parvifolia, however poor       Greenhouse liners for propagation are planted in “Rootrainer hundreds”, the next
transplanting techniques (above or below grade) may be alleviated by AMF inoculation        stage of growth is in the “RootMaker®Express™ 18”, followed by “RootMaker® 5 g
during container production.                                                                allon”, then on to boxes. Once planted into the next larger container or in the
                                                                                            landscape these tree roots are better adapted to explore surrounding soil and hasten
                                                                                            the establishment of the tree. In addition, prior to bumping or planting, the root mass
                                                                                            of each tree is examined and 1/4” of rootball is removed from the outer edge and
                                                                                            bottom of the root-ball to encourage lateral root growth. This practice is followed
                                                                                            when bumping all sizes of trees (liners to 48" boxes). This growing method increases
                                                                                            the desert trees overall root mass, caliper and taper, and reduces the foliage tissue
                                                                                            growth. As a whole the trees anchor into the next container quicker and in windy
                                                                                            conditions lessen wind throw or branch damage.

42                                                                                                                                                                                   19
Topic 2, continued                                                                                                                                             Poster Presentations
TITLE:              What are You Planting? New York City's Plan to Diversity its Urban         TITLE:              Provenance and Tree Selection for the Urban Forest
                    Forest One Tree at a Time
                                                                                               AUTHOR:             Michael Arnold*, Donita Bryan, Edward Bush, Raul Cabrera, Geof-
AUTHOR:             Matthew Stephens                                                                               frey Denny, Jason Griffin, Jeff Iles, Andrew King, Gary Knox, Leo-
                    Director of Street Tree Planting                                                               nardo Lombardini, Garry McDonald, Cynthia McKenney, Thayne
                    New York City Parks & Recreation                                                               Montague, Genhua Niu, Allen Owings, Brent Pemberton, Adam
                    The Olmsted Center- Central Forestry and Horticulture                                          Purnell, Larry Shoemake, Daniel Struve, and Todd Watson
                    Flushing Meadows Corona Park                                                                   *Professor
                    Flushing, NY 11368 USA                                                                         Texas A&M University
                                                                           Department of Horticultural Sciences, TAMU 2133
                                                                                                                   College Station, Texas 77843 USA
Matthew Stephens has worked at New York City Parks & Recreation (DPR) for 4.5
years. During that time he has managed tree planting in Brooklyn and Staten Island.            ABSTRACT:
In addition, Matthew led the development, initiation and management of DPR’s                   Ecotypic variation present in tree species across their native ranges represent a largely
exciting and innovative tree procurement program. Matthew received a Bachelor of               untapped opportunity to select superior seed sources or clonal materials from among
Science in Horticulture from Illinois State University and a Master of Public                  these various provenances to withstand a variety of unique environmental stresses
Horticulture from the University of Delaware in the Longwood Graduate Program.                 imposed by managed landscapes. This presentation will focus on three important
                                                                                               woody plant genera (Quercus L., Platanus L., and Taxodium Rich.) and current research
ABSTRACT:                                                                                      efforts designed to discover superior genotypes with tolerance to several environ-
New York City is in the midst of a major planting initiative with the goal of planting one     mental stresses including soil salinity, foliar salinity exposure, alkaline soil conditions,
million trees by the year 2017, approximately 200,000 of which are street trees. With          moisture deficits, and temperature extremes. We also are interested in exploiting
such a large influx into the street tree population an initial priority was to create a long   geographic provenances and open-pollinated family selection to identify unique
range Species Diversification Plan. The Plan identified current risks associated with the      genotypes or populations having desirable ornamental attributes, resistance to insects
street tree population as well as setting long term species diversification goals and          and plant pathogens, rapid root regeneration potential, and/or desirable plant
benchmarks. The presentation will provide a brief overview of the historical planting          architecture. A discussion of current results, potential impacts on selection of urban
data for New York City, as well as outlining the Species Diversification Plan, and the         forest trees for managed landscapes, and plans for future development and research
rationale behind future planting decisions. Further information will be presented on           will be presented.
the tree procurement contracts that were created, and how they have been the key
mechanism in implementing the Plan. The presentation will specifically note how New
York City’s urban forest will be evolving over the future using long term modeling to
estimate how the urban forest population will evolve with time. Ultimately, the
presentation will encourage other cities to create and implement long term Species
Diversification Plans leading to a more universal and cohesive management standard
for urban and community forestry programs.

20                                                                                                                                                                                       41
Poster Presentations                                                                                                                                            Topic 2, continued
TITLE:              Urban Trees and Power Lines – 30 years of Compatible Results               TITLE:              Habitat Studies as a Selection Model in the Search for Future
                                                                                                                   Urban Trees - Experience from Case Studies in Qingling Mt.
AUTHOR:             Paul J. Appelt                                                                                 China and Northeast Romania
                    Environmental Consultants, Inc.                                            AUTHOR:             Henrik Sjöman
                    520 Business Park Circle                                                                       Landscape Architect, Lecturer and Ph.D. Candidate
                    Stoughton, Wisconsin 53589 USA                                                                 Swedish University of Agricultural Science
                                                                               Department of Landscape Management, Design and Construction
                                                                                                                   P.O. Box 66
ABSTRACT:                                                                                                          SE230 53 Alnarp Sweden
The mantra of the “right tree in the right place” has been on voiced by utility arborists                
for decades. Yet, electric utilities spend in excess of $2.0 billion annually clearing trees
from distribution power lines. Many of these tall-growing trees have been planted by           BIOGRAPHY:
homeowners and professionals without regard to the future conflict created as trees            Henrik is a Landscape Architect, Lecturer and Ph.D. student in the Department of
grow and interfere with high voltage electrical lines. This poster documents the               Landscape Management, Design and Construction at Swedish University of Agricultural
impact, over the past 25 to 30 years, of replacing tall-growing trees under overhead           Science in Alnarp, Sweden.
power lines with appropriate low-growing trees in the Chicago area. The aesthetic,
economic, and societal benefits accrued through selection and planting of the right            ABSTRACT:
tree in the right place will be illustrated through historical photo documentation of          A limited number of species and genera currently dominate the tree stock in streets
successful projects that have transformed the visual aesthetics of neighborhoods,              and urban sites. Over the past few decades, a growing proportion of these commonly
improved reliability of electric service, reduced costs of maintenance and avoided             used species have exhibited increasing difficulties in coping with the conditions at
public relations problems for municipalities and electric utilities. The poster will consist   urban sites. This negative trend, combined with the challenges of climate change and
of charts, narrative descriptions (project challenges and opportunities for more               the threat of further disease and pest attacks in the future, has led to considerable and
widespread implementation of appropriate planting near over head power lines) and              persistent argumentation for using a more varied and stress-tolerant selection of tree
captioned photographs of projects at the time of installation and in recent years.             species in urban locations. The awareness of habitat factors was probably not much
                                                                                               developed when bringing trees to the city parks, squares and avenues in the past,
                                                                                               partly because the city environment did not differ that much from natural tree
                                                                                               habitats at that time. However, the modern city of today have been changed
                                                                                               dramatically due to the effects of the urban heat island (UHI), restricted rooting
                                                                                               spaces, water impervious surfaces and poor growth media, which makes the trees
                                                                                               planted along streets and in paved sites particularly suffer from lack of water and
                                                                                               oxygen as well as unbalanced provision of nutrients. Much of the recent research work
                                                                                               in the field of urban tree plantings has concentrated on development of methods and
                                                                                               techniques in order to create improved habitat conditions in the city. In particular, the
                                                                                               soil and rooting zone has been in focus. However, while these results are very
                                                                                               promising, even improved methods for street tree plantings will not be able to provide
                                                                                               similar growing conditions as in forests and parks. Therefore, the selection of a broad
                                                                                               range of hardy species for urban paved sites remains an important task, even more so
                                                                                               when climatic conditions may even become more adverse for urban tree life through
                                                                                               climate changes. In natural habitats, trees have been stress-tested and selected over
                                                                                               evolutionary periods of time. Some species have developed an extensive plasticity and
                                                                                               tolerance to a range of environmental conditions, while others have specialized in
                                                                                               certain habitat types. For instance, steep south-facing mountain slopes with thin soil
                                                                                               layers or warm and dry steppe environments, represent distinct habitat types where
                                                                                               the environmental parameters that define the particular habitat and separate it from
                                                                                               other habitats have shaped the evolution of plants. Investigating the ecological

40                                                                                                                                                                                    21
Topic 2, continued                                                                                                                                        Poster Presentations
Continued from previous page                                                                TITLE:              Effect of Mycorrhizal Inoculation in the Nursery and at Planting
                                                                                                                on Tree Growth and Physiology after Transplanting in the Urban
background and performance of species growing in habitats with drought during the                               Environment
growing season and winter temperatures similar to those of inner-city environments in
a particular area can assist in identifying alternative tree species and ecotypes. In the   AUTHOR:             Francesco Ferrini and Alessio Fini
perspective of the northern parts of Central Europe and the adjoining milder parts of                           Professor and Post-Doc Researcher
Northern Europe (in the following abbreviated to the CNE-region), it is unlikely that                           Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences
the species-poor native dendroflora can provide a large range of species with an                                University of Florence
extended tolerance of the environmental stresses characterising e.g. paved sites                                Viale delle Idee, 30 Sesto Fiorentino, FL Italy
within urban areas of the region. However, other regions with a comparable climate                    
but with a rich dendroflora may have the potential to provide new tree species, genera
and phenotypes for this purpose. The key question is thus how to identify – with            ABSTRACT:
limited means and in a relatively short time – the right species for further testing        48 plants (14-16 cm circumference) were selected in a nursery in winter 2007. In April
within the diversity of tree species. For example, the wealth of potentially suitable       2007, 24 plants were inoculated (+IN) with specific ecto- and endomycorrhizal fungi
species from areas such as China is overwhelmingly large – how to start searching and       selected in an urban area on the same species and the remaining 24 plants were not
how to make the right choice have therefore been important questions to address for         (-IN). In May 2008, all plants were root pruned. Then, plants were grown in the nursery
the following evaluation. The objective of this presentation is to present and discuss a    till early Spring 2010, when they were moved to be planted. At transplanting, half of
selection procedure based on dendroecological studies in natural habitats in order to       the plants were inoculated with the same fungi as in 2007 (+IT) and the remaining half
identify promising urban trees for inner-city environments in the CNE-region. The           was not (-IT). Therefore, four treatments were compared: 1)+IN+IT: plants inoculated
application of this approach is illustrated with two case studies from central China and    both in the nursery and at transplant; 2) +IN-IT: plants inoculated in the nursery but not
northeast Romania and in the adjacent part of the Republic of Moldavia were habitat         at transplant; 3) –IN+IT: plants inoculated only at transplant; 4)-IN-IT: control plants
studies were subsequently carried out in natural areas compatible to the growing            (never inoculated). Plants were arranged with a factorial randomized block design with
conditions of paved sites in the CNE-region. In total, 27 tree species were identified      8 blocks and 4 plants per block. In 2007, inoculation had no effect on shoot growth.
through two case studies, where prior experience of 15 of the species’ performance in       When above-ground growth was limited by root pruning, inoculation with selected
inner city environment is limited. Although prior experience of the performance values      mycorrhiza resulted in longer shoots than in untreated plants. After transplanting,
of the remaining 12 species exists. Conclusively, this approach shows a fast and            stress occurred in the following growing season and greatly reduced shoot growth.
effective process since the following selection work is focusing on species with high       Again, when stress occurred, an inoculation-induced increase in shoot growth was
potential for the purpose – in this case urban paved sites – instead of testing species     found. Carbon assimilation was not affected by inoculation with specific mycorrhiza
randomly. Dendroecological studies, as presented contribute to an ecological                during the nursery phase, even after the root pruning treatment. Anyway, after
understanding which provides for a much wider knowledge base in the selection               planting in the landscape, plants inoculated both in the nursery and at planting
process, thus helping to evaluate the reaction, tolerance and performance of different      showed higher carbon assimilation than control plants. Inoculating plants both in the
tree species to different stressors. Furthermore, dendroecological data gives valuable      nursery and at transplanting have probably contributed to a greater root colonization
guidance in the use-potential of the species which can be of importance in the              by mycorrhizal fungi, which determined higher photosynthesis. Based on the data, we
following evaluation in full scale plantations in urban environments.                       can speculate that trees inoculated both in the nursery and at planting had a higher
                                                                                            photosynthesis on a plant-scale basis (higher Pn and longer shoots).

22                                                                                                                                                                                  39
Topic 4, continued                                                                            Topic 3 - Impacts of site design and tree selection on tree growth
                                                                                              and longevity
TITLE:              Rooting Volume and Tree Growth Responses in the
                    Urban Environment                                                         TITLE:             Does the Site Make the Tree? A Framework for Considering Soil
                                                                                                                 and Site Factors in Tree Growth Models
AUTHOR:             Nina Bassuk
                    Professor                                                                 AUTHOR:            Susan Day
                    Department of Horticulture                                                                   Assistant Professor
                    Cornell University                                                                           Departments of Forest Resources &
                    Ithaca, NY 14853 USA                                                                         Environmental Conservation and Horticulture
                                                                                       Virginia Tech
                                                                                                                 310 Cheatham Hall
                                                                                                                 Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA
Nina Bassuk has been a professor and program leader of the Urban Horticulture Insti-
tute at Cornell University for the past 30 years. She is also co-chair of the Cornell Com-
munity Forestry Work Team and is a member of the Executive Committee of the New
York State Urban Forestry Council. She is co- author of 'Trees in the Urban Landscape”,
                                                                                              Dr. Day is an Assistant Professor of Urban Forestry in the Department of Forest
a text for landscape architects and horticultural practitioners on establishing trees in
                                                                                              Resources & Environmental Conservation at Virginia Tech, in Blacksburg, Virginia
disturbed and urban landscapes. In addition, Dr. Bassuk has authored 100 papers on
                                                                                              where she also holds a joint appointment in the Department of Horticulture. She
the physiological problems of plants growing in urban environments, including im-
                                                                                              teaches undergraduate and graduate classes in landscape horticulture and urban for-
proved plant selections for difficult sites, soil modification including the development
                                                                                              est ecology. Her areas of expertise include urban soils, soil/root interactions, storm-
of 'CU-Structural Soil' and improved transplanting technology. She works closely with
                                                                                              water mitigation, and tree preservation during construction. She currently serves on
municipalities to help implement best practices in urban forestry management and
                                                                                              the International Society of Arboriculture’s Science and Research Committee and on
developed the Student Weekend Arborist Team to inventory public trees in communi-
                                                                                              the Technical Core Committee of the Sustainable Sites Initiative (SITESTM)—a national
ties in NY State. She is a frequent invited speaker at national conferences and work-
                                                                                              initiative that has developed voluntary certification standards for sustainable site
shops and most recently received the Scott Medal for Horticulture.
                                                                                              development and landscapes. Dr. Day is the 2010 recipient of the Early Career Scientist
ABSTRACT:                                                                                     Award from the International Society of Arboriculture. Dr. Day has published more
*Abstract from listed reference. “This study involved locating tree roots with a Ground       than 60 articles and book chapters on her areas of expertise and her research has
-Penetrating Radar (GPR) system and then examining excavated roots in the same soil           appeared in a variety of scientific journals including the Journal of Arboriculture and
volume to compare the accuracy of the GPR system with true root location. In 2003             Urban Forestry, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Tree Physiology, Journal of
Acer platanoides ‘Emerald Queen’ Norway Maples were planted in trenches containing            Environmental Quality, and Environmental Management. She has a B.A. in Philosophy
two compacted soils (native silt loam and CU-Structural Soil). The trenches were paved        from Yale University, a Master’s Degree in Horticulture from Cornell University, and a
with 10 cm of concrete. In 2008, a GPR system consisting of a 900MHz antenna                  Ph D. in Forestry from Virginia Tech.
mounted on a root-scanning cart was used to conduct linear scans on top of the con-
crete. Immediately after scanning, the concrete was removed for selected trees and            ABSTRACT:
whole root systems were excavated as an entire system attached to the tree trunk              Modeling urban tree growth and longevity to accurately forecast future canopy and
using an air excavation tool. Regression analysis using mixed effect models showed            composition of urban forests and the benefits they provide to society raises unique
that the radar reliably predicted root presence in both the native and structural soils.      challenges. One such challenge is the role of site conditions, such as soil quality and
The root count correlations were r2 = 0.76 and r2 19 = 0.81 for the native and struc-         rooting space, on the growth and life stages of individual trees. Approaches to growth
tural soils, respectively. In the compacted native soil under concrete, the radar output      and yield modeling in traditional forest stands focus on the stand and treatments
overestimated the presence of roots at the minimum detection diameter but did pro-            applied to the stand—not the individual tree. In urban forests, both forest stands and
vide a signal associated with root presence at this detection level. In the structural soil   individual trees must be successfully modeled to accurately predict the future of an
under concrete, the radar output reliably predicted roots with only slight overestima-        urban forest or of an individual site. In addition, the growth of individual trees is
tion. This study showed that GPR data reliably predicted the presence and locations of        heavily influenced by site conditions because of immense spatial variability found in
roots under the concrete pavement in two compacted soils.”                                    urban planting sites, and growth is only occasionally affected by competition from
                                                                                              other trees. The goals of urban forests also differ. Rather than rapid and continued
*Bassuk, N. J. Grabosky, A. Mucciardi, and G. Raffel. Ground penetrating radar accu-          accumulation of biomass, the sought after goal is a healthy, standing canopy. Thus all
rately locates tree roots in two soil media under pavement. Draft Submitted to Arb.           components of the trees lifecycle are of interest: early growth and establishment,
Urb. For. 01/20/2011, AUF-10/0054.R1.
38                                                                                                                                                                                  23
Topic 3, continued                                                                                                                                              Topic 4, continued
Continued from previous page                                                                   Continued from previous page

growing to “full” size; and eventual stagnation, decline, and death. Growth predictions        was also of variable width. Plantings along each street were of mixed species. All were
for urban trees currently fall into two distinct camps: growth of individual trees, and        street trees planted as ball-and-burlap stock, and surrounded by turfgrass. Root collars
growth and mortality rates of urban forests as a whole. In both camps there is                 were excavated with hand tools and pneumatic excavation. Structural root depth was
significant and important work to be done. Data have been scarce, although that is             measured to the nearest half-centimeter relative to the soil against the trunk. If the
rapidly changing. The near future offers many opportunities for integrating these two          soil against the trunk was higher or lower than the surrounding grade, this measure-
camps into powerful prediction models that have the potential to not only plan for             ment was recorded and root depth relative to surrounding grade was calculated. A
urban forest canopy, but to influence the site design and land development that have           visual rating system was developed for crown vigor: ( 1) vigorous: terminal twig
such a profound effect on our urban forests. There are numerous challenges in this             growth, leaf size and color better than average for species, (2) normal: terminal twig
work, one of which is establishing a common framework for growth modeling that                 growth, leaf size and color typical of species, (3) acceptable: terminal twig growth, leaf
recognizes the unique situation of urban trees. Currently there is an international            size and color less than typical, but acceptable, (4) stress overcome: history of
effort to standardize urban forest data collection protocols to facilitate data sharing.       subnormal twig growth or minor twig dieback, but now acceptable or better, (5)
Research and serious thought about the unique characteristics of urban forests will            current stress: subnormal twig growth, leaves small, scorched or off color, minor
help inform this standardization process as it proceeds. Site conditions are one               dieback, (6) significant dieback: major portions of crown dead, still in decline, and (7)
characteristic of this data collection. What site conditions influence tree growth and         replacement needed: dead or nearly so. The average depth of the structural roots was
longevity sufficiently to merit inclusion in our models? This question is not as simple as     less than 3 cm for most species but root depth showed high variability on all sites. The
it seems at first glance. We have ample information about how certain site                     range of root depths may reflect the situation more meaningfully. The range of
haracteristics affect tree growth at various stages. Yet how much variation in growth          uppermost structural root depth of individual trees was in excess of 20 cm for most
do these conditions explain? In traditional forest stand growth modeling, inclusion of         species. Within that broad range, roots of 20-60 percent of the individual trees were
soil characteristics in models has rarely proved valuable. Presumably other                    deeper than BMP recommendations in most species. Regression analysis showed a
characteristics of the stand overshadow the influence of small changes in soil                 significant relationship between root depth and crown vigor for some species. Species
condition. In contrast, urban trees are placed in dramatically differing soil and site         generally considered highly tolerant of urban landscape conditions showed no
conditions. To illustrate this, consider these two situations: 1) trees in a riparian buffer   significant relationship between root depth and condition. These species are planted
in a former agricultural area that has been converted to housing developments and 2)           frequently in urban areas because they can tolerate a wide variety of conditions.
trees in a one-by-one-meter pavement cutout filled with compacted subsoil mixed                These species proved to be the most capable of tolerating deep root systems. At best,
with limestone construction gravel. What is the expected life trajectory of these trees?       root depth could explain less than half of the reduction in crown vigor, trunk condition,
Add species to the mix and consider how your answer changes. In the Eastern United             or trunk diameter growth. Root depth is only one of several factors affecting tree
States, if both trees in question are willow oak (Quercus phellos) those planted in a          performance in street tree plantings, and is not causing severe, widespread decline
limestone dominated pit will likely die before establishment because of nutrient               and losses to urban trees. However, since over 20 percent of trees have deep roots,
deficiencies engendered by elevated soil pH. What if they are both American elm                and their growth and vigor is being reduced by as much as 50 percent, the benefits
(Ulmus americana)? Then the growth prospects are radically different, the riparian             derived from those trees will be substantially reduced over their lifetime.
buffer trees will be influenced by competition, especially during early stages while the
cutout trees may never achieve the ultimate size and lifespan of those in the riparian
buffer. Site components that are more universally applicable to all species, such as soil
volume, can still vary by species because of the increased possibility of “root escape”
in some species. Research exploring the influence of various site characteristics on
different species is essential. These examples illustrate a final question that relates to
interpreting the influence of the site characteristics on the life trajectory of urban
trees. Consider limited soil volume, for example. Limited soil volume might have little
effect on the early growth stages of a tree. Similar to a tree in a forest stand that has
not yet felt the influence of competition from its neighbors, a tree in limited soil
volume will not initially respond to this limitation. But as the tree increases in size, the
limits of the soil volume manifest themselves. But even when growth is slowed, the
tree retains its value to the urban forest. Thus the growth rate over the useful life of
an urban tree is not constant. This complicates our ability to succinctly test for the

24                                                                                                                                                                                    37
Topic 4, continued                                                                                                                                          Topic 3, continued
TITLE:              Exploring the Relationship between Structural Root Depth               Continued from previous page
                    and Urban Tree Vigor
                                                                                           Where does the future lie? We cannot ignore site conditions in our predictions for
                                                                                           urban trees. This is increasingly important as approaches in site development and
AUTHOR:             Gary Watson and Angela Hewitt
                                                                                           design become more varied and sophisticated. With the advent of environmentally
                    Root Biologist and Research Specialist
                                                                                           sensitive design, the concept that all parking lots behave the same will become an
                    The Morton Arboretum
                                                                                           increasingly limited approach to modeling growth. The research community can strive
                    4100 Illinois Route 53
                                                                                           to develop a unified understanding of how to best evaluate tree growth response, in
                    Lisle, IL 60532 (USA)
                                                                                           the terms that matter to urban forests. In addition, the interaction of site and species
                                                                                           will need to be included in modeling efforts. This not only can improve predictive
                                                                                           power, but can serve as a decision-support tool for site design—potentially changing
                                                                                           the way urban land is constructed to improve its ability to support tree canopy.
Gary joined the Morton Arboretum research staff in 1986 and is currently a Senior
                                                                                           Collaboration and sharing of data will facilitate these efforts and put accurate urban
Research Scientist and Head of Research. He earned his B.S. and M.S. degrees in
                                                                                           forest growth predictions within reach.
biology at Western Illinois University, and Ph.D. at the University of Illinois in plant
pathology with a focus on non-infectious disease problems of tree roots. Throughout
his career, his primary research interest has been in understanding how to maintain a
healthy balance between the crown and the root system of trees on difficult landscape
sites. It can be quite a challenge to provide for the basic needs of roots outside of
their natural forest environment. Project topics have ranged from the benefits of
mulching as a substitute for natural litter recycling in the forest, to consequences of
construction disturbance on root systems, to tree planting and alteration of root
architecture by nursery production systems. The Chicago metropolitan area
surrounding the Morton Arboretum provides many opportunities for interaction with
practitioners and practical research trials. His accomplishments have been recognized
with Award for Arboricultural Research and Richard W. Harris Author’s Citation Award
from the International Society of Arboriculture. He is a Past President of International
Society of Arboriculture, the Arboricultural Research and Education Academy and the
Illinois Arborist Association. Gary is also Editor-in-Chief or Arboriculture and Urban
Forestry, author of Principles and Practice of Planting Trees and Shrubs, organizer of
the three Landscape Below Ground Conferences and Editor of the Conference

Excessively deep root systems are common on trees in urban and suburban land-
scapes. The structural woody roots that collectively form the root flare have been
found to be more than 7.6 cm below the soil surface on up to two-thirds of street
trees in several Illinois and Minnesota cities. In Long Island, New York, the average
depth of soil over the structural roots was slightly over 15 cm (see http:// This is deeper
than the best management practice recommendation that “at least 2 structural roots
should be within 2.5 to 7.6 cm of the soil surface”. Controlled experiments in the field
plots showed that deep root systems reduce survival and growth under some
conditions, especially poor drainage. Similar studies are lacking on trees planted in
urban and suburban landscapes where many factors can affect tree growth and vigor.
Three study sites were chosen based on their geographic and climatic differences, and
species available - Greensboro, NC, Snoqualmie, WA, and Glen Ellyn, IL. Planting space

36                                                                                                                                                                                25
Topic 3, continued                                                                                                                                         Topic 4, continued
TITLE:             Growing Trees in an Urban Plaza Environment                            Continued from previous page

                                                                                          growing seasons following the first pruning event. Biochemical parameters affecting
AUTHOR:            E. Thomas Smiley
                                                                                          photosynthesis were calculate from CO2 response curves. Leaf area and leaf mass per
                   Arboricultural Researcher
                                                                                          area were measured once per year. Wound closure was measured on all cuts using the
                   Bartlett Tree Research Lab
                                                                                          Woundwood Coefficient. Length, base diameter and slenderness of the pruned
                   13768 Hamilton Rd.
                                                                                          branch, of the leader, and of lateral shoots were measured yearly. The stress required
                   Charlotte, NC 28278 USA
                                                                                          to cause the failing of the attachment between the primary branch and 1) the lateral
                                                                                          branch which was selected as new leader (RD); 2) the lateral branch originated after
                                                                                          topping which was selected as new leader (T); 3) the lateral branch normally attached
                                                                                          to a primary branch which was selected as imaginary leader (C) was measured 2 years
Dr. Tom Smiley is an arboricultural researcher at the Bartlett Tree Research Laboratory
                                                                                          after pruning. In this study we investigated how repeated pruning events, done with
in Charlotte NC and an adjunct professor of Urban Forestry at Clemson University. Dr.
                                                                                          different pruning methods affect growth and physiology of an urban tree species.
Smiley is very active in the arboriculture industry and has conducted research that has
                                                                                          Results indicate that the consequences of pruning greatly depend on the way pruning
assisted in development of: the ANSI A300 Standards and ISA Best Management
                                                                                          is acted. Those techniques, as topping, which remove the apical bud without setting a
Practices, strategies for increasing the longevity of sidewalks near trees, methods for
                                                                                          shoot which can become new leader of the branch result in a higher release or
improving lightning protection systems, developing the patented Root Invigoration™
                                                                                          development of watersprouts. These newly formed shoots may become codominant
method of reducing soil compaction under trees, and when not traveling, Dr. Smiley is
                                                                                          (as indicated by the diameter ratio). What these shoots try to do is to grow fast in
continuing studies on plant growth regulators, the effects of root cutting on tree
                                                                                          length and to develop a large leaf area to outcompete the nearby watersprouts. To do
stability and developing more efficient and effective tree propping systems.
                                                                                          so they form large and thin leaves, plenty of chlorophyll to maximize carbon
                                                                                          assimilation when environmental condition are not limiting, but which may be more
                                                                                          susceptible to stress because of lower LMA. This is a similar behavior as that of pioneer
Growing trees in an environment surrounded by pavement is a challenging prospect.
                                                                                          species when compared to late-successional species. Therefore, topping leads to a
Several methods have been developed that allow root systems to develop while the
                                                                                          shift of the pruned branches to a more “pioneeristic” behavior. The lower stress
surface is covered by pavement. This talk will cover two long-term studies that look at
                                                                                          tolerance resulting from this behavior is corroborated by the higher frequency of
this growing situation. The first is an experiment that was started in 2004 that
                                                                                          dieback observed in topped trees than in the other treatments. Moreover, water-
compares structural soils to suspended pavement plantings. The second study focuses
                                                                                          sprouts developing from cut are weakly inserted on the parent branch, which can lead
on an examination of the conditions that are associated with the decline of a 25 year
                                                                                          future stability problems. Contrary to this, other pruning methods altered to a lower
old suspended pavement planting in a downtown area. In the urban plaza plot tree
                                                                                          extent tree physiology and development either because a leader shoot is retained on
growth has been monitored on a yearly basis. Height and diameter data will be
                                                                                          the branch (reduction cut) or because the branch is pruned directly in its insertion to
presented: Willow oaks growing for 25 year in a suspended pavement planting in
                                                                                          the trunk (removal cut) and watersprouts developing from the wound find themselves
uptown Charlotte NC were showing symptoms of decline. The study looked at soil and
                                                                                          in the inner part of the crown, where light is limiting, and they become soon
other factors and correlated them with tree condition. It was found that biological
                                                                                          dominated by other branches. In conclusion, while topping results in profound
factors were more highly correlated to tree condition than soil factors. Recommenda-
                                                                                          changes in tree structure and physiology, pruning with removal cut, reduction cut, or
tions were made to control pests and improve tree health. The results of these two
                                                                                          both of them altered tree physiological processes to a much lower degree, and are
studies may be used to aid in the decision making process for future urban plantings.
                                                                                          therefore recommendable.

26                                                                                                                                                                               35
Topic 4, continued                                                                                                                                          Topic 3, continued
TITLE:              Effect of Repeated Pruning Cycles on Growth and Physiology              TITLE:             Urban Site Index for Urban Forest Planning
                    of Maple Trees
                                                                                            AUTHOR:            Alan Siewert and Stephanie Miller
AUTHOR:             Alessio Fini and Francesco Ferrini                                                         Urban Foresters
                    Post-Doc Researcher and Professor                                                          ODNR Division of Forestry
                    Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Science                                        15444 West High Street
                    University of Florence                                                                     Middlefield, Ohio 44062 USA
                    Viale delle Idee, 30 – 50019                                                     
                    Sesto Fiorentino FI Italy
                                                                                            Alan Siewert is a native of Wisconsin where he earned his Bachelor of Science degree
BIOGRAPHY:                                                                                  in Urban Forestry from the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point in 1984. In 1987 he
Alessio Fini is a Post-Doc at the Department of Horticulture of Florence University.        came to northeast Ohio for an internship at the Holden Arboretum. Following the
Since 2005, when he graduated in Agronomic Sciences at the University of Milan, he          internship he worked as a project manager with ACRT Inc. then of Kent, Ohio. In 1990,
has been working on projects regarding sustainable cultivation techniques for nursery       Alan became the regional urban forester for the Ohio Department of Natural Re-
production and urban forestry. These include: reduction in use of herbicides, irrigation    sources, Division of Forestry. In this position Alan assists communities in 11 counties
and chemical fertilizers without penalizing plant growth and quality; effects of shading    of northeast Ohio in managing their urban forest resource. Alan is a member of the
on leaf gas exchange and leaf anatomy; alternative techniques to tillage and their          International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) (since 1987), and the Ohio Chapter of the
effects on plant physiology; effects of mulching on plant physiology and soil chemical,     ISA (since 1988). He has served as the Chairman of the Tree Academy for the 1996
physical and biological properties; development of native and species-specific              international convention in Cleveland, as a member of the Ohio Chapter Board of Di-
mycorrhiza to improve health and growth of urban trees. In 2011, he received a Ph.D.        rectors 1994-2002, and as President 1998-99. He has also serves as Ohio’s Certifica-
in “Landscape planning and protection of the rural environment.” His PhD thesis was         tion Liaison 1998 to 2008 and chair of the International Certification Liaisons Commit-
on the mechanisms of drought tolerance of shade trees and the selection of drought          tee 2001-2006 and as a board member to the ISA’s certification board of directors
tolerant species, with a particular regard to climate change.                               2007-2010. Alan is a Board Certified Master Arborist earning his certification in 1989.
                                                                                            In 2001, Alan was honored by the International Society of Arboriculture with their
ABSTRACT:                                                                                   Honorary Life membership for his years of dedicated service to the Certified Arborist
Pruning can be one of the best things an arborist can do for a tree and one of the          Program and the Ohio Chapter. Alan is an accomplished speaker and educator. He is
worst things an arborist can do to a tree. In the United States, the A300 Standard          the co-author of the national awarding winning Tree Commission Academy. Alan has
describes four conventional types of pruning to be used to satisfy a pre-determined         spoken on various urban forestry and arboriculture topics. He has appeared at the
pruning objective (American National Standard Institute, 2001). Pruning types and           International Society of Arboriculture’s International Conference in Stanford in 1999,
prescriptions have been developed mostly without the benefit of empiric tests on            Baltimore in 2000, Montreal in 2003, and Minneapolis in 2006 and is a regular speaker
shade trees. In fact, main topics of pruning research include tree response to              at the Ohio Tree Care Conference, North Coast Urban Forestry Conference, and The
wounding, interactions between trees and utility lines, and between trees and wind          OSU Short Course as well as many other programs. Alan currently resides in Parkman
load, while the effects of different pruning methods on tree health, structure and          Ohio with his wife, Anne, and their two children.
physiology has received much less attention and deserve further research. The effect
of pruning with different methods on sycamore maple has already been investigated in        Stephanie has a Bachelor of Science, Forestry (Urban Option,) May 1992 from Purdue
a previous work. Anyway, urban trees are subjected to repeated pruning                      University, West Lafayette, IN. She is employed by the Ohio DNR, Division of Forestry,
interventions. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of pruning       from February 1997 to present. As an urban Forester, she assists Northwest Ohio com-
on growth and physiology of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), which had              munities with their urban forest management, provides technical and organizational
already been pruned two years before. In February 2008, established maple were              tree care assistance to NW Ohio communities, administers the Tree City USA program
pruned in order to reduce leaf area by 1/3 according to the following treatments: 1)        in NW Ohio, and manages development of and delivers Tree Commission Academy to
topping; 2) removal cut; 3) reduction cut; 4) control. In control trees, 6 imaginary cuts   communities.
per plant were drawn and monitored through the experiment. In February 2010, trees
were pruned again using the same treatments. The experimental design was a one-
tree per replicate complete randomized design with 7 replicates. Leaf gas exchange,
leaf greenness index and shoot starch content were measured several times in three

34                                                                                                                                                                               27
Topic 3, continued                                                                                                                                            Topic 4, continued
Continued from previous page                                                                  Continued from previous page

ABSTRACT:                                                                                     increased the root stability. The maximum increase was 134%. These results show a
Urban soils range in quality from native profiles to highly engineered, compacted, and        general improvement of the root systems stability. The mean Safety factor of the
nutrient deficient qualities. Delineating various soils on a large scale for municipal tree   population increased from 4.3 to 6.3 during the past triennium. Two contrasting
planting plan has challenged urban foresters for decades, limiting opportunities for          growth trends were observed: the crowns growth (reacting to the heavy pruning)
developing diverse community planting designs. State of Ohio Urban Foresters have             versus the increment of the root balls resistance. The treatment done in 2007 with
created a systematic method, the Urban Site Index (USI,) to identify and quantify site        beneficial fungi/bacteria inoculum and fertilizers, together with the natural tree
quality based on eight site and use parameters. The presenters will discuss the               endency to repair damages (C. Mattheck), resulted the above mentioned
background and development of the Urban Site Index, the method for field data                 improvement of vigour and stability. A third pulling test control should be scheduled in
collection, as well as several case studies with Ohio communities with this process.          2012 in order to confirm the final restore of the root balls balanced with the new
The presenters will conclude with suggestions on future research to quantify and              increased size of the crowns.
monitor the efficacy of the USI in urban forest management planning.

28                                                                                                                                                                                  33
Topic 4, continued                                                                                                                                              Topic 3, continued
Continued from previous page                                                                   TITLE:              An Organizational Approach to Urban Tree Management
                                                                                                                   and Longevity
from <1500 kg to >900 kg and from<0.05 degrees to 0.25 degrees: 17 trees was
classified in “Normal” root mechanical status class, 18 trees in “Abnormal” status class,
                                                                                               AUTHOR:             Jason Grabosky
10 in ”Critical” status class and 2 Control trees. As a result, no additional trees were
                                                                                                                   Associate Professor
removed, and only 22% of trees required a rigid support system anchored to the
                                                                                                                   Department of Ecology Evolution and Natural Resources
ground. During the 2010, the follow up started to value the static assessment. Static
                                                                                                                   Rutgers University
assessment was carried out by TSE method. According to the, the elastic phase of a
                                                                                                                   14 College Farm Road room 144
tree root ball is in the range between 0 and 0.25 degrees, while 2.5 degrees of
                                                                                                                   New Brunswick, NJ 08901 USA
inclination is the point of irreversible overturning. By mean of Dynatim®, the dynamic
pulling equipment , we induced a load in the elastic range of root ball movement. In
that way, it was possible to evaluate the capacity of the tree to return to initial equilib-
rium conditions when a known load is applied. The Dynatim sensors, High-resolution
                                                                                               Dr. Grabosky is the John and Eleanor Kuser Faculty Scholar in Urban and Community
measuring (resolution: 1/100° or 1/1000 mm), recorded the trunk base’s tilting.
                                                                                               Forestry in the Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources. He is a
According the formula F = A *Cw * (r/2) * u2h, the Wind load analysis was determined
                                                                                               co-adjutant Faculty Dept. Landscape Architecture. He is a Collaborative Associate in
by means of ArWilo® Rinntech, a particular computer program able to calculates the
                                                                                               the Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation (CAIT) and the NJ LTAP
crown sail surface and its load centre. In a second time, by entering the collected data
                                                                                               program Dept. Civil and Environmental Engineering. He is a Faculty Coordinator for
in the TSE computer program it was possible to establish values such as oscillation
                                                                                               Urban and Community Forestry undergraduate certificate program Rutgers Graduate
willingness, turbulence situation (nozzle effects), and wind force. By means of such
                                                                                               Program Affiliations: Ecology and Evolution, Plant Biology, Environmental Science, and
data the program calculates the values for stability (Safety factor) of the respective
                                                                                               Landscape Architecture. He is a Board Member of Bartlett Tree Foundation, NJ
tree. The pulling tests were carried out on the 27 trees classified in TSE stability class
                                                                                               Community Forestry Advisory Council. He is on the Board of Directors for the NJ Shade
as Abnormal or Critical during the study made in the 2007. Tests were performed by
                                                                                               Tree Federation and a Trustee of NJ Arborists ISA. He has published over 33 peer
pulling to a maximum inclination of 0.25 degrees; Trees were pulled with a manual
                                                                                               reviewed research manuscripts. His research program revolves around urban tree care
hoist. On each tree, two inclinometers were positioned, one at the base and the other
                                                                                               concepts, tree bio-mechanics, urban tree - infrastructure design issues and canopy
2 m (2.2 yd) from the ground on the top of the trunk near the main branches. Each
                                                                                               management in the designed environment.
inclinometer was able to record data in two directions, X and Y, parallel and
perpendicular, respectively, to the pulling direction. The crown area before the
pruning, was very important and considering a height of the center of the crown at 8
                                                                                               This paper will develop and explore a set of conceptual curves for use in urban forest
m, brought a stem base bending moment of 77 kNm. After the pruning the crown lost
                                                                                               management for sustained environmental service. The presentation will set a first
more than 80% of the sail, so the bending moment decreased at only 6 kNm. In these
                                                                                               attempt in describing how aspects of tree culture and care, along with site aspects
three years, the trees have reacted to the drastic pruning and, they reformed the main
                                                                                               inform such curves. A series of study results will be referenced and used to illustrate
branch near trunk. In this way, the center of the crown is lower and the bending
                                                                                               specific aspects of the curves. The presentation will advance suggestions for a site
moment has only increased to 11 kNm. The first simulation shows that the safety
                                                                                               indexing method within an urban context to help organize our collective approach to
factor, after that the root ball was reduced by damages, has decreased under the
                                                                                               urban canopy management. Not intended as an end point, but an organizational
safety limit (0.81) and the pruning was necessary. When the pruning was excessive
                                                                                               starting point for those assembled, it will end with an open question and invitation to
indeed the safety factor (4.35) was above the normal range (1.5-2). The third TSE test
                                                                                               organize interested parties and to refine or refute the idea toward a consensus
shows the increase of resistance of the root ball: the crown area enlarged from 18 to
                                                                                               organizational approach.
28 m2, but also the resistance of root improved and the safety factor increased from
4.31 to 6.36. In the last simulation, the TSE test shows that the safety factor, resulted
from the resistance of the roots analysed with pulling test in 2010 and the WLA of a
crown of 96 m2, is lower than 1 (0.95). Therefore, in spite of the root balls increased
their anchoring attitude, at the time could not support the original dimension of the
crown. By the generalized tipping curve (L. Wessolly), we calculated the overturning
load. Test results done in 2007 and 2010 were compared. The mean increment of
stability (tipping load) after three year was of about 38%. The 88% of the trees

32                                                                                                                                                                                   29
Topic 4 - Effects of tree and site management on tree growth and longevity                                                                                     Topic 4, continued
TITLE:              Tree Management: Making the Most of What Science Offers Us               TITLE:              The Longevity and Growth of Entire Populations of Trees Can be
                                                                                                                 Heavily Influenced by Human Factors in the Case of Excavations
AUTHOR:             James Clark                                                                                  Carried out During Roadwork
                    HortScience, Inc.                                                        AUTHOR:             Alessandro Pestalozza and Dario Guzzi
                    2150 Rheem Drive, Suite A                                                                    Dendrotec Sede Operativa and Sede Legale
                    Pleasanton, CA 94588 USA                                                                     Piazza Trivulzio, 14
                                                                                    I - 20864 Omate di Agrate Brianza MB Italy
Jim has been a principal with HortScience, Inc., an arboriculture and urban forestry         BIOGRAPHY:
consulting firm, since 1991. He received a B.S. in Plant Science from Rutgers University     Alessandro Pestalozza is resides in Northern Italy nearby Milan. He graduated with a
in 1973, followed by an M.S. in Horticulture in1975. Jim received a Ph.D. from the           degree Agricultural Sciences. He was ISA vice-president from 2002 to 2005 and
University of California (Davis) in 1979. Prior to joining HortScience, Jim spent 10 years   European Arboriculture Council representative for Italy. He is a current European Tree
on the faculty of the University of Washington at the Center for Urban Horticulture          Worker and European Tree Technician Supervisor in the Certification Exams. After his
and 3 years on the faculty at Michigan State University. Jim is co-author (with Nelda        studies at the University, he worked for ten years in a multinational group, traveling to
Matheny) of: A Photographic Guide to the Evaluation of Hazard Trees in Urban Areas,          many countries all over the world. Since 1992, Alessandro and colleagues have prac-
Trees and Development -- A Technical Guide to the Preservation of Trees During Land          ticed Visual Tree Assessment (VTA) in Italy, and are considered as pioneers of the tree
Development, Municipal Specialist Certification Study Guide, and Arboriculture – the         assessment. From 2005, Alessandro, and his company Dendrotec, have been moving
integrated management of landscape trees, shrubs and vines (also with Dick Harris).          large trees with the Spanish patented method Treeplatform. He utilizes tools such as
Jim is an ISA Certified Arborist (WE-0846), a Registered Consulting Arborist (#357) of       the Resistograph, root inspection with Air Spade tool, Arboradix, and sonic tomograph
the American Society of Consulting Arborists, an Honorary Life Member of both the ISA        (Arbotom). He has begun performing Pulling tests as non-destructive procedures
and the Western Chapter as well as an all-around good guy.                                   providing precise and direct data as far tipping and stem breaking values. Alessandro is
                                                                                             the Italian representation of the Independent Tree Expert Group founded by Bodo
ABSTRACT:                                                                                    Siegert (Nurnberg Germany). The Group’s purpose is to develop a holistic approach to
The paper discusses: what research examines versus what arborists do. It performs a          tree stability by integrating the State of the Art of VTA, SIA SIM and others well known
comparison of Arboriculture & Urban Forestry (AUF) key words to tree care activities         methodologies. He is married, with four sons and enjoys the mountains, alpine skiing,
and discusses why the two may never match up. From 1999 to 2010, 566 articles were           and rock climbing.
published in AUF. Those articles identified a total 2745 key words. I evaluated the
frequency of those keywords only to discover 2026 discrete words and phrases. The            ABSTRACT:
most frequently cited keyword (urban forestry) was cited only 19 times. The 13 most          Early in 2007, the east line of a double tree-lined avenue of 88 large Celtis australis
frequently cited keywords represented just 5.6% of the 2745 total. Keywords were             (European hackberry), located in Sassari (Sardinia, Italy), suffered severe root damage
put into categories. With this approach the 13 most frequently cited keywords                from a soil excavation and after weeks a tree in the east line fell onto the sidewalk
represent 38% of the total. The intention is to compare what researchers have                during a storm and hit a young woman, fortunately without serious consequences. The
published in comparison to what arborists do (e.g., keyword categories vs. certification     excavated trench was about 1 meter (1.1 yd) wide and deep and approximately 40 cm
domains). A tree care contractor will provide an income breakdown for service                (15.7 in) from the trees. Root loss affected tree stability. Immediately afterward, (for
categories. The need for long-term projects on some very basic topics will be explored.      independent decision of the municipality) all trees were drastically pruned, removing a
Balance needs of the scientist with the wants of the practitioner will be discussed.         portion of crown equal to about 35% to 40% of the original volume. Faced with this
Topics in arboricultural practice that need to be addressed but are unlikely to be           situation, a study was commissioned to us by the Sassari Council to assess the safety of
include: tree response to construction impacts, water use/drought tolerance, pruning         the tree line, to develop a plan to restore tree vigour ( providing trees beneficial fungi/
cycles and tree condition. Examples of topics in arboricultural practice that need to be     bacteria inoculum, and fertilizers ) and to follow up the safety situation during a time
addressed that might gain some traction include: species failure patterns, performance       of 3 (5) years. Air excavation revealed portions of damaged root systems. Pulling tests
of different size nursery stock over time, performance testing of species and cultivars,     made with a Dynatim® device only partially confirmed assessments from visual investi-
a la OARDC shade tree plots.                                                                 gations and demonstrated that visual assessment may not be sufficient to determine
                                                                                             risk of failure. Trees were classified by force applied to each tree during the pulling
                                                                                             test and the bending angle recorded for each sensor. They was classified in 4 Classes

30                                                                                                                                                                                    31

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