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Teknologi dan Rekayasa


  • pg 1
									Teknologi dan Rekayasa

     Ice Factory
                   Lay out

Section of three-dimensional layout of ice factory with
capacity 12 metric tons/24 hours use ice molds 25 square
standard print ice (from left to right)
  Blower :

  'Roots' type to inject air make clear ice

              Agitator ……..
the propeller, and the rod flange motor
  Overhead Gantry Crane and Ice Can filler that
   can fill the water to ice mold 20 longitude
cage size of 25 kg at a time, on ice blocks factory
 with a capacity of 50 metric tons / 24 hours in
             Pekalongan, Central Java
Appointment ice on ice in a Container
Factory in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Equipment Mesin refrigerator
              Evaporator / verdamper toes'
              Herring Bone 'which is usually
              made in the salt water tanks, and
              Horizontal shell & tube condenser
              can be replaced with the PHE
              (Plate Heat Exchanger).

              PHE right to brine (salt water /
              Ammonia) and cooling for the
              condenser PHE left (the water
              cooling tower / Ammonia).

              With LEU, only 15% required the
              use of refrigerant from the
              Herring Bone and Shell & Coils
              Tube condenser.
Engine cooling package is equipped
     with vertical separator Liquid -
        Accumulator and Horizontal
         Liquid refrigerant Receiver
                      with Ammonia
     Printed ice and time freezing
Coagulation time is determined by the size of mold temperature
of ice and salt water (brine) that can views based on the formula
             correlation R. Plank and the table below.

                                         PLANK FORMULA
cooling capacity
heat capacity (refrigerator )

  To freeze 1 Ton water/24 Hour of air
 temperature +30 ° C and ice -5 ° C, with
disregard differences in specific volume of
 water and ice, the capacity required heat
        heat capacity (refrigerator )
      Before freezing 1000 kg/24.60.60 sx 1000 (30-0) K x 4:19 kJ / kg.K
                                 = 1455 kW
 Latent heat at the time of freezing 1000 kg/24.60.60 sx 335 kJ/kg
                             = 3877 kW
After freezing 1000 kg/24.60.60 sx 1000 [0 - (-5)] K x 2.1 kJ / kg.K
                           = 0122 kW

     So the amount of heat capacity theoretically is 5454 kW.
   However, in practical day-to-day many factors that affect the
                             ice in the
                            Factory, such as:
                      • burden of heat agitator
    • Transmission heat (cold) water from the tub of salt that is
            not adequate and the timber cover isolasinya
       • Blow the air to make the ice clear increase heat load
      • The timber on the cover and pull out the ice water also
                       increase the burden hot
      Heat Capacity (Refrigerator )
  In general Pabrik add ice in 30% of the capacity calculation
      based on the theory additional burden to overcome the
                         above, so that a
           5454 kW x 1.3 = 7.09 kW (6100 kcal / day)

    Please note that the time of ice not all 24 hours, depending on
            the dimensions of the ice mold (see table above).
  To precisely calculate the heat capacity of the required compliance
with freezing time according to your ice mold (not necessarily divided
into 24 hours) and the mass of water included in the ice mold (usually
 water in the ice mold 50 kg weight over 60 kg, even to 70 kg), but still
   need to add additional heat load factor, which should not be 30%,
depending on ice conditions factory you (see the additional heat load
                             factors above).
      Determining Compressor
Compressor capacity refrigerasi a highly depends on
  the operating Compressor Those parameters are:

  1. Speed in rpm (rotation per minute)
  2. Te Evaporating temperature in ° C (temperature
     refrigerant evaporasi / Ammonia)
  3. Condensing temperature tc in ° C (condensation
     temperature refrigerant / Ammonia)
  4. Superheat in K (summer go through the
     compression limit saturation vapor Te)
  5. Subcooling in K (cooling go past the limit of the
     liquid saturation TC)
    comparing the capacity

When comparing the capacity of fruit
Compressor 2 then the condition of all
  the parameters must be the same
    (speed, Te, TC, Superheat and
     Evaporating temperature
Evaporating temperature for the Ice
 Factory, in general, set at a temperature
 of -8 ° C to -15 ° C,
 because salt water is usually working at
 a temperature -5 ° C and -12.5 ° C. Salt
 water temperatures lower than -15 ° C
 Ice akan make quick cracked beam
 es at the time of cancellation, because
 the difference in air temperature and ice
 which is very large.
    Condensing temperature

Condensing temperature usually
 ranges between 35 ° C to 45 ° C,
 depending on the type of refrigerant
 used (Freon / Ammonia) is also the
 type of condenser (water cooled,
 water cooled or evaporative

Superheat is the temperature difference
between saturation temperature of vapor
compression (Te) the temperature rise due to
more heat from the surrounding environment
(hot air in the engine room or engine heat
alone piston's movement) to reach the
saturation vapor temperature indeed. Ideal
superheat 0 K dessentially difficult to achieve.
Superheat generally ranged from 3 to 5 K.
 Subcooling is a decrease in saturation
  temperature of liquid condensation with
  further using a heat exchanger (kalor trade)
  between Ammonia with water, air, or other
  Subcooling can achieve a decrease in
  temperature 5 to 10 K. When the heat is not
  used after condenser exchanger to lower
  the temperature of condensation of liquid
  saturation the sub-cooling is 0 K.

 COP is the efficiency of Compressor (Refrigeration capacity
  divided by the absorbed power).
 If COP greater the number, the higher efficiency
      There are various types of condensor:

1. water cooled condensor TC 40 ° C to 45 ° C
2. water cooled condensor TC 38 ° C to 42 ° C
3. evaporative condenser TC 35 ° C to 40 ° C
          Air cooled condensor
               Air cooled condensor ……….
is condensor using a wheel - a wheel (fin) and pipe (pipe)
          with using the air conditioner fan (fan).

Rarely used when using refrigerant Ammonia,extravagant
    use of electricity and the price is not economical.

   Water cooled condensor is using condensor pipe with
cooling water (which can be assisted with the cooling tower
     and shell & tube) or directly (condensor pipe that
               water flowed such as rain).

More economical than air cooled condensor in the use of
     Water cooled condensor
        Water cooled condensor …..

 is using condensor pipe with cooling water
    (which can be assisted with the cooling
       tower and shell & tube) or directly
       (condensor pipe that water flowed
                 such as rain).

More economical than air cooled condensor in
           the use of electricity.
      Evaporative condensor
         Evaporative condensor…….
  is a combination of water cooled (air) and
        water cooled (water) condensor.

 Using the grid - grid (fin), pipe (tube), water
    spray (water spray) and air fan (fan).

Only using evaporative condensor, condensing
        temperature can reach 35 ° C for
            conditions in Indonesia.

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