An Overview on Integrated Circuit by nabiljutawan


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									Integrated circuit is often called as miniaturized electronic circuit
that comprises several semiconductor devices as well as passive
components bonded to substrate or circuit board. The entire configuration
is termed as a hybrid integrated circuit or monolithic integrated
circuit. After years of experimental discoveries, the IC manufacturing
took place. In the mid-20th century there came tremendous advancement in
the semiconductor technology. The integrated circuits started developing
in bulk which controlled the capability, reliability, and building-block
approach to circuit design at the time of manufacturing. Due to this the
IC manufacturing companies started using standardized ICs in place of
designs using discrete transistors.

The discrete circuits were also extensively used before the IC came into
existence. But if we compare the integrated circuits with the discrete
circuits, the former is much advance and capable than the later. On
broader perspective there are two main advantages of ICs over discrete
circuits - first is the cost of the device and second is the performance.
Cost of a component is favorable to the user only if it is low, thus IC
manufacturing cost is definitely less than the discrete circuits. The
reason for this low cost is the printing of chips and all their
components as a unit rather than being constructed on each transistor at
a time. Now this is done by a process called as photolithography.
Furthermore, here the construction material used is much less than used
in constructing a discrete circuit. Due to these two reasons the cost
gets lowered hugely while designing the ICs. Design for manufacturing an
IC is so cost effective that people who start using it never look for
other options.

Another major advantage of using integrated circuits is its high
performance. But what is the possible reason behind it? Well, the
performance is so high because the components in the integrated circuit
switch quickly and consume little power as compared to their discrete
counterparts. Now the next question arise here is that how are these
components switched so quickly and are energy efficient too. For that the
reason is very simple - the components are small in size and they are
placed at close proximity with their counterparts.

In the early days of IC manufacturing, when the technology was not that
advance the scale used was of large size due to which only a few
transistors could be placed on a chip. Later on, millions, and today
around billions of transistors could be placed on one chip. That is why
while designing the IC; thorough planning is done by the professionals.
This method has greatly improved the design methods and encouraged the
designers to develop new ones every so often.

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