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communityandorganizationspring2010

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 31

									Community & Organization
Level Factors and Crime

   Dr. Matthew Robinson
   CJ 3400 “Theories of Crime”
   Appalachian State University
Levels of Analysis
              Cell
               Organ
                 Organism

                   Group

                     Community/
                     Organization

                      Society
Behavior in the context
of communities and organizations
 Both   are large groups

 Communities  are neighborhoods
 (groups of families living together).

 Organizations  are large groups
 whose members have less intimate
 contact (e.g., fraternity, sorority,
 sports team, etc.).
Behavior in the context
of communities and organizations
 Bothcan assist with crime
 prevention (e.g., neighborhood
 watch, police patrols)

 Canprevention can be formal
 (governmental) or informal
 (nongovernmental).

 Informal   is usually more effective.
Communities and
Organizations
 Main   schools of thought at this level:

 Social disorganization
 Routine activities / victim lifestyles
 Deterrence
 Labeling
Communities
 Social disorganization – inability of
  intimate social groups to control
  behavior in their neighborhoods

 e.g.,families unable to regulate their
  kids because of certain neighborhood
  conditions
Social disorganization
 Criminogenic    neighborhood factors
    include:
 Urbanization / population density
 Residential mobility (immigration, transience)
 Population heterogeneity (racial or ethnic
  diversity)
 Low socioeconomic status (SES) or poverty
 Family disruption / single parents
Social disorganization
 These  factors erode collective efficacy
 -- the ability and desire of residents to
 work together to solve problems.

 Such  factors reduce:
 1) Friendship networks;
 2) Participation in community
  organizations; and
 3) Supervision of young people
Social disorganization
 Neighborhoods    high in social
  disorganization (or low in collective
  efficacy) are found to have higher rates
  of street crime.

 In these areas, there are high levels of
  incivilities (untended people and places)
Social disorganization
Social disorganization
Social disorganization
Social disorganization
 In these areas, there are high levels of
  collective disadvantage
 (failing schools, dilapidated buildings,
  housing discrimination, divorce, illness,
  stress, etc.)
 And also less informal social control
  within families and neighborhoods
Social disorganization
 Theory   originally intended to explain
  differences in delinquency rates by area
 Rates consistently highest in same
  areas of city …
 Regardless of who lived there …
 So there must be something about the
  place itself rather than the people who
  live there!
East Garfield Park
Fuller Park
Washington Park
Englewood
Communities
 Updates:
 http://www.neighborhoodscout.com/il/ch
  icago/crime/
 http://www.uchicago.edu/safety/reports/
  historical/
Communities
 Routine   activities and victim lifestyles --
 Routine activity theory says crime can
  only happen when 3 elements come
  together:
 1) Motivated offenders;
 2) Suitable targets; and
 3) No capable guardian
 Lifestyle exposure theory says lifestyles
  of potential victims and the resulting
  activities affect these factors and thus
  crime
Communities
 Routine activity theory originally meant
 to explain crime rate changes over time

 Neighborhoods    with high numbers of
  motivated offenders are found to have
  higher rates of street crime.
 More crime can also result from high
  levels of suitable targets in the absence
  of capable guardians
Routine Activities / Victim
Lifestyles
 Lifestyle exposure theory originally
  meant to explain risk of victimization for
  individuals.
 Victim lifestyles affect offender
  motivation, suitable targets and capable
  guardians, and are thus related to risk
  of crime
 What you do in your daily/nightly
  activities predicts your risk of
  victimization

								
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