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Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

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					Introduction to Anatomy and
         Physiology
          Chapter 1
   The Systems- Review Table…
• Done! And we made our Cadaver Models.
• IMPORTANT POINT: Models are only
  representative of structures/functions.
  They give us something to manipulate to
  help us understand or a way for us to see
  a process/concept that we can’t normally
  see.
• Models are important in science BUT they
  are not perfect.
• A model can be 3D, a 2D picture or
  animation…etc.
Organs are PACKED in!
          What is Anatomy &
            Physiology?
• Anatomy
  – study of the structure and shape of the body
   and its parts
• Physiology
  – study of how the body and its parts work or
   function
    Anatomy – Levels of Study
• Gross Anatomy
  – Large structures
  – Easily observable
    Anatomy – Levels of Study
• Microscopic Anatomy
  – Very small
    structures
  – Can only be
    viewed with
    a microscope




                            Figure 14.4
• How does MICRO & MACRO relate to
  A&P?
  – Majority of this class focuses on the organ
    system level BUT to understand how organs
    work we need to understand the microscopic
    structures & chemical reactions which happen
    there!
Structural and Functional
      Organization




                       www.hkpe.net/.../images/body_levels.jpg
Understanding Diagrams
  is vital to science!
Using this picture you and
  your table should
1. fill in as many
  graphically represented
  body systems & parts as
  you can
2. describe what the
  arrows depict
3. then write a paragraph
  describing what the
  diagram is depicting in
  general on the back of
  the paper.
I will be coming around to
  help you
 food   Integumentary CO2               O2




Digestive                         Respiratory
                                      Cells


  nutrients
                Nutrients/O2 in
                Waste/CO2 out



              Cardiovascular        Interstitial fluid

                              Nitrogenous
                              Waste/Salts

                 Urinary

feces               Urine
•Example: The picture depicts how all of
the organ systems are connected. We
can see that the integumentary system
protects the body from the external
environment. The digestive & respiratory
system take in nutrients & oxygen which
are distributed throughout the body by
the circulatory system. The circulatory
system then moves waste products to the
respiratory system (carbon dioxide) &
excretory system (urine).
          Important POINT!
• NO organ system is completely separate
  from another. They all work together.
• YOU CAN live (a long healthy life) with out
  one of the systems…which one???
             Homeostasis
• Your body works because it’s constantly
  working to achieve homeostasis.
  – Homeo= same
  – Stasis= state
• Whenever you do anything you put your
  homeostasis in jeopardy.
  – Ex: drinking fanta = LOTS of sugar
  – = high blood sugar = release of insulin =
    absorption of sugar in to cells to be
    metabolized 
  – If you do not produce insulin = diabetic, then
    you have a major problem b/c unmetabolized
    sugar is DEADLY. YOUR HOMEOSTASIS is
    out of wack!
• Negative feedback loops:
  – Loop opposes the stimulus
  – Becomes too hot-action is to cool down OR
    too cold & shiver to warm up.
  – Used to regulate body phyiology (not just
    temperature)
  – Ex: home central heat/air
• Positive Feedback loops:
  – Increases the stimulus
  – “vicious cycle”
  – Not a way to regulate b/c drives body away
    form balance
  – Sometimes it IS necessary…
    • Ex: Child birth
    • Contractions continue to increase in strength until
      baby is born
Overview of Homeostasis




                      Figure 1.4
• Answer the following question on
  your own on a sheet of paper &
  put your answer in the bin.
• When becoming dehydrated we
  usually feel thirsty which causes
  us to drink fluids. Determine
  whether the thirst sensation is
  part of a negative or positive
  feedback loop and defend your
  choice.
• 1. Fix your cadaver. Use the books in this
  room to check placement.
• 2. Take tracing paper & create the
  regions (with names) over your organs.
   –A) On a separate sheet of paper draw
    the regions and their names & then list
    the organs that fall in each region.
• 3. Take a new sheet of tracing paper &
  create the quadrants over your organs.
   –A) On the other side of your paper draw
    the quadrants/names & list the organs in
     The Language of Anatomy
• Special terminology is used to prevent
  misunderstanding
• Exact terms are used for:
  – Position
  – Direction
  – Regions
  – Structures
Liver
                    Liver
Gall bladder
                    Stomach
Stomach
                    Lg/sm intestine
Lg/Sm Intestine
                    Diaphram
Diaphragm

• Lg/sm Intestine   • Lg/sm intestine
• Bladder           • Bladder
Right           Epigastric         Left
Hypochondriac   •Liver             Hypochondriac
•Liver          •Stomach           •Stomach
•Gall bladder   •Lg. Intestine     •Lg. intestine
•Diaphragm      •Diaphragm         •Sm. Intestine
                                   •Diaphragm
Right Lumbar    Unbilical          Left Lumbar
•Lg intestine   •Lg/sm intestine   •Lg/sm intestine


Right Iliac     Hypogastric        Left Iliac
•Lg intestine   •Sm. Intestine     •Lg. Intestine
                •Bladder
Body Planes




              Figure 1.6
      Visible Human Project
• http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/mp
  eg/umd_video.mpg
• http://www.madsci.org/~lynn/VH/planes.ht
  ml
      Visible Human Project
• http://anatquest.nlm.nih.gov/AnatQuest/Aw
  tCsViewer/aq-cutaway.html
• Cavities in reality
Body Cavities




                Figure 1.7

				
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