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					The American Revolution
     Chapter 8

                          1
        Stirrings of a Revolution
When Great Britain had to tax
the colonists in order to have
money to pay for the French
and Indian War, colonists
became very angry. At first they
complained that their rights as
British citizens had been
violated, and 1. they wanted
King George III to recognize
those rights. After a while,
some of the colonists started to
think that freedom from Great      King George III of England
Britain would be the best idea.                                 2
       Stirrings of a Revolution
                                 American colonists
                                 disagreed about what the
                                 colonies should do about
                                 Great Britain. 2.Some
                                 wanted to become
                                 independent. The people
                                 who were faithful to the
                                 king thought that talk
Colonists who were accused of
 treason could be locked in a    about becoming
  pillory for everyone to see.   independent was treason.
                                                            3
        Stirrings of a Revolution
In South Carolina, the people with
the most political power were 3.
wealthy Low Country landowners.
Many of them were Patriots who
thought they needed to be free
from Great Britain. By 1774,
Patriots were getting tired of Great
Britain, and South Carolina’s
General Committee of 99 created a
new governing body for South
Carolina called the 4.Provincial
Congress.
                                       4
         Stirrings of a Revolution
In 1776, the Provincial Congress adopted South Carolina’s first
constitution that would serve as the foundation of the government
until the disagreements with Great Britain could be resolved and
was adopted before the Declaration of Independence was signed.
The constitution created a bicameral legislation (one that has two
houses):
5: - a. A lower house legislature of representatives that were elected
by the people of the colony
b. an upper house legislature that was elected by the representatives
of the lower house
c. a president of the colony, elected by the upper house, who could
veto laws
                                                                    5
          Stirrings of a Revolution
The problems that existed between Low Country colonists and Up
Country colonists could be seen in South Carolina’s first
constitution. The Low Country wanted to keep the power in the
hands of the patriots and the elite (rich) and 6.wrote the constitution
so the Low Country would have more representation in the
legislature.




                                                         Middleton
                                                        Plantation,
                                                        Charleston,
                                                                      6
                                                            SC
        Stirrings of a Revolution
In 1774, at the First
Continental Congress, the
South Carolina representatives
were Low Country elite and
they served important roles: 7
John Rutledge helped to draft a
letter to the British people
explaining the colonial position,
Thomas Lynch and Christopher         John
Gadsden designed an agreement       Rutledge
stating the colonists would not
buy or sell British goods.
                                         7
      Stirrings of a Revolution
The American fighting forces were broken into three
main categories:
       The Continental Army (the official army)



            The Militia (volunteer soldiers)



        The Partisans (guerilla warfare fighters)
                                                      8
           Stirrings of a Revolution
                                             Before the First
                                             Continental Congress
                                             ended, they made plans
                                             to increase the colonial
                                             militias 8.in case Great
                                             Britain declared war. In
                                             South Carolina, 9.the
                                             Provincial Congress
                                             began preparations for a
Militia men were volunteers, they were not   stronger militia.
professional soldiers. They used their own
 guns and usually did not have uniforms.
                                                                        9
         Stirrings of a Revolution
The plan for a stronger militia
was a good idea. When
Britain found out that
colonists were stock piling
weapons in the towns of
Concord and Lexington,
Massachusetts, the British’s
attempt at taking the
gunpowder left several
colonists dead, and the rest of
the colonists angry.
                                     10
Stirrings of a Revolution
                     After the battles of Lexington
                     and Concord, 10. the Second
                     Continental Congress met in
                     Philadelphia. The colonists
                     had to discuss the topic of
                     independence. At first, all of
                     the colonies had concerns
                     about voting for
                     independence. 11.South
“Founding Fathers”
                     Carolina voted against
  by John Buxton     fighting for independence.
                                                 11
          Stirrings of a Revolution
When a second vote was taken, South
Carolina voted yes, along with 11 other
colonies (New York, the only colony to
have more loyalists, than South
Carolina, did not vote). On July 4, 1776,
the Declaration was signed, included
were the signatures of South Carolina
delegates: 12. Edward Rutledge, Thomas
Lynch Jr., Thomas Heyward Jr., and
Arthur Middleton. The Declaration
changed the focus of the struggle                 The Declaration of
13.from a fight for equality to a fight for    Independence listed the
                                              complaints of the colonists
freedom.                                          against the British. 12
     Stirrings of a Revolution
                         After the Declaration of
                         Independence was signed, some South
                         Carolinians felt that the temporary
                         constitution needed to be replaced by
                         a more permanent one. In 1778, a
                         new constitution was adopted. It 14a.
                         changed the “president” of the state to
                         “governor”, 14b. the representation in
                         legislature was to be more evenly
                         distributed, and 14c.the Church of
Remember him? John       England would no longer be the
Rutledge was the first   official, state-supported church of
   South Carolina        South Carolina.
     “president.”                                              13
               The War Begins
After the Declaration of
Independence was signed, many
South Carolinians signed up for
the armies of both sides. The
only colony with more loyalists
than South Carolina was New
York. 15.This caused a civil war
within the colony; there were
over 137 battles and skirmishes
within South Carolina alone.
                                   14
                 The War Begins
The state was divided into three main groups: patriots, loyalists,
and neutrals loyalists.
16.
Patriots were colonists who supported the Continental Congress
and independence. Most were from the Low Country and served
in local militias.
Loyalists were loyal to the king and were mostly found in the Up
Country. Patriots nicknamed loyalists “Tories”.
Neutrals - Many people who lived in the Up Country were not
true loyalists, they didn’t care who was in charge, they wanted to
live their life without anyone interfering. These neutrals were
typically German immigrants who 17.had no allegiance to king or
the principals of freedom and democracy.                         15
               The War Begins
In June of 1776 (before the
Declaration of Independence
was signed) the British
decided to capture Charles
Town and 18.use it as a base
to launch attacks into other
colonies. While the British
were waiting for
reinforcements, they decided
to capture the unfinished
fort on Sullivan’s Island.
                                16
            The War Begins (19)
                                           The British had a
                                          three part strategy:
                                          three ships would be
                                          stationed on the islands
                                          southwest side, nine
                                          ships on the southeast
                                          side, and British troops
                                          were to march over
                                          from Long Island and
                                          attack the fort.
                                          Unfortunately, their
                                          strategy fell apart,
British battle map of Sullivan’s Island
                                          completely.           17
         The War Begins (19 continued)
The three British ships on the
southwest got stuck in the mud
and became easy targets for the
American guns. The other nine
ships had to sail in deep water to
keep from running aground,
which meant they had to travel
directly in front of American
guns. The troops could not wade
from Long Island to Sullivan’s
Island because the water was too
                                     Even today, boats still get stuck in the
deep and their gunpowder             mud, and the British were using much
would get wet.                                   bigger boats!
                                                                         18
           The War Begins (19 continued)
     Palmettos are very         The colonists were not
spongy because of their
 fibrous trunks. The logs
                                expecting the
were fitted together and        unfinished fort to
filled with sand to create      survive a British
    the walls of the fort.
                                attack, but to their
                                surprise it did The fort
                                was made of Palmetto
                                logs, which were
                                spongy. Cannon balls
                                either bounced off, or
                                became stuck and
                                provided armor for the
                                fort.                19
          The War Begins
                          20. Because of the
                          important Battle of
                          Sullivan’s, South
                          Carolina added the
                          Palmetto tree to the
                          flag of South
                          Carolina. The
                          crescent on the flag is
                          not a crescent moon,
                          but a reproduction of
                          the crescent worn on
               Crescent   the hats of the soldiers
Patriot         moon
uniform                   known as a gorget. 20
                The War Begins
21.During the battle, the flag
flying over the fort was hit by
a cannon ball and fell outside
the fort. Worried that men
would lose their courage when
they saw the flag fall, Sgt.
William Jasper ran outside the
fort, grabbed the flag, and tied
it to a cannon swab and put it
back up where everyone could
see it.
                                   21
The Southern Campaign
         There three phases of the war.
         Most of the battles in the first
         phase happened in 22. New
         England. After the British were
         defeated at Trenton and
         Saratoga, they decided to try
         again to capture Charles Town.
         The second phase of the war
         took place in the South, and
         this time, Charles Town wasn’t
         so lucky.
                                      22
      The Southern Campaigns
23. The British sieged
(surrounded and cut off all
of the supplies) Charles
Town. After the harbor
was blockaded and supply
lines were cut off, the
Patriot troops, who were
trapped on the peninsula,
were forced to surrender.

                              Map from 1711 showing the
                                                          23
                                Charles Town Harbor
         The Southern Campaign




Because 24. Great Britain was so far away, it was expensive to
send ships and supplies to the colonies. To help save money, the
British wanted to find people already in the colonies to help
them fight. After losing at Saratoga and Trenton, the British
moved to South Carolina. They thought that South Carolina’s
large number of loyalists and neutrals would 25. help them
control the state and help them win the war.                   24
       The Southern Campaign
If the British had treated
the colonists with respect,
they might have gotten the
colonial support they
wanted. Instead, the British
26. treated the colonists
harshly, burning churches,
looting or confiscating
                               The remnants of Old Sheldon Church
homes, and harassing and        still stand near Yemassee, SC. The
mistreating the colonists.         church was burned in both the
                               American Revolution and the America
                                              Civil War.
                                                              25
     The Southern Campaign
                            One British colonel who earned a
                            reputation for being merciless was
                            named Banastre Tarleton. At the
                            Battle of Waxhaws, Tarleton 27a.
                            allowed his troops to murder
                            surrendering Virginians. After
                            this event, he became known as
                            Bloody Banastre Tarleton. 27b.
                            Instead of scaring the Americans
Bloody Banastre Tarleton.
                            into giving up their fight, he made
                            them angry and many neutrals
                            and some loyalists joined the
                            patriot cause.                  26
 Contributions to the War Effort
The British were, however,
able to convince Native
Americans to join the war. At
first, the Native Americans
avoided getting involved, but
helped after 28. the British
promised to return control of
the west to the Native
Americans. Supporting the
British, the Cherokee
attacked colonists.
                                27
Contributions to the War Effort
              The British also made
              promises to African Americas.
              Although most of them
              remained slaves in the South,
              the 29.British promised
              freedom to slaves who fought
              against the patriots. The
              slaves, however, did not get
              the freedom that they were
              expecting; some were taken
              and sold back into slavery.
                                          28
 Contributions to the War Effort
Some slaves even served in the
Continental Army. At first, 30. South
Carolina was afraid of slave revolts
and didn’t even want to allow slaves to
work 31.non-military jobs like
cooking, cleaning, tending horses.
Later, when more manpower was
needed, laws were changed to allow
1/3 of the militia to be made up of
slaves, but they were not allowed to be
soldiers. Unlike Britain, South
Carolina did not offer slaves their
freedom in exchange for their military    29
service.
   Contributions to the War Effort
     Emily Geiger                    Women in took active roles
memorized a secret
message and kept
                                     on both sides of the war.
 it out of the hands                 While the men were fighting,
      of British.
                                     32.women managed farms and
                                     plantations. Some served as
                                     messengers, nurses, and gave
                                     their houses and their
                        Rebecca
                          Motte
                                     fortunes to support the cause.
                        sacrificed   In order to protect their
                       two of her
                       houses to
                                     reputation, women would
                           the       NOT cook for camps full of
                       Revolution.
                                     soldiers.                   30
    Battle for the Back Country
While many men enlisted in
the Continental Army, some
men joined small militia
groups known as partisans.
33.Partisans were patriots
who fought the British using
guerilla warfare tactics. This
was when partisans would
use 34. “hit and run”
ambushes, attacking the
British and escaping before
                                  31
they could retaliate.
      Battle for the Back Country
The three main partisan leaders   Andrew
were: 35.                         Pickens
•Thomas Sumter “the
Gamecock” from the Back                               Francis
Country                                               Marion
•Francis Marion “the Swamp
Fox” from the Northeast corner
of SC (near Myrtle Beach)
•Andrew Pickens “the Wizard
Owl” from the Up Country

                                            Thomas Sumter
                                                        32
       Battle for the Back Country
                                         Thomas Sumter started his
                                         career as a partisan leader
                                         when 36.his house was
                                         burned by British soldiers.
                                         He responded by rallying
                                         back country men into a
                                         partisan fighting force.
 Thomas Sumter was so important to
the war, Fort Sumter in the Charleston
                                         Sumter and his troops
    Harbor was named after him.          attacked British supply lines
                                         in the Upcountry, frustrating
                                         the British and giving hope
                                         to the Patriots.              33
    Battle for the Back Country
Francis Marion used
similar methods on the
British. He earned his
nickname 37. by
disappearing into the
swamps after the
attacks.
Andrew Pickens earned
his nickname from the
                          These limestone cliffs have caves that open from
Native Americans in the   the top down into the river (the hole at the water
Upcountry.                 line). Francis Marion and his troops would use
                             these cliffs to “disappear” from the following
                                                                        34
                                               British army.
Battle for the Back Country
         The Battle of Camden was a 38.major
         defeat for the regular Continental Army.
         This loss meant that British now
         controlled almost all of South Carolina.
         This could have been avoided if American
         General Gates had traveled slowly though
         patriot so they could rest and get supplies.
         In addition to the troops being hungry
         and tired, the North Carolina militia men
         involved in this battle were not trained to
         deal with regular British forces. They 39.
         panicked and fled, leaving the
         Continental Army to be defeated.        35
       Battle for the Back Country
The turning point for the American
Revolution in the South was at King’s
Mountain. Loyalist forces were camped
out on the mountain. Mountain men
from North and South Carolina
attacked the British troops from behind
rocks and trees. The British lost a lot of
men and tried to surrender, but were
offered no quarter by Patriots in
retaliation for British (especially Bloody
Tarleton’s) actions toward the colonists.
After this battle, the 40. British started
to retreat from the Up Country.              36
 Battle for the Back Country
                                   Soon after the British
                                   defeat at King’s Mountain,
                                   the Continental Army and
                                   partisan groups cooperated
                                   at the Battle of Cowpens.
                                   Partisan groups had a
                                   reputation among the
                                   British troops of running
                                   away. The American
                                   commander was counting
Diagram of Cowpens battle events   on this reputation as he
                                   created the battle plan. 37
       Battle for the Back Country
The partisans, under the leadership
of Andrew Pickens, led the attack;
they fired two volleys and then 42.
fled the field, tricking the British
forces into thinking that the
Americans were retreating. Instead,
the partisans lured the British into
the guns of the American army. The
British were soundly defeated and
43. pulled out of South Carolina
heading to Virginia. The Battle of
Cowpens was the beginning of the
end of the British in America.         38
The End and the Beginning
              After leaving South Carolina,
              British troops were soon
              cornered in Yorktown,
              Virginia and forced to
              surrender. South Carolinian
              44. Henry Laurens, president
              of the Continental Congress,
              was on the committee that
              negotiated the Treaty of Paris
              which ended the American
              Revolution and opened the
              door for the new nation of
              America.                   39

				
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