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Age of Jefferson

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					Age of Jefferson
            Age of Jefferson
• Jefferson wanted to
  represent ordinary
  citizens, he vowed to
  make the government
  more democratic.
• Democratic – ensure
  that all people have
  the same rights.
            Age of Jefferson
• Jefferson cabinet –      • James Madison
  Madison (Sec. of
  State).
• Gallatin (Sec. of
  Treasury).
• Jefferson believed in
  the concept of laissez
  faire – That the gov.
  should stay out of the
  affairs of business.
        Early Supreme Court
• John Marshall was
  the Chief Justice. He
  strongly influenced
  the decisions of the
  Supreme Court.
        Marbury vs. Madison
• President Adams had     • William Marbury
  appointed many new
  judges just before he
  left office. The
  decision established
  the right of the
  Supreme Court to
  judge any law made
  by Congress and
  declare that law
  unconstitutional.
          Louisiana Purchase
• By 1800 almost one million Americans lived
  between the Appalachians and the Mississippi
  River. Most were farmers. Cheapest way to get
  East was down the Mississippi to New Orleans.
• Jefferson wanted to buy New Orleans from
  Napoleon to be sure that Americans could
  always use the city. The president told officials
  to spend 10 million for New Orleans. Because
  Napoleon needed money for wars in Europe he
  said he would sell all of Louisiana. The U.S.
  agreed and paid 15 million for Louisiana.
           Lewis and Clark
• Were sent out to explore the newly
  acquired territory. They were to study the
  climate, Native people, wildlife, and
  mineral resources of land.
• During the first winter they spent in
  Bismarck, North Dakota. Near this location
  they found a girl named Sacagawea; she
  would act as an interpreter.
            Lewis and Clark
• Their travels took
  them across the
  Rocky Mountains and
  the Continental
  divide. They finally
  reached the Colombia
  River. They reached
  the pacific on Nov. 7,
  1805.
              Zebulon Pike
• Zebulon Pike also
  explored the
  Louisiana Purchase.
• He discovered Pikes
  Peak in Colorado.
                   1803
• In 1803 Britain and France went to war.
  The Americans profited from the war. The
  Americans traded with both sides.
• Both Britain and France tried to cut off
  trade with the other side. The Americans
  claimed they were neutral. Both the
  French and British took U.S. ships, the
  British even impressed sailors. Forced
  American sailors to serve on British ships.
              Embargo Act
• Many Americans wanted war with the
  British for impressing soldiers. Jefferson
  avoided war.
• Jefferson had Congress pass the
  Embargo Act, which forbid Americans to
  export or import any goods. Britain and
  France were hurt by the act but the act
  hurt the Americans more because they
  had no one to trade with.
         No Intercourse Act
• 1809 the Embargo Act was replaced with
  the No Intercourse Act. Americans could
  trade with all nations except Britain and
  France, signed by Jefferson just before he
  left office. Next president was James
  Madison.
                  1812
• Madison wanted to keep the U.S. out of
  war. Britain and France continued to take
  ships. By 1812 the U.S. had war fever.
• France quit taking U.S. ships so the U.S.
  started trade with France but Britain
  refused to stop the practice.
                  War Hawks
• People in the South and
  West wanted the war
  while people in New
  England didn’t. People
  who wanted the war were
  called War Hawks. Very
  nationalistic. Biggest War
  Hawk was Henry Clay he
  wanted war with Britain
  for 2 reasons. 1. Revenge
  for attacking U.S. ships
  and 2 excuse to
  conqueror Canada.
                   War
• June 18, 1812, Madison asked congress
  to declare war on the British.
• As the war began Britain used its powerful
  Navy to blockade U.S. ports. The
  Americans did win many sea battle but it
  did not help the U.S. win the war.
                  3 ports
• U.S. decides to invade Canada, they
  would attack 3 ports. 1. Detroit. 2. Niagara
  Falls and 3. Montreal. The War Hawks
  believed that the Canadians would
  welcome the chance to leave British rule,
  but the Canadians did not. They forced the
  Americans back as they fought with the
  British.
         Oliver Hazard Perry
• In 1813 the
  Americans tried to
  gain control of Lake
  Erie. The Americans
  would win with the
  leadership of Oliver
  Hazard Perry. The
  British and Natives
  were forced to
  abandon Detroit.
                 Victory
• Americans won a decisive victory as they
  pursued the British and Natives into
  Canada.
• 1814 Andrew Tachson took control of U.S.
  forces in the Battles of the Horseshoe
  Bend, forced Natives to give up land to the
  Americans.
         White House Burns
• 1814 the British sailed across Chesapeake
  Bay. The British burned the White House,
  British forced to give up attach when they
  went to Baltimore.
• British forces threatened the U.S. from the
  South.
                New Orleans
• Late 1814 the British
  attacked New Orleans. At
  the battle of New Orleans
  Andrew Jackson had a
  complete victory for the
  Americans. Battle may
  have been avoided as the
  battle took place 2 weeks
  after a peace treaty was
  signed.
                  Treaties
• Treaty of Ghent, Dec 24, 1814. Both sides
  agreed to return to prewar conditions.
• Rush-Bagot Treaty, forbid warships on the
  Great Lakes.
• 1818 both sides of the border of the U.S.
  and Canada at the 45th parallel.
• Achievement of war.
  – Forced the world to treat U.S. with respect.
  – Perry/Jackson

				
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