Portmanteau words by lanyuehua

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									Portmanteau
"It is a type of word created by Lewis Carroll in 1882 .
This is a word produced by combining other words or parts of words ."
A portmanteau (plural: portmanteaus or portmanteaux) is a word that is formed by combining two words. It can also be called a
frankenword. The term used in linguistics is blend (see Portmanteaus in linguistics).


Origin and usage
This word was coined by Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There, in which it is likened to a
travelling case. Carroll has Humpty Dumpty say, "Well, slithy means "lithe and slimy"... You see it's like a portmanteau — there are
two meanings packed up into one word." Carroll used such words to humorous effect in his poems, especially Jabberwocky, which
Humpty Dumpty is explaining to Alice.

James Joyce used portmanteau words extensively in Finnegans Wake. Many corporate brand names, trademarks, and initiatives, as
well as names of corporations and organizations themselves, are portmanteaus. For example, Wikipedia is a portmanteau made from
wiki and encyclopedia, and Wiktionary, one of Wikipedia's sister projects, is a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary.

Methods of forming
Most portmanteaus are formed by one of the following methods:

Part of the sounds of both components are mixed in a "creative" way, mostly preserving their order, e.g., slithy. This method was
preferred by Lewis Carroll, but is not much in use otherwise.
The beginning of one word is prepended to the end of the other, e.g., brunch = breakfast + lunch. Sometimes the letter / sound at the
boundary is common to both components, e.g., smog = smoke + fog. This is the most common method of portmanteau forming.
Both components contains a common sequence of letters or sounds. The portmanteau is composed of the beginning of the first
component, the common part and the end of the second component. This is a rare kind of portmanteau. For example, the word
Californication, popularized by Red Hot Chili Peppers, sounds as if it were California + fornication.
The word giraffiti can be classified as either the first (according to spelling) or the third (according to sound) kind of portmanteau.

There is no formal definition of portmanteau. However, words made up of two or more other words are usually not considered
portmanteaus if they can be described by some other term. Thus, the following are not portmanteaus:

Syllabic abbreviations, such as interpol.
Compound words, such as bagpipe and portmanteau.

Portmanteaus in other languages
Franglais in French: (français + anglais) ("French" + "English").
Svengelska in Swedish: (svenska + engelska) ("Swedish" + "English").
Dasaitama in Japanese is a nickname for the City Saitama, and a compound of the city's name with 'Dasai' (uncool).

Portmanteaus in linguistics
In linguistics, the term portmanteau word is used in a much narrower, yet still not clearly defined sense.

Most of the examples given above are usually called blends by linguists. A blend in this sense is a word which creatively combines
content words in ways that (a) often rely on similarity of sounds, and (b) don't respect their morphological structure (the way they
are formed up from smaller meaningful parts). For example, the word smog is formed by putting together the sm- from smoke and
the -og from fog, but neither piece is actually a meaningful subpart of the word it's taken from. Blends are consciously and
deliberately invented by people, in order to use language cleverly and creatively.

Linguists also use the term portmanteau for contractions.

This is a partial list of portmanteaux or "blends" — words formed by combining two other words, in the English language. Most
portmanteau words take the prefix of one word and use the suffix of the other forming a prefix and suffix-like wording. That kind of
setup sometimes causes derrivative meanings for the prefixes and suffixes. But in some cases, the prefix from both words can be
used (e.g. modem).
General
affluenza from affluence and influenza                            hasbian from has been and lesbian
anacronym from anachronism and acronym                            infomercial from information and commercial
animatronics from animation and electronics                       Jazzercise from jazz and exercise
artivist from art and activist to mean those to attempt to push   knork from knife and fork - a fork with an outer tine
political agendas by means of art.                                sharpened slightly to enhance the cutting ability of the tine
avionics from aviation and electronics                            —lish used as a suffix to form many frankenwords meaning
backronym from back and acronym                                   foreign varieties of English (see also Franglais, above):
blaxploitation from black and exploitation                        Chinglish (Chinese)
blaccent from black and accent - used of non-blacks who try       Germlish or Denglish (German)
to sound black                                                    Hebrish (Hebrew)
bleen from blue and green (coined by Nelson Goodman to            Hinglish (Hindi)
illustrate Goodman's paradox)                                     Hunglish (Hungarian)
Blorph from blend and morph - a visual effects technique          Japlish (Japanese)
(coined by Ken Ralston/ Sony Pictures Imageworks)                 Konglish (Korean)
Bootylicious from booty and delicious - a title of a Destiny's    Malglish (Malaysian)
Child song                                                        Russlish (Russian)
boxercise from boxing and exercise                                Singlish (Singaporean)
brunch from breakfast and lunch                                   Spanglish (Spanish)
buffeteria from buffet and cafeteria                              Swedlish (Swedish)
cafetorium from cafeteria and auditorium; a room, usually in      Taglish (Tagalog)
a school, used for both purposes; see also gymnatorium.           lupper from lunch and supper
Californicate from California and fornicate                       manorexic from man and anorexic - a man who is thin to the
camcorder from camera and recorder                                point of looking anorexic (formerly used to describe actor
caplet from capsule and tablet                                    Jason Behr of Roswell)
carboloy from carbon and alloy                                    manssiere from man and brassiere - a bra designed for and
Chipitts - from Chicago and Pittsburgh                            worn by a man (coined on a Seinfeld episode)
chortle from chuckle and snort (coined by Lewis Carroll)          mantastic from man and fantastic
Chunnel from Channel and tunnel                                   mechatronics from mechanics and electronics
cocacolonization from Coca-Cola and colonization                  meld from melt and weld
cryptex from cryptology and codex                                 Mexifornia from Mexico and California
cyborg from cybernetic and organism                               mimbo from male and bimbo (coined on a Seinfeld episode)
digipeater from digital and repeater                              mingy from mean and stingy
dramedy from drama and comedy                                     mobisode from mobile (phone) and episode
dramastic from dramatic and drastic                               mockney from mock and Cockney
ebonics from ebony and phonics                                    moped from motor and pedal
ecoteur from ecological and saboteur                              motel from motor and hotel
faction from fact and fiction                                     mutagen from mutation and pathogen
fantabulous from fantastic and fabulous                           Oxbridge from Oxford and Cambridge
fanzine from fan and magazine                                     Pictionary from picture and (possibly) dictionary - the brand
folksonomy from folk and taxonomy                                 name of a popular board game distributed by Hasbro Inc.
foon from fork and spoon (see also spork, below)                  pizzone from pizza and calzone (popularized by Pizza Hut)
Franglais from français (French for "French") and anglais         pomato from potato and tomato
(French for "English") (see also —lish, below)                    posistor from positive and thermistor
frankenfood from Frankenstein and food                            prequel from pre— and sequel
frankenword from Frankenstein and word                            procrasturbate from procrastinate and masturbate - Usually
fugly from fucking and ugly (commonly abbreviated to fug)         means "to delay simply because it feels good", occasionally
galumph from gallop and triumph                                   "to indulge in unnecessary, self-involved pedantry". From the
gaydar from gay and radar                                         broader definitions of masturbatory as simply "pleasurable",
ginormous from gigantic and enormous                              or sometimes "excessively self-involved".
godness from goddess and goodness                                 prosumer from professional and consumer - products at a
grue from green and blue (see bleen, above)                       quality between 'professional' products and 'consumer'
guesstimate from guess and estimate                               products; typically marketed as such
ghettro from ghetto and retro                                     Republicrat or Demopublican from Republican and Democrat
gymnatorium from gymnasium and auditorium; a room,                (or vice versa)
usually in a school, used for both purposes; see also             Robocop from robotic and cop - the main character of a sci-fi
cafetorium)                                                       film of the same name and its sequels
hairagami from oragami and hair - an "As seen on TV"              Rolodex from rolling and index - the trademarked name of a
product for hairstyling for formal events.                        popular office organizer
sexcellent from sex and excellent                                Texican from Texan and Mexican
sexercise from sex and exercise                                  thermistor from thermal and resistor
sexploitation from sex and exploitation                          toonie from two and loonie
Sexplosion! from sexual and explosion (a TKK album)              transistor from transfer and resistor
simulcast from simultaneous and broadcast                        triticale from triticum and secale (Latin for wheat and rye)
silastic combination silicone and plastic                        twigloo from twig and igloo
skort from skirt and short (as in short pants)                   wigger from white and nigger - a caucasian person who
smaze from smoke and haze                                        dresses, speaks, etc. in an attempt to emulate the percieved
smog from smoke and fog                                          mannerisms of an African American youth, especially those
spork from spoon and fork                                        mannerisms based on ethnic stereotype; also spelled whigger
sportscast from sports and broadcast                             Wonkavator from Wonka and elevator - a fictional elevator
stagflation from stagnation and inflation                        that can move in any direction, not merely up or down --
swaption from swap and option                                    featured in the film Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory
tangelo from tangerine and pomelo                                woon from wooden and spoon - flat wooden things for eating
teensploitation from teen and exploitation                       dished ice cream
televangelist from television and evangelist                     yestergay from yesterday and gay
[edit]
Internet and computing
alphanumeric from alphabetic and numeric                         malware from malicious and software
apronym from apropos and acronym                                 modem from modulator and demodulator
ARPAnet from ARPA and network                                    netizen from (Inter)net and citizen
ASCIIbetical from ASCII and alphabetical                         netiquette from (Inter)net and etiquette (similarly, wikiquette)
automagic(al) from automatic and magic(al)                       palmtop from palm and laptop is actually a PDA.
bit from binary and digit                                        pixel from picture and element
brouter from bridge and router                                   podcasting from iPod and broadcasting
codec from coder and decoder                                     qubit from quantum and bit
datacasting from data and broadcasting                           smudgemate from smudge and estimate
digerati from digital and literati                               sysop from system and operator
emoticon from emotion and icon                                   spamdexing from spam and indexing
ezine from electronic and magazine                               sporgery from spam and forgery
Internet from international/interglobal/interchanged and         texel from texture and element
network                                                          voxel from volume and pixel

Marketing
advertainment from advertising and entertainment                 edutainment from education and entertainment
advertorial from advertising and editorial                       fraudience from fraud and audience
cineplex from cinema and complex (building)                      infomercial from information and commercial
docudrama from documentary and drama                             infotainment from information and entertainment
docusoap from documentary and soap opera (serialised             Limon from lime + lemon; a commercial construction to
drama)                                                           promote the soft drink Sprite
dramality from dramatic and reality (television)                 multiplex from multiple and cineplex! - this word has a
dramedy from dramatic and comedy (television)                    different meaning in telecommunications

Art, literature and entertainment
arfé from art and café                                           Goombario from Goomba and Mario, he is a friendly
Bollywood from Bombay and Hollywood                              variation of the goomba, and is a playable character in Paper
Britcom from British and comedy, by analogy with sitcom          Mario.
(see below)                                                      Goomboss from Goomba and boss, coined from Nintendo
dancercise from dance and exercise                               video game company; he is the boss of the goombas in the
dancersize from dance and circumsize, coined in jest on Fry      video game Super Mario 64 DS. And he complains that
and Laurie                                                       goombas have been getting squashed by Mario.
dramality from drama and reality television (coined by Mark      Kramit from Kermit and Damnit, this word was said in some
Burnett to describe his television series Survivor)              song about Big Bird and Kermit getting stoned. Sesame Street
'dramedy from drama and comedy a synonym for comedy-             was referred to as "Sensimilla street" in that song.
drama                                                            Kripkenstein from Kripke and Wittgenstein, coined to
dubtitle from dub and subtitle, for subtitles transcribed from   describe a philosophical position that Kripke argued one
dubbed soundtrack, especially in anime                           could read into Wittgenstein's work, but which neither he nor
Famicom from family and computer, this is the official name      Wittgenstein accepted.
for the Japanese version of the NES.                             machinima from machine and cinema
magikoopa from magic and koopa, characters from the Super             sacrilicious from sacrilege and delicious, used by Homer
Mario series of games that performed magic; Kamek is the              Simpson
most famous of the class.                                             scanlation from scan and translation, used for unofficial
mathercise from mathematics and exercise, used by Mr.                 internet-distributed translations of manga
Morales to describe group aerobics involving shaping one's            sitcom from situation and comedy
body into the specified equation.                                     smark from smart and mark - professional wrestling slang for
mockumentary from mock and documentary                                fans who recognize the scripted nature of the business, but
newrun from new and rerun - episode from a talk-show                  still enjoy the in-ring entertainment
wherin old subjects are rehashed.                                     streetball from street and basketball
Orgasmatron from orgasm and electron(ic) - from Woody                 threatmantic from threatening and romantic, used to describe
Allen's Sleeper                                                       threatening love notes
Policenauts from police and astronaut                                 Waluigi from Wario and Luigi, he is Wario's brother (i.e. evil
rockumentary from rock and documentary                                variation of Luigi).

Organizations and companies
Accenture from accent and future (accent on the future)               Wexis is a humorous term used to refer to the two academic
Carborundum (original manufacturer of the abrasive,                   publishing conglomerates which dominate the legal
carborundum) from carbon and corundum.                                information services industry, namely Westlaw and
Compaq from computer, pack, and compact (to denote a                  LexisNexis.
small integral object)                                                Wikibooks from wiki and books which is a project for a
CONMEBOL from Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol                    collection of free textbooks, manuals, and other texts, with
(Spanish for "South American Football Confederation")                 supporting book-based texts, that is written collaboratively on
CONELRAD from control (of) electromagnetic radiation                  its website.
Debian from founder Ian Murdock and his wife Debra                    Wikinews from wiki and news which is a free content news
Edexcel from educational and excellence                               source.
Googlepedia from Google and Wikipedia to describe a                   Wiktionary from wiki and dictionary which is a sister project
possible cooperation project.                                         to Wikipedia intended to be a free wiki dictionary (thesaurus
Intel from integrated and electronics; could also act as a short      and lexicon therein) in every language.
variation of intelligent therefore Intel devices are intelligent in   Wikipedia from wiki and encyclopedia which is a web-based
terms of technology.                                                  free content encyclopedia that is openly edited and freely
Verizon from veritas (Latin for truth) and horizon                    readable.
Waitrose from founders' names Wallace Waite and Arthur
Rose

animals
cama - from camel and llama                                           mog from man and dog (from the movie Spaceballs)
cockapoo from Cocker and poodle                                       tigon from tiger and lion
geep from goat and sheep                                              turducken from turkey, duck, and chicken
liger from lion and tiger                                             zeedonk from zebra and donkey

Politics and economics
Pennsyltucky from Pennsylvania and Kentucky-Referring to
the area of Pennslyvania in the north and center of the state
which is neither Philadelphia nor Pittsburg (and their
respective suburbs). These areas tend to vote Republican (like
Kentucky), while the urban and suburban areas are more
Democratic.
Reaganomics from Reagan and economics
Rogernomics
Rubinomics
Ruthanasia
50 adjectives to describe the personality                              in English and Spanish.

English                      Spanish                       loyal                       fiel
ambitious                    ambicioso                     mean                        tacaño
annoying                     pesado                        modest                      modesto
argumentative,               discutidor                    moody                       de humor cambiante
quarrelsome                                                naive                       ingenuo, inocentón
bad-tempered                 malhumorado                   naughty (children)          malo, travieso (niños)
big-headed                   creído, engreído              open-minded:                de actitud abierta, sin
bitchy                       de mala leche, venenoso;      narrow-minded:              prejuicios
brave                        valiente                                                  de mentalidad cerrada,
                                                                                       intolerante;
cantankerous                 cascarrabias
                                                           pious                       piadoso
carefree                     despreocupado
                                                           polite                      cortés, educado
careless                     descuidado, poco cuidadoso
                                                           proud                       orgulloso
cautious                     prudente, cauteloso, cauto;
                                                           reliable: he’s a very       fiable, confiable: es una
charming                     encantador                    reliable person             persona en la que se puede
cheerful                     alegre, jovial;                                           confiar
conceited, full of oneself   presumido                     self-confident: to be self- seguro de sí mismo: tener
conservative                 conservador                   confident                   confianza en sí mismo
conventional                 convencional                  selfish                     egoísta
cowardly                     cobarde                       sensible                    sensato, prudente;
crazy, nuts                  loco, chiflado                sensitive                   sensible
cruel                        cruel                         shy - introverted           tímido, vergonzoso -
dull, boring                 soso, aburrido                                            introvertido
flirtatious                  coqueta                       strict                      estricto, severo, riguroso
friendly                     amigable, simpático,          stubborn                    terco, testarudo, tozudo
                             agradable                     sympathetic              comprensivo
generous                     generoso                      (understanding)
hard-working                 trabajador                    talkative                conversador, hablador
honest                       honesto                       trustworthy              digno de confianza
kind                         amable                        two-faced                falso
laid-back                    tranquilo, relajado           weird                    raro, extraño
lazy                         perezoso, vago
                  PERSONALITY - Negative aspect     jealous                       celoso
aggressive             agresivo                     lazy                          haragán
annoying               molesto                      lonely                        solitario
arrogant               arrogante, prepotente        materialistic                 materialista
bad-tempered           malhumorado                  mean = cruel                  cruel
boastful               fanfarrón                    mean = stingy = tight-
                                                                           mezquino
                                                    fisted
cheeky                 atrevido
                                                    modest                        modesto
deceitful              falso
                                                    moody                         malhumorado
dishonest              deshonesto
                                                    nosey                         metido
disrespectful          irrespetuoso
                                                    obsessed                      obsesionado
dominant               dominante
                                                    pessimistic                   pesimista
dull = boring          aburrido
                                                    proud = arrogant              orgulloso
eccentric              excéntrico
                                                    rude = impolite               descortés
envious                envidioso
                                                    selfish                       egoísta
forgetful              olvidadizo
                                                    self-seeking                  interesado
frivolous              frívolo
                                                    shy                           tímido
hypocritical           hipócrita
                                                    spiteful                      rencoroso
impatient              impaciente
                                                    strict                        estricto
impulsive              impulsivo
                                                    stubborn = obstinate          obstinado
indifferent            indiferente
                                                    talkative                     charlatán
insecure               inseguro
                                                    unpredictable                 impredecible
insensitive            insensible
                                                    unreliable =
insolent               insolente                                                  desconfiable
                                                    untrustworthy
introverted            introvertido                 unsympathetic                 apático
irascible              irascible                    vain = conceited              vanidoso
irresponsible          irresponsable



                    PERSONALITY - Positive aspect            willed
                                                             energetic                     energético
                                                             extroverted                   extrovertido
                                                             frank                         franco
      Ambitious                  ambicioso
                                                             friendly                      amigable
      Attentive                  cortés
                                                             generous                      generoso
      audacious                  audaz
                                                             gentle = kind = polite        amable
      calm                       calmo
                                                             honest = truthful             honesto
      charming                   encantador
                                                             humble                        humilde
      cheerful = amusing         divertido
                                                             ingenious                     ingenioso
      considerate                considerado
                                                             likable / likeable            agradable, simpático
      courageous = brave         valiente
                                                             loyal = faithful              leal
      creative                   creativo
                                                             mature                        maduro
      curious                    curioso
                                                             obedient                      obediente
      determined = strong-       decidido
       optimistic               optimista
       organized                organizado
       passionate               apasionado
       patient                  paciente
       polite                   amable
       practical                práctico
       realistic                realista
       reliable = trustworthy   confiable
       respectful               respetuoso
       responsible              responsable
       self-confident           seguro
       sensible                 sensato
       sensitive                sensible
       sincere                  sincero
       sociable = outgoing      sociable
       sympathetic              compasivo
       thankful = grateful      agradecido
       tolerant = patient       paciente
       understanding            comprensivo
       zealous                  entusiasta

Adjectives Describing Feelings
        Words describing Feelings and Emotions:

        envious - successful
        jealous, possessive - wonderful, great
        nervous - calm
        guilty, remorseful - glad, relieved
        anxious, impatient - accepted, content
        worried, afraid - bold, fascinated
                                                          ashamed, embarrassed - proud, important
        irritated, concerned - satisfied, energetic
                                                          defeated, weary - excited, snappy
        frustrated, hopeless - adequate, hopeful
                                                          disappointed, rejected - elated,
        trapped - free
                                                           understood
        pushed, provoked - confident, playful
                                                          discouraged let-down, hurt - encouraged,
        uncomfortable - comfortable
                                                           surprised, caring
        shy, bashful - zany, peaceful
                                                          stupid - brilliant
        unsure, cautious, hesitant - secure,
         daring, gutsy
        foolish, uneasy - humble, tranquil
        defiant, miserable - eager, loving
        unloved, lonely - lovely, full
        suspicious, hateful - pleased, sympathetic
        down, tired - high, peppy
        pained, overwhelmed - refreshed,
         overjoyed
        bored - adventurous
        resentful - warm
        cheated, unhappy - cheered, happy
        angry - joyful

								
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