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					     The New Deal
How would you begin to revive the
        Examine the Issues
 How can the government help failing
 What can be done to ease
 What would you do to restore public
  confidence and economic security?
 How would you get money to pay for your
  proposed recovery programs?
A New Deal Fights the Depression
                 Main Idea
 After becoming president, Franklin Delano
  Roosevelt used government programs to
           combat the Depression.
           Why it Matters Today
Americans still benefit from programs begun
  in the New Deal, such as bank and stock
    market regulations and the Tennessee
                Valley Authority.
         Americans Get a New Deal
 The 1932 Presidential election showed that
  Americans were clearly ready for a change.
 Electing Franklin D. Roosevelt
    FDR-Democrat
    “Can-do” attitude
 Waiting for Roosevelt to Take Over
    4 mos. Between Nov. and inauguration in Jan.
    During this time he picked advisors-professors,
     lawyers, and journalists-”Brain Trust”
    Designed to help with the Depression-”New
    New Deal focused on 3 goals:
        Relief for the needy
        Economic recovery
        Financial Reform
                  The Hundred Days
 On taking office, the
  Roosevelt administration
  launched a period of intense
  activity, known as the
  Hundred Days.
 Congress passed more than
  15 major pieces of New Deal

                  Hundred Days
                Mar.9-June 16,1933

                    Banking &

                Bank Holiday-Mar.5
               Emergency Relief Act
              Fireside Chats
 Roosevelt had radio
  talks about issues of
  public concern,
  explaining in clear,
  simple language his
  New Deal measures.
 He explained the
  baking system to
 Wanted people to
  trust the banks.
  Regulating Banking and Finance

                              Banking & Finance

        Glass-Steagall Act                        Federal Securities Act

  Federal Deposit Insurance Corp
                                            Provide Info about stock offerings

 1934- Securities & Exchange Commission
   Regulate the stock market
       Helping the American People
   Roosevelt’s administration implemented programs to
      provide relief to farmers and aid other workers and
      stimulate the economy.


Agricultural Adjustment Act
                                                              Public Works Admin.(PWA)
           (AAA)              Civilian Conservation Corps
                                                            National Industrial Recovery Act
Tennessee Valley Authority               (CCC)
    Food, Clothing, & Shelter
 Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC)
   Loans to homeowners
 Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
   Loans for home mortgages & repairs
 Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA)
   Direct relief for the needy
     The New Deal Comes Under
 Pres. Roosevelt agreed to a policy of deficit spending-
  spending more money than the government receives in
 Liberal critics argued that the New Deal didn’t go far
  enough to help the poor & reform the nation’s economic
 Conservative critics argued that he spent too much on
  direct relief.
 Supreme Court Reacts
    NIRA was unconstitutional- ruled that is gave too much control to
     the executive branch in regulating industry.
    AAA- agriculture was a local matter.
    Roosevelt- “Court Packing”
Three Fiery Critics

Huey P. Long
                      Charles Coughlin

A New Deal Fights the Depression
 How did Roosevelt change the role of the
  federal government during his first hundred
   FDR expanded the role of the government through
    programs designed to restore public confidence and
    provide jobs.
 Summarize the reasons why some people
  opposed the New Deal.
   Some said the New Deal gave government too much
    power. Others argued it didn’t provide enough aid.
The Second New Deal Takes Hold
                Main Idea
  The Second New Deal included new
    programs to extend federal aid and
      stimulate the nation’s economy.
          Why it Matters Today
 Second New Deal programs continue to
 assist homebuyers, farmers, workers, and
          the elderly in the 2000’s
      The Second Hundred Days
 By 1935, the Roosevelt administration was seeking ways
    to build on the programs established during the hundred
   Unemployment remained high despite government work
    programs, and production still lagged behind the levels
    of the 1920’s.
   During the second New Deal, Roosevelt called on
    Congress to provide more relief for both farmers and
   Eleanor Roosevelt-pushed her husband to appoint
    women to government positions.
   FDR- Re-elected in 1936.
                           Helping Farmers
   In the mid-1930’s, two of every five farms in the
      U.S. were mortgaged, and thousands of small
      farmers lost their farms.

                                             Aid to Farmers

              Soil Conservation &
                                                                   Farm Security Administration
             Domestic Allotment Act

                             Rewarded them for
 Cut production                                        Loaned money to tenant        Established camps for
                               Practicing good
Of depleting crops                                            farmers                   Migrant workers
                            Conservation methods
       Roosevelt Extends Relief
 As part of the Second New Deal, the Roosevelt
  administration and Congress set up a series of programs
  to help youths, professionals, and other workers.
 Works Progress Administration (WPA)- headed by Harry
 1935-1943- WPA spent $11 billion to give jobs to 8
  million workers.
    They built airports, roads, & public buildings.
    People painted murals on walls of schools
 National Youth Administration (NYA)
    Provided education, jobs, counseling, and recreation for young
Improving Labor and Other

      Rural                      Social
  Electrification               Security
       Act                        Act
The Second New Deal Takes Hold
 In what ways did the New Deal programs
 extended federal aid?
   The New Deal offered aid through programs,
    such as the WPA, NYA, FSA, and Social
    Security. These programs offered jobs, loans,
    and aid to those in need.
 How did the Wagner Act help working
   The Wagner Act supported the right of
    workers to unionize.
  The New Deal Affects Many
               Main idea
New Deal policies and actions affected
    various social and ethnic groups.
        Why it Matters Today
The New Deal made a lasting impact on
 increasing the government’s role in the
         struggle for equal rights.
     The New Deal Brings New
 In some ways, the New Deal
  represented an important
  opportunity for minorities and
  women, but they were limited.
 Women Make Their Mark
   Women are named to gov.
   Frances Perkins- 1st female
    cabinet member.
   African-American Activism
 A. Phillip Randolph- organized the
  country’s first all-black trade union. The
  Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.

                              African American

              Mary McLeod Bethune      President Fails to Support

                   Negro Affairs         Refused to approve an
              Of the National Youth        Anti-lynching law
                  Administration          New Deal programs
                 “Black Cabinet”             discriminated
     Mexican-American & Native
 Many Mexican-American tended to support the
  New Deal, even though they received fewer
  benefits than African-Americans.
 Many found work on farms in the southwest.
 Native Americans received strong government
  support from the New Deal.
   Received full citizenship
   John Collier-head on Indian affairs
Indian Reorganization Act (1934)


                  3 Areas

      Political              Cultural
       FDR Creates the New Deal
 One of FDR’s greatest achievements was to
  create the New Deal coalition.
   An alignment of diverse groups dedicated to
    supporting the Democratic Party.

                                   New Deal

        Labor Unions Flourish                       Labor Disputes

   1933-1941- Union membership
        Grew 3 mil to 10 mil
                                          Republic Steel Plant in Chicago-1937
 Committee of Industrial Organization
  New Deal Affects Many Groups
 Summarize the impact the New Deal had
 on various ethnic groups.
   FDR failed to support civil rights for African
    Americans. Mexican Americans worked for
    low wages. Native Americans benefited from
    the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
 Why did many urban voters support
 Roosevelt and the Democratic Party?
   The Democrats supported labor legislation
    and programs that helped the urban poor.
      Culture in the 1930’s
                Main Idea
 Motion pictures, radio, art, ad literature
     blossomed during the New Deal.
         Why it Matters Today
The films, music, art, and literature of the
   1930’s still captivate today’s public.
        The Lure of Motion Pictures &
 Although the 1930’s were a difficult time for
  many Americans, it was a profitable and golden
  age for the motion-picture and radio industries.

                          Motion Pictures

            Movies                              Radio

      Gone with the Wind
                                             Orson Wells
         Wizard of Oz
                                        “The War of the Worlds”
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
    The Arts in Depression America
    In contrast to many radio and movie productions of the
      1930’s, much of the art, music, and literature of the time
      was sober and serious.

                              The Arts

    Artists Decorate
                            Woody Guthrie             Diverse Writers

                                                 Federal Writers’ Project
  Federal Art Project
                           Songs about the          Richard Wright
      Diego Rivera
                             Depression             John Steinbeck
Grant Wood(Am. Gothic)                            The Grapes of Wrath
         Culture of the 1930’s
 What purpose did movies and radio serve
 during the Great Depression?
   Movies and radio gave Americans a pleasant
    escape from the reality of the Depression.
 Explain how the New Deal programs
 supported artists and writers in the 1930’s.
   The programs funded artists and writers to
    produce works of art.
  The Impact of the New Deal
                  Main Idea
The New Deal affected American society not
  only in the 1930’s but also in the decades
                 that followed.
           Why it Matters Today
Americans still debate over how large a role
  government should play in American life.
    New Deal Reforms Endure
 By 1937, the economy had improved enough to
  convince many Americans that the Depression
  was finally ending.
 FDR begins to scale back New Deal programs.
 Supporters & Critics of the New Deal
   Conservatives- federal gov. too large/too powerful
   Liberals- Roosevelt didn’t do enough
   Supporters- believe he had a reasonable balance
    between-unregulated capitalism and overregulated
 Expanding Government’s Role in the
   Federal Gov. had a larger role-particularly the
      Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
      Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
 New Deal Reforms Endure-Cont’
 Protecting Workers’ Rights
   National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
 Banking & Finance
   SEC- oversees the stock market
   FDIC- insures people’s money is protected
    against loss.
 Social & Environmental Effects
 New Deal economic and financial reforms,
  including the creation of the FDIC, SEC, and
  Social Security, have helped to stabilize the
  nation’s finances and economy.

                               Social &
                         Environmental Effects

    Social Security           Rural Scene                Environment

   Old-age insurance                              Civilian Conservation Corp.
                         Commodity Credit Corp.
   Aid to the disabled                            Tennessee Valley Authority
                             Parity Price
 Families w/dependents                                       (TVA)
      The Impact of the New Deal
 List five New Deal agencies that are still in place
    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation(FDIC),
     Securities and Exchange Commission(SEC), National
     Labor Relations Board(NLRB), Social Security, and
     Tennessee Valley Authority(TVA).
 What benefits did the Tennessee Valley
  Authority provide? What negative impact did it
    Provided flood control, hydroelectric power,
     conservation, recreational facilities; coal burning
     caused environmental pollution.

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