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SEMINAR IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Sociology 6330 Spring Semester, 2003 450 PGH Section 11881 Russell L. Curtis, Jr., Office: 494 PGH Phone: 743-3951 E-Mail: email@example.com TEXTS: Adler, Patricia A. and Peter Adler. 2002. Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context and Interaction. 4th Edition. Kollock, Peter and Jodi O'Brien. The Production of Reality: Essays and Readings in Social Psychology. Pine Forge (Sage). 2001. (Third Edition; Paperback) PURPOSES: This course focuses on the constructions of “meaning” as reality is conceptualized as a construction process occurring within social contexts, shared by persons in these contexts, and transmitted beyond their settings. Intellectually, we will apply a perspective to actions, motives, and meanings. Kollock and O’Brien note that “reality is a collective hunch.” Personally, we will examine how each of us makes re-makes our individual selves and biographies. REQUIREMENTS: Along with your oral presentation and final written paper, there are two exams (see below) that cover the readings and lectures (which will also cover the readings). The last three sessions– April 9, 16 and 23 - are reserved for oral presentations of formal papers and critiques from class members on these materials and for a possible makeup period. TOPICAL SEQUENCE: OUTLINE OF LECTURES, READINGS AND REPORTS Section One: Perspectives of a “self” in “Interactive” Social Psychology I. Introduction: Definitions and Overview of the Perspectives; January 15 & 22, 2003 Special Emphases on Sociological Social Psychology: Lectures and Discussions Holistic review of how reality is constructed for individuals, groups & societies. Kollock and O'Brien Part I, Introduction, including What is Real,” Miner, “Body Ritual Among the Nacirema,” 15-18; Charon, “The Nature of ‘Perspective’,” 19-24. Babbie, “Truth, Objectivity, and Agreement,” 25-28. Wagner, “The Search for Signs of Intelligent Life in the Universe; “A Perspective for Understanding Self and Social Interaction,” 35-34. Adler and Adler: “General Introduction” and “Defining Deviance,” 1-10. Erikson, “On The Sociology of Deviance, 11-18. Tittle and Paternostger, “A Typology of Deviance Based on Middle Class Norms,” 19-29; Hackert, ”Positive Deviance,” 30-42. General Discussion of “Theories of Deviance,” 43-54. Durkheim, “The Normal and the Pathological,” 55-59. Merton, “Social Structure and Anomie,” 60-66. Sutherland and Cressey, “Differential Association,” 67-69 Becker, “Labeling Theory, 70-74. Hirschi, “Control Theory of Delinquency,” 75- 83. Quinney, “Conflict Theory and Crime,” 84—89. Best, “The Constructionist 2 Stance,” 90-94. General discussion of “Studying Deviance,” 95-98., Besharov and Laumann, “Child Abuse Reporting,” 99-105. Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, and Michaels, “Survey of Sexual Behavior of Americans,” 106-115. Adler, ”Researching dealers and Smugglers,” 116-132 II. Nature and Characteristics of the “Social” Self: January 29, 2003 Lectures and Discussion:: Conceptions of the social self and the "reflective self;" the impacts of “internalized" social influence on self-image and subsequent "motive-from- within" perspectives; the conception of the "internal self" and its linkages with language and potential linkage with self-shaped conditioning -- both a synthesis and a contradiction. Kollock & O’Brien: Introduction to Part III, “Realizing Symbolic Order through Interaction including the essay, “Meaning is Negotiated through Interaction.” 187-205. Goffman, “The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life..,” 226-243.Mead, "The Self, The I, and the Me," 288-292. Cooley, "Looking-Glass Self," 293-295. Blumstein, “The Production of Selves in Personal Relationships,” 296-308. Orwell, “Shooting an Elephant,” 309-313. Section Two: theoretical concepts: actions, motives, and relationships III. Theoretical Concepts: Action, Emotions and Language A. Emotions: January 29. 2003 Lectures and Discussions: The language of emotion; "emotions" as social constructions or "verbal manipulation,” discussions of absence of research on "basic" referenced referenced emotions for social frameworks. Kemper, "How Many Emotions Are There?" Am. J. Soc., September, 1987. Discussions of the meanings of emotions and the shifts of attentions to different types of emotions over time such as “love” in the 1940’s, “fear” in the 1950’s, “anger” in the 1970’s and “shame in the 1980’s and ‘90’s. . B. Language: February 5, 2003 Kollock and O'Brien: “Humans as Symbolic Creatures,” (important essay) 61-62; “Shared Meanings as the Basis of Humanness,” 63-85 (important)”; Cassirer, “A Clue to the Nature of Man: The Symbol, 87-88; Charon, “The Importance of the Symbol,” 89-96; Sacks, “Yes, Father-Sister,” 97-98. Davis, “Final Note on a Case of Extreme Isolation,” 99-105. Lindesmith, Strauss, and Denzin, “Language and Neurological disorders,” 106-114. Sacks, “The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat,” 115-123. Lakoff and Johnson, “Metaphors W Live By,” 124-134. Zerubavel, “The Social Lens,” 135-152. Langer, “Mindfulness and Mindlessness,” 153-157. Hofstadter, “Changes in Default Words and Images Engendered by Rising Consciousness,” 158-164. Hofstadter, “A Person Paper on Purity in Language,” (Satire(Hofstadter), 165-170. 3 IV. Theoretical Concepts: Self-Image and Its Correlates: A. Contextualized Selves: Self Image & Self-Concept February 12, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: Identity is a construction obtained from contexts and definitions from others. French Social Psychologists contend that identity cannot be postulated outside of groups or relational settings. These shift over the life- cycle. Some identities are more central than others and the issues of “primacy” vs. recency” present intriguing conceptual and research opportunities. opportunities. Kollock and O’Brien: Reidy, “The Virgin Martyrs,” 179-186. B. Person-Evaluated Selves: Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence Feb. 12, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: Why did “self esteem” become so integral a part of U.S. sociology and what are the societal correlates of the emergence of this concept? We will review the origins and empirically designated correlates of the measures of self-esteem.. Could something so basic as “confidence” be an outer “construction”? When makes us believe that we can control our environments? Is “control” more important for western, industrial cultures than elsewhere? If so, is “self-confidence” a frame outcome and, as such, a U.S. variable of personal motivation that is far less important in, say, Asian nations? Adler and Adler: Degher and Hughes, “The Adoption and Management of a ‘Fat’ Identity,“ 211- 222. Weinberg, Williams and Pryor, “Becoming Bisexual,” 222-232. McLorg and Taub, “Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia..” 233-244. Section Three: structures and contexts shaping actions and attitudes V. Societal-Wide Agents of Influence on Actions, Attitudes, Emotions and Persons: Class, Race, Gender, and Age Here, and In Section VI, below, we look at the contexts and settings by which the actions, attitudes, and emotions elaborated under Section III acquired and scripted definitions of persons, whether self or other, as articulated in Section IV, are acquired. How do persons achieve their views of race and gender, of class groups? Is aggression" passed on from one generation to another? Is "alcoholism" an outcome of heredity or modeling and the socialization process? How do class and racial groups construct differing realities pertaining to such behaviors as physical punishment of children and such attitudes and the approval/disapproval of capital punishment? A. Socioeconomic Factor: February 12, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: Compliance, conformity and class (research of Elder, Kohn, Parenting styles by SES; child perceptions of parents by SES. How does the “sense of entitlement” become justified in the constructions of behavior and attitudes? Kollock and O’Brien: Romero, “Maid in the U.S.A.,” 542-543. 4 B. Racial Factors: February 12, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: The external and internal constructions of black identity: from non-human to invisible to entertainment/athletic stardom. Instructor’s theory on the early childhood factor and racism as manifested by the formative years of many famous Black Americans. Kollock & O’Brien: Hughes, “That Powerful Drop,” 86; Moore, “Racism in the English Language,” 171-178. Staples, “Black Men and Public Space,” 244-246. W.E.DuBois, "Double-Consciousness and the Veil," 510-514. Terkel, "Stephen Cruz," 515- 518. Russell, “Growing Ups with Privilege and Prejudice,” 519-523. Hooks, “Talking Back,” 554-557. C. Gender Factors: February 12, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: The constructions of femininity and the “reconstructions of female athletes in sports identified as masculine. Have there been change in the notions of the “ideal” female and “ideal” male? Which family contexts are more traditional? Kollock & O'Brien: Stoll, “A Player,” 524-526. Avicolli, “He Defies You Still: Memoirs of A Sissy, 527-531. Weeks, “Sexual Identification Is A Strange Thing,” 532-536. Crawford, “Identity, ‘Passing,’ and Subversion,” 537-539. Bernstein, “Her Son/Daughter,” 540-541. D. Age Factors: February 12, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: The “reconstructions” of “old” and of stages as persons in advanced industrial nations live into their 80’s; “age” as a constructed socio-political outcome. VI. Group and Organizational Agents of Influence on Actions, Attitudes, Emotions, and Identity: Groups and Other Sub-Societal Processes A. Families: February 19, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: Families construct our primary realities. The family unit defines things and attitudes and, above all, the roles of various family members in the system. These realities are produced by a variety of mechanisms ranging from autocratic sanctions on the one hand to secrecy and silence on the other. Kollock and O'Brien: Polaner and McDonald-Winkler, with Commentary by David Reiss, “…Case Study of a Family’s Attribution of Competence to a Severely Retarded Child,” 408-420 (Excellent articles! Tremendous example of the power of “family systems” to transpose meanings of persons and events among family members.) B. Groups: Peers and Friends; Gangs: February 19, 2003 5 Lectures and Discussions: What are the differing spheres of constructed roles and realities in the worlds of peers, colleagues and family members. Do we, as suggested by some Symbolic Interactionists, have a “cell of self”’ for each of our worlds and, then, some type of whole – a comprehensive self - that is a construct of these parts? Adler and Adler: Jankowski, “Joining a Gang,” 445-466. C. Subcultural Systems and Lifestyle Networks: February 19, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: Continuation of the above: the “cells” of meanings, here expanded to units that incorporate small, primary and peer groups and local associations.. Adler and Adler: Lowery and Wetli, “Sexual Asphyxia..,” 327-336. Fox, “Real Punks and Pretenders..,” 337-352. Miller, “Gender and Victimization Risk Among Women Gangs,” 353-366. D. Collective Behavior and Social Movements: February 19, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: Here, we examine the types and concepts of “moral panics” and the related components of rumors, milling, definitions of the situation and all of the components that go into the early, perceptual and interactive stages of the formations of social movements. Why did MADD evolve when drunk driving was already declining? What led to the “serpent handlers” in Appalachia? Why is there a panic over drugs in America when there is evidence of greater drug use during earlier periods and the failed programs of government intervention during the prohibition era?? What does it mean to “just say no”??? Adler and Adler: General Discussion on “Constructing Deviance,” 133-136. Reinerman, “The Social Construction of Drug Scares,” 137- 148. Tuggle and Holmes, “Blowing Smoke: Status Politics and the Smoking Ban,” 149-159. deYoung, “Moral Panics: The Case of Satanic Day Care Centers,” 160-168. FEBRUARY 19, 2003: FIRST EXAMINATION E. Organizations: February 26, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: Lectures on the processing of persons; my law student survey and the results of studies of medical students. We look at another half: the profession as forcing meanings in the larger society: medical diagnostics, the discovery" of psychological ailments and psychological and pharmacological cures. The appearances and public interpretations of Thorazine, Ritalin, and Prosaic will receive attention. Discussion of classic, Szasz, "The Sane Slave ..Medical Diagnosis as Justificatory Rhetoric." Kollock and O’Brien: Rosenthal, “Pygmalion in the Classroom..,” 429-433. Adler and Adler: 6 Godson and Olson, “International Organized Crime,” 367-379. Matthews and Kauzlarich, “The Crash of Value Jet Flight 292: A Case Study of State- Corporate Crime,” 380-392. G. Publics and the Media: February 26, 2003 Lectures and Discussion: Public Opinion and propaganda: the self-constructions deriving from commitments – e.g. persons becoming more radicalized as an outcome of their protest actions; the uses of rumor and the creations of reality in agencies the components of “moral panic” that are created by governments; the uses of issue construction in agencies such as universities. Kollock and O’Brien:: Conrad, "The Discovery of Hyperkinesias..," 443-451. Weinberg, “The Nudist Management of Respectability, 452-460. Ridgeway, “The Persistence of Gender Inequality in Public Settings,” 461-469. Scheppele, “Practices of Truth- Finding in a Court of Law: The Case of Revised Stories, 470-482. Adler and Adler: “Stigma Management,” – intro statement, quite good, 273-176. Nack, “Identity and Stigma of Women with STD’s,” 277-285. Anderson, Snow and Cress, “Stigma Management and Collective Action Among the Homeless,” 286-304. Martin, “Collective Stigma Management and Shame: Avowal, Management and Contestation,” 305-324. Note: March 3-8, 2003 is Spring Break SECTION FOUR: THE CONSTRUCTED “OUTCOMES” OF ATTITUDES AND ACTIONS VII. Personal Changes in Attitudes, Values, and Behaviors: A. Affiliation, Attraction, and Trust: Common Expressions March 12, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: Reality formations and interpretations are shaped by trusted others. Whom do we trust? Who is a credible source for our understanding about, say, the the Branch Dividians in Waco or the crisis in the Middle East? What occurs when our earliest perspectives in are marred by the behaviors of abusive and/or ineffectual others? What realities are sustained by the professional thief, the wife batterer, and/or the child abuser? Kollock and O’Brien: Garfinkel, "A Conception of and Experiments with 'Trust' as a Condition of Concerted Stable Actions," 396-407 (a fun piece!). Snyder, "When Belief Creates Reality: The Self-Fulfilling Impact of First Impressions ..," 438-442. B. Justifications, Attributions and Disclaimers: The Constructed Expressions of Personal Reason and Personal Fault March 12, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: Discussions of attributions, rationalizations and neutralizations from Scott and Lyman, "Accounts"; Hewitt and Stokes, "Disclaimers"; and Goffman, "Cooling the Mark Out." 7 Kollock and O'Brien: Snyder, “When Belief Becomes Reality: The Self-Fulfilling Impact of First Impressions on Social Interaction,” 424-428. Adler and Adler: Part VI introduction to “Accounts,” pp 245-246. Scully and Marolla, Convicted Rapists’ … Excuses and Justifications,” 247-262. McCabe, “The Influence of Situational Ethics on Cheating, 263-272. Yip, “Gay Male Christian Couples and Situational Exclusivity,” 467-480. C. Conflict and Cooperation: Constructed Postures of “Aggression” and of “Intimacy” March 19, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: Interpersonal relationships can be viewed as micro-political dynamics that are conveniently and more comfortably conceived in other terms. Aggression can be manifested in other, constructed ways. Some power arrangements are formalized presentations that differ between “on stage” and “off stage,” especially in marriages among various ethnic groups (e.g. Mexican-Americans and Italian-Americans). A political-economy conception of “aggression.” Kollock and O’Brien: Leuven, “What Does the Service Include?,” 254-264.Emerson, "..Gynecological Examinations," 265-278. Lerum, “ ‘Precarious Situations’ in a Strip Club: Exotic Dancers and the Problem of Reality Maintenance,” 279-287. Gomez, “Because Silence is Costly,” 558-565. Anzaldua, “La Conciencia de la Mestiza/Towards a New Consciousness,” 566-572. Sjilko, “Ceremony,” 573 (wonderful poetic statement on the power of oral history) Adler and Adler: Chambliss, “The Saints and the Roughnecks," 169-182. Anderson, “The Police and the Black Male,” 183-194. Blinde and Taub, “Homophobia and Women’s Sport,” 195-296. Tewksbury, “Cruising for Sex in Public Places,” 395-407. Flowers, “The Manufacture of Fantasy,” 408-415. Martin and Hummer, “Fraternities and Rape on Campus,” 416-430. Liederbach, “Opportunity and Crime in the Medical Profession,” 431-440. D. Achievement: Constructed Meanings of “Production”: March 19, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: Historical social treatments (Weber, others): constructs of situational motivation inner, outer, etc. -- materials from Gerth and Mills, David Riesman, Lasch; studies linguistic and symbolic depictions (children's readers as concluded from Moeller and DeCharms, others.) Constructions of “achievement.” VIII. Personal Changes in Self-Concepts and Self-Image A. Successful Personal Changes: Constructions of “Recovery” March 26, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: What are the recently constructed forms of “personal change” that are advocated? How has “positive personal change” been conceived in the 1950’s, 8 1970’s and 1990’s? Why? What is the goal of a “legitimate” personal change that is being advocated today? When did the notion of “recovery” come into vogue, especially as applied to personal and socio-psychiatric lifestyles? The notion of "careers"; role exiting by positive and negative changes; what are the impacts on self-image that have occurred from extended longevity? Lectures on: Denzin, The Recovering Alcoholic; Strauss, "Turning Points in Identity." Kollock and O'Brien: Njeri, "The Power of Names," (conceptualizes names and varieties of "African- American" identity), 319-322. Ebaugh, “Creating the Ex-Role,” 330-346. Essay, Building and Breaching Reality," 347-364 (really good synthesis). Mehan and Wood, "Five Features of Reality," (definition of "constructed reality") 365-380. Watzlawick, "Self-Fulfilling Prophecies," 417-423 (an excellent synthesis of the "power of belief"; included here for its description of the sequence: new beliefs, new identities, "recovery roles." Adler and Adler: Adler and Adler, “Shifts and Oscillations in Deviant Careers: The Case of Upper-Level Drug Dealers and Smugglers,” 481-493. Brown, “The Professional Ex-: An Alternative for Exiting the Deviant Career,” 494-596. B. Stigmatized or "Deviant" Changes: Constructions of “Failure”: March 26, 2003 Lectures and Discussions: Time to bury the "labeling" approach to crime and delinquency??? Is self-image an intervening process, operating independently and within a sequential boundary, between structural arrangements and behavioral outcomes?? Kollock and O’Brien: Becker, "Becoming a Marijuana User," 206-214(a classic). Maeda, “Looks,” 215-217. Orenstein, “Fear of Falling: Sluts,” 218-225. Heyl, “The Madam as Teacher: The Training of House Prostitutes,” 247-253. Rosenhan, “On Being Sane in Insane Places,” 434-442. IX. Directions and Debates of the Field: April 2, 2003 SECOND EXAM: SECOND ONE-HALF: APRIL 2, 2003 NOTES 1. Exams A. Two short one-hour (or less) essay exams: February 19, 2003 and April 2, 2003. B. These exams will be a mix of lectures and readings. . 2. Term Paper: A. Due date: Friday, 4/23/ 2003; 10 to 20 pp. narrative; ASA style; course content. B. I strongly encourage you to focus on a topic relevant for your thesis. Examples: (1) immigration and the cycles of “panics” and changing legal definitions (2) criminal justice: the cycles of support of capital punishment 3. Oral Presentation of Papers: A. During last section four periods: April 9, 16, and 23. B. Please present an outline of your remarks, hopefully before the class C. Be prepared to challenge if you are the listener and to be sharply critiqued if you are the presenter.
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