Domenico Scarlatti 1685-1757 Rhythm in the Sonata in D Major, K.96 p. 131 in Burkhart Timeline 1685 Born 26 October, in Naples, son of Alessandro Scarlatti, a famous opera composer 1701 Appointed organist and composer at the royal chapel in Naples 1705 Travels to Venice, seeking new patrons and positions1709Becomes court composer to the exiled Polish Queen Maria Casimira in Rome, where he meets Handel 1715 Becomes director of music at St. Peter's, Rome 1719 Moves to Lisbon to act as court harpsichordist to the King of Portugal 1728 On a visit to Rome, marries Maria Caterina Gentili. After settling at the royal court in Madrid, the couple have five children 1738 Honoured as a Knight of the Spanish Order of Santiago 1742 Following the death of Maria, marries Anastasia Maxarti Ximenes 1757 Dies 23 July in Madrid Basic Shape 1. Double Bars ||: 1 :||: 115 :|| Key D A 2. Keys ending large sections ||: 1 :||: 115 :|| Key D A A D 3. Large subsections with keys and ms. nos. P T S K I (P) II (T,P) III (P) K ||: 1 26 49 78 :||: 115 138 158 181 :|| D D -- E a A A a D Rhythm Notes YouTube - Fabio Bidini plays Domenico Scarlatti Sonata K. 96.flv 1. Does meter play a predominant role in the motion of this work? Discuss and support your answer. Yes. Patterns within the measure are regular within subsections and vary from subsections to subsection. This variation affects the perception of motion (faster, slower, etc.). The regularity of basic metrical patterns allow for the interest and surprise of hemiola. 2. How are durations organized in this work? Discuss in detail (motives, strong/weak beats, use of agogic accents). The meter is a triple meter (3/8) with one strong beat. At an ‘Allegrissimo’ tempo, the perception is essentially of one beat per measure, subdivided into triplet patterns. The most common duration used is the eighth note. Longer durations (the dotted quarter) occur at cadence points and as pedal tones. The long-short (quarter-eighth) is limited to specific phrases and does not occur throughout all themes. 3. Do the meter and tempo remain consistent throughout the work? Where might liberties be taken and why? Meter and tempo do not change throughout the movement. It is not in the performance practice of the Baroque to ritard or accelerate. Some liberty might be taken at important cadence points, sustaining the cadence sonority. There might be a rubato at the end of each of the two large sections. 4. How might tempo be determined from the durational patterns used? Discuss. The beat duration in ms.6, 8 and 10 with trills, combined with the shorter durations and patterns of the rest of the movement indicate a fast tempo with the effect of one beat per measure, not three. 5. What are the most common rhythmic patterns used, and where are they used? Do they occur in more than one theme? Do they appear in other parameters (harmonic rhythm, melodic patterns, etc.)? rm1 rm2 rm3 rm4 rm5 rm6 Motives used: rm1, rm2 in Pa, Tb, S, Kb rm3 throughout rm4 in Ta rm5 in Sb rm6 in Tb, Ka Only the first two rhythmic motives occur as harmonic rhythm patterns, further defining the faster patterns as decorative patterns. All of the patterns occur as melodic patterns. 6. Are rhythmic patterns manipulated to create increase or decrease in the perception of motion? If so, where? Discuss. Yes. Faster durational patterns occur in the Transition section, adding to the instability of the section, both at its beginning and end (ms. 26-32 and 42-47). The repeated 16ths in ms. 33-4, 36-7, and 39-40 are not related to motion, as they are a variation of the trill figuration. Each large section ends with a hemiola pattern, slowing the perception of motion effectively (ms. 112-114 and 209-210). These are the only occurrences of hemiola in the work. Full measure beat patterns in all voices occur only as cadence sonorities. These effectively slow or stop motion… (The only exception is in Pa where they are part of a repeated ‘trumpet’ motive.) 7. What are the predominant rhythmic durations used throughout the work? Does the frequency of their use change, and if so, do the changes correspond to change in formal structure? Discuss. The most common duration is the eighth note, followed by the quarter, sixteenth and thirty-second. The dotted quarter appears as a cadence duration. In the first large section: Eighths and quarters predominate in P and S. Sixteenths and Thirty-seconds occur in T and K. In the second large section: Eighths and quarters predominate in I(P), III(P) and Kb. Sixteenths predominate in II(Ta & b), and they are interpolated into III(P). 8. What is the most common ‘attack point rhythm’ used in the work? The eighth note. Does it relate to the perception of large-scale form? No. Does it change, and if so do the changes correspond to formal structure? Discuss The changes noted in Question 7 are relevant to this question. In Ta, the 32nds and the initial 16ths of Tb (ms. 33-4, 36-7. and 39-40) are primarily associated with non-chord tones or serve as substitutions for trill figures. They are not important as melodic motives. In Tb, the sixteenths in mm. 42-47 are part of descending melodic patterns and a final cadential figure, creating a sense of increased motion leading to the cadence of T. In Sb, the sixteenths are part of cadential ornaments. In Ka, sixteenth note patterns significantly increase the motion of the melodic lines. The same is true for the corresponding subsections of the large second section. There are interpolations and additions to two subsections: II(Tb) has an extended passage of the repeated sixteenth note decoration, ending with a dramatic two-octave figured scale from D6-D4 (ms. 153-158). III (Pa) has an interpolated tonic prolongation of arpeggiated 16ths showing off Scarlatti’s famous ‘hand-crossing’ technique (ms. 165-181). This doesn’t increase the sense of motion, but certainly adds to the excitement of the end of the movement. It also sets up the slower moving return of Kb.
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