Domenico Scarlatti by lanyuehua


									Domenico Scarlatti

            Rhythm in the Sonata in D Major,
                   p. 131 in Burkhart
1685 Born 26 October, in Naples, son of Alessandro Scarlatti, a famous
opera composer
1701 Appointed organist and composer at the royal chapel in Naples
1705 Travels to Venice, seeking new patrons and positions1709Becomes
court composer to the exiled Polish Queen Maria Casimira in Rome, where he
meets Handel
1715 Becomes director of music at St. Peter's, Rome
1719 Moves to Lisbon to act as court harpsichordist to the King of Portugal
1728 On a visit to Rome, marries Maria Caterina Gentili. After settling at the
royal court in Madrid, the couple have five children
1738 Honoured as a Knight of the Spanish Order of Santiago
1742 Following the death of Maria, marries Anastasia Maxarti Ximenes
1757 Dies 23 July in Madrid
                          Basic Shape
1. Double Bars

             ||: 1                 :||: 115                  :||
    Key          D                    A

2. Keys ending large sections

          ||: 1                  :||: 115                   :||
Key           D                A      A                 D

3. Large subsections with keys and ms. nos.

   P      T          S    K             I (P)   II (T,P) III (P) K
||: 1      26        49   78        :||: 115    138      158     181   :||
    D     D -- E     a    A             A        a        D
                           Rhythm Notes
                              YouTube - Fabio Bidini plays Domenico Scarlatti Sonata K. 96.flv

1. Does meter play a predominant role in the motion of this work? Discuss and support
   your answer.

   Patterns within the measure are regular within subsections and vary from subsections to
         subsection. This variation affects the perception of motion (faster, slower, etc.).
   The regularity of basic metrical patterns allow for the interest and surprise of hemiola.

2. How are durations organized in this work? Discuss in detail (motives, strong/weak
         beats, use of agogic accents).

   The meter is a triple meter (3/8) with one strong beat. At an ‘Allegrissimo’ tempo, the
         perception is essentially of one beat per measure, subdivided into triplet patterns.
   The most common duration used is the eighth note.
   Longer durations (the dotted quarter) occur at cadence points and as pedal tones.
   The long-short (quarter-eighth) is limited to specific phrases and does not occur
         throughout all themes.
3. Do the meter and tempo remain consistent throughout the work? Where might
liberties be taken and why?

         Meter and tempo do not change throughout the movement. It is not in
the performance practice of the Baroque to ritard or accelerate. Some liberty might
be taken at important cadence points, sustaining the cadence sonority. There
might be a rubato at the end of each of the two large sections.

4. How might tempo be determined from the durational patterns used? Discuss.

          The beat duration in ms.6, 8 and 10 with trills, combined with the shorter
durations and patterns of the rest of the movement indicate a fast tempo with the
effect of one beat per measure, not three.
5. What are the most common rhythmic patterns used, and where are they
         Do they occur in more than one theme?
         Do they appear in other parameters (harmonic rhythm, melodic
patterns, etc.)?

rm1             rm2         rm3         rm4            rm5               rm6

Motives used:         rm1, rm2 in Pa, Tb, S, Kb
                      rm3 throughout
                      rm4 in Ta
                      rm5 in Sb
                      rm6 in Tb, Ka

         Only the first two rhythmic motives occur as harmonic rhythm
patterns, further defining the faster patterns as decorative patterns.
         All of the patterns occur as melodic patterns.
6. Are rhythmic patterns manipulated to create increase or decrease in the perception of motion?
     If so, where? Discuss.
   Faster durational patterns occur in the Transition section, adding to the
    instability of the section, both at its beginning and end (ms. 26-32 and 42-47).
   The repeated 16ths in ms. 33-4, 36-7, and 39-40 are not related to motion, as
     they are a variation of the trill figuration.
   Each large section ends with a hemiola pattern, slowing the perception of
     motion effectively (ms. 112-114 and 209-210). These are the only
     occurrences of hemiola in the work.
   Full measure beat patterns in all voices occur only as cadence sonorities. These
      effectively slow or stop motion… (The only exception is in Pa where
      they are part of a repeated ‘trumpet’ motive.)

 7. What are the predominant rhythmic durations used throughout the work?
          Does the frequency of their use change, and if so, do the changes correspond
          to change in formal structure? Discuss.
            The most common duration is the eighth note, followed by the quarter,
              sixteenth and thirty-second. The dotted quarter appears as a cadence duration.
          In the first large section:
              Eighths and quarters predominate in P and S.
              Sixteenths and Thirty-seconds occur in T and K.
          In the second large section:
              Eighths and quarters predominate in I(P), III(P) and Kb.
              Sixteenths predominate in II(Ta & b), and they are interpolated into III(P).
8. What is the most common ‘attack point rhythm’ used in the work? The eighth note.
   Does it relate to the perception of large-scale form? No.
   Does it change, and if so do the changes correspond to formal structure? Discuss

                      The changes noted in Question 7 are relevant to this question.

           In Ta, the 32nds and the initial 16ths of Tb (ms. 33-4, 36-7. and 39-40) are primarily
              associated with non-chord tones or serve as substitutions for trill figures. They are not
              important as melodic motives.
           In Tb, the sixteenths in mm. 42-47 are part of descending melodic patterns and a final
              cadential figure, creating a sense of increased motion leading to the cadence of T.
           In Sb, the sixteenths are part of cadential ornaments.
           In Ka, sixteenth note patterns significantly increase the motion of the melodic lines.

   The same is true for the corresponding subsections of the large second section. There are
interpolations and additions to two subsections:
   II(Tb) has an extended passage of the repeated sixteenth note decoration, ending with a dramatic
            two-octave figured scale from D6-D4 (ms. 153-158).
   III (Pa) has an interpolated tonic prolongation of arpeggiated 16ths showing off Scarlatti’s famous
            ‘hand-crossing’ technique (ms. 165-181). This doesn’t increase the sense of motion, but
            certainly adds to the excitement of the end of the movement. It also sets up the slower
            moving return of Kb.

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