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					         Sun Tracking System (STS)


Microprocessor Systems (B) project
Computer Engineering Department
Cairo University




By:

Ahmed Abdulla Abdulaziz
Ahmed Adel Abdel-Kader
Ahmed Hafez Abdel-Kader
Sherif Mohamed Hany



Submitted To:

Dr. Hatem El-Boghdady



                          May 18th, 2010
Microprocessor Systems (B) project                                                                      Team 18


Contents
Introduction ..................................................................................................... 3
Project Purpose: .............................................................................................. 3
Requirements: ................................................................................................. 3
Limitations ...................................................................................................... 3
Design ............................................................................................................. 4
   I. Circuit: ................................................................................................... 4
      a. Sensor-ADC circuit ............................................................................ 4
      b. Relay-Motors circuit .......................................................................... 5
   II.      Interfacing program: ........................................................................... 6
      a. Classes ................................................................................................ 6
      b. Algorithm ........................................................................................... 6
Used components & Cost analysis ................................................................. 7
Mounting instructions ..................................................................................... 7
Project expansion: ........................................................................................... 8
References: ...................................................................................................... 8




Solar Tracking System (STS)                                                                                         2
Microprocessor Systems (B) project                                     Team 18


Introduction

       “Energy conquers all things”...Said by Benjamin Franklin…. Energy
is the main topic that got the interest of researchers all over the world. They
are trying to find new renewable energy resources. And it’s a known fact
that the sun is the most valuable resource for renewable energy, so it became
obvious for all the researchers that they must turn their attention to the sun.

Solar energy is very important, but the efficiency of the solar panels used in
generating solar energy is low. One of the reasons of the low efficiency is
that the sun moves with time, and that’s the problem that the solar tracking
system (STS) will solve.

STS is a system in which solar panels are mounted on. The system then
rotates the panels so that the maximum amount of sun rays reaches it. STS
may be also used in other applications that need sun tracking.


Project Purpose:
       The project is a small model (prototype) of the STS system. It is made
as a proof of concept. It could be expanded to be used with real solar panels.


Requirements:
       It’s required to implement a system that uses sensors to get the light
intensity and to identify the source of the maximum intensity.

It’s required to move to the place from where the intensity is maximum.

It’s required to use sensors, resistors, transistors, motors to implement the
STS system.

Limitations:
       The implemented system will bear only a small weight as a trial, and
will be controlled by a personal computer, so it will have some minor
mobility problems.



Solar Tracking System (STS)                                                      3
Microprocessor Systems (B) project                                      Team 18


Design

     I.    Circuit:
           It’s the design of the electrical circuit used in the implementation
           of STS

           a. Sensor-ADC circuit




Solar Tracking System (STS)                                                       4
Microprocessor Systems (B) project                                 Team 18


         b. Relay-Motors circuit
    It is made using four relays to overcome using two stepper drivers to
     reduce the cost as possible.




Solar Tracking System (STS)                                                  5
Microprocessor Systems (B) project                                     Team 18


   II.     Interfacing program:
           It’s a windows application that uses parallel interfacing to control
           sensors and motors which are used in the implementation of STS

           a. Classes
              1-InterfaceMotor: It controls the two stepper motors used in
              STS

              2-InterfaceSensor: It controls the sensors which is used in STS

           b. Algorithm
                             Activate the stepper motor that
                            has the LDR sensor upon its body.



                              Rotate this motor by 1800 and
                              that’s achieved by moving the
                             motor a certain number of steps.




                             Measure the amount of voltage
                            out the LDR sensor after each step.



                             Determine the maximum voltage
                            that was out of the sensor through
                                   the scanning cycle.



                             Move The Second Motor to the
                             position where the most voltage
                                        was read.



                           Move the motor back to its starting
                            position and wait 30 seconds for
                                another scanning round.




Solar Tracking System (STS)                                                       6
Microprocessor Systems (B) project                                 Team 18


Used components & Cost analysis


       Component                One Item Cost(LE)        No Of Items
      Stepper motor                     45                   2
           LDR                           8                   1
      Motor driver                     175                   1
       Breadboard                       18                   2
           Relay                         3                   4
   5 volt power supply                  20                   1
  -5 volt power supply                  20                   1
       Resistances                     0.10                  5
  Transistor(2n-2222)                  0.25                  2
          Wires                          5                    -
       ADC(0804)                        15                   1
    Voltage regulator                    3                   1
          Pincer                        15                   1


    Total cost: 400 L.E
    Note: When the project is implemented in a real life application, the
     cost estimate would differentiate from the above cost estimate. And it
     would be around 1500 L.E


Mounting instructions
       On the project board, an arrow determines the South direction. Use
this arrow to rightly orient the system. The solar panel should be tilted
towards south because the sun moves from east to west passing through
south. So that position will provide maximum direct sun rays.




Solar Tracking System (STS)                                                  7
Microprocessor Systems (B) project                                 Team 18


Project expansion:
     To expand the project to be used with solar panels, there would be
some changes needed:

1- The motor that moves the solar panel must be replaced with a motor with
greater torque to bear the weight of the solar panels.

2- For mobility reasons, the personal computer should be replaced by a
Microcontroller chip. Few changes would be needed in the interfacing as the
system wouldn’t need to interface through a parallel port.


References:


      ADC0804 datasheet, National semiconductors.
      KSPn2222a NPN transistor datasheet.
      JM29AZ LM1117T voltage regulator datasheet.
      Subminiature power-relay (JQC-3FG) datasheet, Hongfa Relay
       Company.
      LDR datasheet, Eagle Power International Holdings (HK) Limited.
      “My experience in parallel port interfacing” by Bibin John.
      Relay interfacing circuit from “www.epanorama.net/circuits/ parallel
       _output.html”
      http://www.ehow.com/how_2186075_port-using-c-way-want.html




Solar Tracking System (STS)                                                   8

				
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