Document Sample

              Ms. Joyce M. LaMarre
              Science Coach
              Bowie High School
     Objective One

   The student will
    demonstrate an
    understanding of the
    nature of science
B.1 & I.1 For at least 40% of instructional
      time, conducts field and laboratory
      investigations using safe,
      environmentally appropriate, and
      ethical practices.

(A) Demonstrate safe practices during
    field and laboratory investigations.
Environmentally Appropriate Practices

   When conducting field investigations,
    do not harm the environment you are
   Pick up your trash.
   Do not leave anything disturbed.
   Only take what you need for further
Safe Practices
                    46 In what part of this
                     process should safety
                     precautions be
    Safe Practices
   5 The anatomy of grasshoppers is being studied
      in a dissection lab. Working in groups of three,
      students make observations using a hand lens,
      forceps, and a scalpel. Two of the students in a
       group have finished their observations. These two
       students may do all of the following except —
          A remove their goggles
          B review their notes
          C wash their hands
          D assist their lab partner
   A corrosive material is a highly reactive substance that causes obvious
    damage to living tissue. Corrosives act either directly, by chemically
    destroying the part (oxidation), or indirectly by causing inflammation.
    Acids and bases are common corrosive materials. Corrosives such as
    these are also sometimes referred to as caustics.
   Typical examples of acidic corrosives are hydrochloric (muriatic) acid and
    sulfuric acid. Typical examples of basic corrosives are sodium hydroxide
    and lye.
   Corrosive materials pose serious immediate risk to skin, tissues, eyes and
    other parts of the body. Any body part coming in contact with a corrosive
    material must be flushed with water IMMEDIATELY for at least 15 minutes
    and then medical attention should be sought. Corrosives that are inhaled
    or ingested (eaten) must be dealt with by medical professionals.
July’06 Exit Retest

               18 This picture
                   indicates that the
                   represented is —
                   F pressurized
                   G corrosive
                   H flammable
                   J toxic
April’06 Exit Test
                19 The label shown above contains
                   information about some harmful
                   effects of acetone. A group of
                   students plans to use acetone to rinse
                   out a glass container. A second group
                   of students is working at the same lab
                   table. Which of the following lab
                   procedures should the second group
                   of students avoid?

                   A Heating water with an open flame
                   B Pouring hydrochloric acid into a
                   C Filtering precipitates from a liquid
                   D Collecting oxygen from plants in a
                     test tube
Steps in the Scientific Method
   Asking Questions
   Formulate testable hypotheses
   Selecting equipment and technology
   Collect data making measurements with
   Organize, analyze, evaluate, make
    inferences, and predict trends from data
   Communicate valid conclusions.
   A tentative
    explanation for a
    phenomenon that
    is testable.
         July’06 Exit Retest
                                                  5 Which of the following is the most
       A De-Icing Experiment                         likely hypothesis for the experiment
                                                     described above?
                                                     A Vegetation that grows near
                                                        roadways requires more water
 Some species of plants that commonly grow              than vegetation in other areas.
  near roadways are used in an experiment.           B De-icing solution causes
   The plant species are divided into control            roadways to have more space
 groups and experimental groups. All groups              for vegetation.
 are grown under identical conditions except         C Vegetation near roadways
 that the experimental groups are given daily           changes the effectiveness of
applications of a de-icing solution that is used        deicing solution.
   on roadways in winter. At the end of one          D De-icing solution affects some
     month, the growth of the control and                types of vegetation that grow
       experimental groups is compared.                  near roadways.
July’06 Exit Retest

               55 In an activity, a ball is dropped
                 from a height of 100 cm onto five
                 different materials. The rebound
                 height of each drop is shown in the
                 graph. Which of the following
                 describes the hypothesis most
                 likely being tested?
                 A The mass of the ball affects
                    the rebound height.
                 B The material the ball is made
                    of affects the rebound height.
                 C The height the ball is dropped
                    from affects the rebound height.
                 D The surface the ball is dropped
                    onto affects the rebound height.
     3 Experimental Variables
   Independent variable is what you change in
    the experiment.
    Dependent variable is what you measure in
    the experiment. Unlike the independent variable,
    an experiment can have several dependent
    variables because variations in the independent
    variable can have many different effects.
   Controlled variables are any other conditions
    in the experiment. You must keep these
    conditions constant (the same)
           April’06 Exit Test

30 The table shows the time it took trees of the same type and size to drop all of their
   leaves after being grown in different atmospheres. For the experiment to be valid,
   which of these must be a constant for all the trees?
   F The height of all the trees during the entire experiment
   G The amount of water available to all trees during the experiment
   H The mass of fallen leaves collected from each tree
   J The rate of photosynthesis in all trees during the experiment
July’06 Exit Retest

26 A valid study would include a control group containing —
  F bean seed, tomato seed, sunflower seed, and water
  G water and 2% root hormone
  H water only
  J bean seed, tomato seed, sunflower seed, water, and 1% root
   July’06 Exit Retest

49 A student is working
  with four beakers that
  each contain a clear
  liquid. Which set of
  procedures would be
  best to use to
  determine whether
  one of the beakers
  contains only distilled
    Selecting Equipment & Technology
   Measure length      cm ruler, meter stick

   Measure mass        Triple beam balance,
                         electronic scale, spring
                        Graduated cylinder,
   Measure volume       buret, cm ruler

   Measure time        Stopwatch
Selecting Equipment & Technology
   Measure pH            Litmus paper
   Measure electric      Voltmeter
   Measure electric      Amp meter
   Measure Light         Spectroscope
April’06 Grade 10 Exam
   33 Which of the following is most useful in
       determining the kinetic energy of a 50 g
       battery-powered car traveling a distance
       of 10 m?
       A Beaker
       B Voltmeter
       C Thermometer
       D Stopwatch
   Precision is how close
    measurements are to
    one another.
   Precision is also how
    accurately a
    measurement can be
    made, as in using a
    graduated cylinder
    instead of a beaker to
    measure a liquid’s
   Accuracy is how
    close measurements
    are to an actual
    result ( book or
    accepted value).
   To be accurate,
    instruments have to
    be calibrated (set at
February’06 Exit Retest
                      6 The chart shows the
                        results of a
                        experiment. The most
                        accurate trial for this
                        experiment was —
                         F Trial 1
                         G Trial 2
                         H Trial 3
                         J Trial 4
April’06 Exit Exam
             55 Three liquids were poured into a
               beaker and formed three layers.
               Which conclusion is best supported
               by the information above?
               A The mass of Liquid 2 is greater
                  than the mass of Liquid 3.
               B The volume of Liquid 1 is less than
                  the volume of Liquid 3.
               C The density of Liquid 3 is greater
                  than the density of Liquid 2.
               D The buoyancy of Liquid 2 is greater
                  than the buoyancy of Liquid 1.
       February’06 Exit Retest

   1 Which piece of
    equipment should
    be used to
    precisely measure
    40.0 mL of a dilute
    sodium hydroxide
  February’06 Exit Retest

29 Two students measured the length of the same
   stick, each using a different 30 cm ruler. One
   student reported a length of 22 cm, and the other
   reported a length of 8 cm. The most likely
   explanation for the difference in the reported
   values is that one —
    A student improperly read the ruler
    B ruler was metal and the other ruler was plastic
    C student viewed the ruler from a different
    D ruler was constructed with nonstandard cm
Organize & Analyze Data
   Quantitative data (measurements) is usually
    organized in a table.
   Data is often analyzed using graphs.
Graphs: line, bar, & circle

   Line graphs are useful for showing
    changes that occur in related variables.

   Bar graphs are used to compare a set
    of measurements, amounts, or changes.

   Circle graphs show how parts relate to a
July’06 Exit Retest
   30 A researcher determined the percentage of
       electrical energy transformed into different
      forms of energy by a toaster. The best way to
      communicate these results is to display the
      data using a —
        F histogram
        G circle graph
        H line graph
        J box-whisker graph
Predict Trends From Data

   A prediction is an inference about a
    future event based on evidence,
    experience, or knowledge.

   A trend is a description of the behavior
    of a variable or the relationship
    between two variables.
Predict Trends from Data
   What will happen if the relationships,
    usually liner, continue?
    Extrapolate from given data.
   Often uses linear formula: y = mx + b.
   Questions ask for y, m (slope), or x.
   y = dependent variable
   X = independent variable
April’06 Exit Exam

                24 The graph shows how the voltage
                     needed to maintain a constant
                    current of 1.5 amps through a
                    wire conductor varies with the
                    length of the wire. If the trend
                    continues, what is the most likely
                    voltage needed to maintain a 1.5
                    amp current through 80 meters of
                    the wire?
                         F 10 volts
                         G 18 volts
                         H 250 volts
                         J 400 volts
   An inference is a
    interpretation of
    observations based
    on prior knowledge
    or experience.
   An inference is an
    act of reasoning,
    not a fact.
April’06 Exit Exam
            39 Horses kept in stables sometimes
              chew on wood. This can lead to
              damage to the mouth and digestive
              system. The graph shows the results
              of a study of a medication that
              prevents horses from chewing on
              wood. From the graph, what inference
              can be made about the effectiveness
              of the product?
              A Most horses like the medication.
              B The medication is most effective
                 between Days 4 and 5.
              C Most horses will show improvement
                within 7 days.
              D The effects of the medication are
                 long lasting.
July’06 Exit Retest
              6 The graph compares absenteeism of
                elementary school students who wash their
                hands properly with absenteeism of
                students who fail to wash their hands
                properly. Which inference could best be
                supported by these data?
                  F Proper hand washing may increase
                    attendance among elementary school
                  G Older students have developed better
                    hand-washing habits than younger
                  H Some elementary school classes teach
                     correct hand-washing methods to
                  J Improper hand washing is a common
                    practice among most elementary school
April’06 Exit Exam

2 The bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis produce
  protein crystals that are toxic to the digestive
  system of insects. How can these bacteria be
  used to control insects in crops?
  F Apply the bacteria to growing plants.
  G Expose the bacteria to low levels of light.
  H Remove plants from areas containing the
  J Treat the bacteria with a solution of the
    protein crystals.
Communicate Valid Conclusions
   Valid- A valid measure is one which is
    measuring what it is supposed to measure.
    In an experiment, only one variable is
    changed at a time to make sure result are
    from the variable you chose to change.
   Validity implies reliability and consistency.
       Other people will get similar results doing the
        same experiment
51 A study was conducted to test the effectiveness of
  hearing aids. People with different types of hearing loss
  were included in the study. Which question would help in
  determining whether the conclusion above is valid?
  A What was the average age of the people in the study?
  B What was the most common occupation of people in
    the study?
  C How many people were included in the study?
  D How many people in the study had vision problems?
Communicate Valid Conclusions
   1st Review all observations and
    measurements recorded during the
   2nd Determine if the data allows you to come
    to a conclusion that supports your
   3rd Conclusions are sometimes stated using
    words similar to the hypothesis, but with
    more certainty.
Communicate Valid Conclusions
     Hypothesis statements are usually written as if
      ____________, then___________.
     Conclusion statements are written when
      ___________, then ____________.
     Share your conclusion through laboratory
      reports, research papers using tables, graphs, and
      models to present your conclusions.
     Others can verify your results by repeating the
         April’06 Exit Exam

28 What can be concluded from the relationships described above?
   F Gas molecules travel longer distances at greater speeds when the volume of the gas is
   G A gas is more likely to lose kinetic energy when its volume is reduced.
   H Gas molecules collide less frequently when the volume of the gas is increased.
   J A gas is more likely to increase in momentum when its volume is increased.
10th Grade April’06 Exam

               1 A student prepared this graph of
                  tornadoes reported over a 50-year
                  period in a midwestern state. Which
                  statement is supported by these data?

                 A Tornadoes are less frequent in the
                 B Darkness increases the strength of
                 C Tornadoes occurring at night are
                 D The probability of a tornado is the
                    same throughout the day.
October’05 Exit Retest
              8 The picture shows the results
                of a demonstration using the
                simple water plant Elodea.
                When the setup was placed
                in strong light, a space
                gradually appeared above the
                water in the graduated
                cylinder containing the plant.
                The gas in the space above
                the water was mostly —
                F oxygen
                G carbon dioxide
                H hydrogen
                J nitrogen
   July’06 Exit Retest

33 A glass is held upside down so that its open end is closed by the
   water’s surface. Soon air bubbles begin to escape from the glass. The
   best explanation for this observation is that —
   A water condenses on the glass and escapes as a gas
   B air in the glass increases the water temperature and causes bubbling
   C pressurized water vapor rises rapidly and evaporates
   D air trapped in the glass is warmed and expands in volume
July’06 Exit Retest

              54 Which conclusion is best
                supported by the information in
                the diagram?
                F Volcanic eruptions were
                common in the area.
                G The area was once a marine
                H Organisms in the area
                reproduced frequently.
                J Consumers once outnumbered
                in the area.
    July’06 Exit Retest

44 The pictures show a 10-newton block of wood being used to
  demonstrate how this instrument measures pressure. According to
  these data, the pressure of the block is a measure of the block’s —
  F weight distributed over an area
  G density along each face
  H mass per unit of volume
  J change in inertia
Objective Two
   The student will demonstrate an
    understanding of the organization of
    living systems.
Objective 2
B. 4 Cells are the basic structures of
    all living things and have
     specialized parts that perform
     specific functions, and that viruses
     are different from cells and have
    different properties and
        Types of Cells


    Have internal membrane-bound structures                Structures without membranes

             Eukaryotic cells             Prokaryotic cells

Algae       Fungi         Plants        Animals       Bacteria
           Cell Parts and Function

   Types of Cells
      Prokaryotes

      Eukaryote

   Specialized Parts
       Nucleus
       Cell Membrane
       Ribosome
   Function
       Mitochondria-
        produces energy
        for the cell
                 Prokayrotes can be
                  divided into two
                  groups: eubacteria
                  and archaebacteria.
   July’06 Exit Retest

23 Which of these is a characteristic of body cells
   that require large amounts of energy?
     A They have a large number of mitochondria.
     B They have a supplementary Y chromosome.
     C They have a two-layer membrane.
     D They have a storage area for albumin

   Homeostasis is one of the fundamental
    characteristics of living things. It is the
    maintenance of the internal environment
    within tolerable limits.
   Osmosis is one of several processes that
    allow cells to maintain homeostasis.
      10th Grade April’06

   13 Which of these is a function of the
       cell membrane in all cells?
        A Producing cellular nutrients
        B Preserving cellular wastes
        C Neutralizing chemicals
        D Maintaining homeostasis
   It is the diffusion of
    water through a
   Substances diffuse
    from an area of
    higher concentration
    to an area of lower
Energy Production
Cellular Respiration
   Cellular respiration is the process that
    releases energy by breaking down food
    molecules in the presence of oxygen
   There are three stages of cellular
       glycolysis
       Krebs Cycle
       electron transport chain
Transportation of Molecules
Disposal of Wastes
   Waste products move across the cell
    membrane to maintain homeostasis.
   Methods of disposal include:
       diffusion
       osmosis
       active transport
     Active Transport
   It is moving
    against a
    gradient and
    requires an
    input of
    energy from
    the cell.
Function of Cellular Parts
Synthesis of New Molecules
   April’06 Exit Exam
49 Which of these best explains why a freshwater
   aquarium would be a dangerous habitat for
   saltwater fish?
  A The tissues of the saltwater fish would absorb too
     much acid.
  B The organs of the saltwater fish would produce too
     much protein.
  C The organ systems of the saltwater fish would
     consume too much energy.
  D The cells of the saltwater fish would gain too much
October’05 Exit Retest
   19 The swordfish has a heat-generating organ
        that warms its brain and eyes up to 14°C
        above the surrounding water temperature.
        What structures are likely to be found in
        relatively high concentrations in the cells of
        this organ?
        A Chromosomes
        B Mitochondria
        C Nuclei
        D Ribosomes
April’06 Grade 10 Test
                 41 The information in
                  the box identifies some
                  of the organs of the
                  kitten. Which of the
                  following is identical for
                  every cell in each of the
                  four organs?
                  A Amount of ATP
                  B Function of cell
                  C Size of cells
                  D Genes in DNA
B. 6 Structures and functions of nucleic
     acids in the mechanisms of genetics.

   (A) Describe components of
    deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and
    illustrate how information for specifying
    the traits of an organism is carried in
    the DNA.
B. 6 Structures and functions of nucleic
     acids in the mechanisms of genetics.

   (B) Explain replication, transcription,
    and translation using models of DNA
    and ribonucleic acid (RNA).

   An mRNA codon
    sequence is
    decoded into a
   Each ribosome
    moves along an
    mRNA sequence,
    binding new tRNA
    molecules and
    joining amino acids
    into a protein.
October’05 Exit Retest

            14 Part of a DNA strand is
              represented in the diagram
              above. In order for DNA to
              replicate, the strand must
              separate at which of the
              following locations?
              F Between every phosphate-
                 sugar pair
              G Between the eight sugar-base
              H Between the four nitrogenous
                 base pairs
              J Between any two chemical
    April’06 Exit Exam

45 Erwin Chargaff studied the DNA of organisms Electron
   Configuration within a single species. Chargaff discovered
   that the amount of adenine is about equal to the amount
   of thymine. Which of these explains why the ratio of
   adenine to thymine is nearly 1:1?
   A Adenine and thymine pair with each other.
   B Adenine binds with phosphates, while thymine binds
     with nitrates.
   C Adenine and thymine are identical in chemical
   D Adenine bases contain a form of thymine.
12 Body Systems
   Circulatory        Skeletal
   Digestive          Respiratory
   Nervous            Muscular
   Endocrine          Excretory
   Reproductive       Immune
   Integumentary      Cardiovascular
Circulatory System
Digestive System
Nervous System
      Endocrine System
   Structures: all hormone
    producing glands and
    cells such as the
    pituitary gland, thyroid
    gland, and pancreas.
   Function: regulates
    body functions by
    means of hormones.
   Secreted chemical messages from glands
   Hormones are grouped into three classes
    based on their structure:
       steroids
       peptides
       amines
   Example:Testosterone is the male sex
Reproductive System
          Integumentary System
   Structures: Skin and structures
    derived from it, such as hair,
    nails, and sweat and oil
   Function: a barrier to
    pathogens and chemicals
    (Protects the body), helps
    regulate body temperature,
    eliminates waste, helps
    synthesize vitamin D, and
    receives certain stimuli such
    as temperature, pressure, and
       Skeletal System
   Structures: all the Bones
    of the body (206), their
    associated cartilage, and
    the joints of the body.
   Function: bones support
    and protect the body,
    assist in body movement,
    They also house cells
    that produce
    blood cells, and they
    store minerals.
Respiratory System
Muscular System
     Excretory System
   Structures: Kidneys,
    Urinary Bladder, and
    Urethra that together
    produce, store, and
    eliminate Urine.
   Function: removes
    waste products from
    the blood and
    regulates volume
    and pH of blood.
    Immune System
   Structures: Lymph
    Nodes, Spleen, Lymph
    Vessels, Blood
    Vessels, Bone Marrow,
    and White Blood Cells
    Function: Provides
    protection against
    infection and disease.
     Cardiovascular System
   Structures: the Heart,
    Blood and Blood
   Function: transports
    oxygen and nutrients
    to tissues and
    removes waste.
    February’06 Exit Exam

   18 Red marrow is the principal tissue that
       produces red blood cells in humans. In
       which body system is red marrow found?
       F Integumentary system
       G Respiratory system
       H Nervous system
       J Skeletal system
April’06 Grade 10 Test
   15 Hemoglobin carries oxygen to body
       cells. Which body system contains
      A Circulatory system
      B Respiratory system
      C Endocrine system
      D Nervous system
Objective Three
   The student will demonstrate an
    understanding of the interdependence
    of organisms and the environment.
Objective 3
B.4 Cells are the basic structures of
    all living things and have
    specialized parts that perform
   specific functions, and that viruses
    are different from cells and have
   different properties and
B.4 Cells and Viruses
   (C) Compare the structures and
        functions of viruses to cells and
        describe the role of viruses in
        causing diseases and conditions
        such as acquired immune deficiency
        syndrome, common colds, smallpox,
        influenza, and warts.
October’05 Exit Retest
   9 Which of the following explains why
      antibiotics can treat flu-like symptoms
      caused by bacteria but are ineffective
      against flu?
      A Flu is a response to an antigen.
      B Antibiotics require time to work.
      C Antibiotics strengthen antibodies.
      D Flu is caused by a virus.
B.4 Cells and Viruses
   (D) identify and describe the role of
       bacteria in maintaining health such
        as in digestion and in causing
        diseases such as in streptococcus
        infections and diphtheria.
April’06 Exit Exam

47 Which of these does a virus need in order to
   A Chloroplasts from a host cell
   B A host cell to provide oxygen for the virus
   C New ADP from a host cell
   D A host cell to replicate the virus’s DNA
B. 7 Theory of Biological Evolution

    (A) Identify evidence of change in
    species using fossils, DNA sequences,
    anatomical similarities, physiological
    similarities, and embryology.
B. 7 Theory of Biological Evolution

   (B) Illustrate the results of natural
    selection in speciation, diversity,
    phylogeny, adaptation, behavior, and
   April’06 Exit Exam
54 The myxoma virus was used to control an overpopulation of
  European rabbits in Australia. When first introduced in the mid-
  1900s, the virus greatly reduced the European rabbit
  population. Today the virus is not an effective control of the
  European rabbit population. Fewer European rabbits are
  affected by the virus today because they have —
  F learned to avoid the virus
  G moved away from infected areas
  H undergone a change in diet
  J developed resistance to the virus
4 Interactions Among Organisms
       Predation
       Parasitism
       Commensalism
       Mutualism
 How One Fungus Gets Nutrients
 • A certain type of fungus grows sticky
 structures when roundworms are near.
 • Roundworms that come close to the
 sticky structures can become trapped.
  • The fungus penetrates and digests
            trapped roundworms
     25 Which word best describes the fungus
    in the
    situation above?
    A Predator
    B Producer
    C Parasite
    D Decomposer
10th Grade, April’06
   Commensalism means
    literally 'at table together'.
    This is a symbiotic
    relationship between
    two species in which one
    species benefits and the
    other neither benefits
    or harms.
    Often, the host species
    provides a home and/or
    transportation for the
    other species.
   Parasitism is a
    type of symbiotic
    relationship between
    two biological
    species in which one
    species benefits and
    the other is harmed.
February’06 Exit Retest

   Mutualism is any relationship between two
    species of organisms that benefits both
    species. This is the relationship most people
    think of when they use the word "symbiosis."
B.7 Theory of Biological Evolution
   (A) Identify evidence of change in
    species using fossils, DNA sequences,
    anatomical similarities, physiological
    similarities, and embryology
July’06 Exit Retest
                54 Which conclusion is best
                  supported by the
                  information in the diagram?
                  F Volcanic eruptions were
                     common in the area.
                  G The area was once a
                     marine environment.
                  H Organisms in the area
                     reproduced frequently.
                  J Consumers once
                     producers in the area.
B.7 Theory of Biological Evolution
   (B) illustrate the results of natural
    selection in speciation, diversity,
    phylogeny, adaptation, behavior, and
July’06 Exit Retest

4 Which of the following is best supported by
  the information shown above?
   F These lizards evolved in arid habitats.
   G Modern lizards drink more water than their ancestors did.
   H These lizards cool themselves by evaporation.
   J Modern lizards excrete more water than their ancestors did.
B. 9 Metabolic processes and energy
    transfers that occur in living systems

   (D) Analyze the flow of matter and
    energy through different tropic levels
    and between organisms and the
    physical environment.
3 Interactions In Ecosystems
   Food chains
   Food Webs
   Food Pyramids
Food Chains
Food Webs
Food Pyramids
October’05 Exit Retest
               13 The diagram represents
                 different levels of a
                 marine food pyramid.
                 Between which two
                 levels is the greatest
                 amount of energy
                      A R and Q
                      B S and R
                      C T and S
                      D U and T
October’05 Exit Retest
             21 The diagram above represents a
               pyramid of biomass. Which of the
               following best explains why a
               pyramid shape is useful in this
               A Most of the food consumed is
                 recycled at every trophic level.
               B Energy from the producers is
                 equally distributed in all trophic
               C Decomposers receive a small
                  amount of energy from the
               D Each trophic level supports a
                  lesser amount of biomass.
B. 12 Interdependence and interactions
occur within an ecosystem.

   (B) Interpret interactions among
    organisms exhibiting predation,
    parasitism, commensalism, and
Objective Four
   The student will demonstrate an
    understanding of the structures and
    properties of matter.
I.7 Relationships exist between
    properties of matter and its

   (A) Investigate and identify properties
    of fluids including density, viscosity, and
   The amount of matter in an object.
   Mass does not change unless there is a
    change in the number or properties of:
    ions, atoms, compounds, or number of
    cells in an object.
   Weight is mass x gravity.
   The amount of space an object
    Ways to measure/calculate volume:
       V = l1 x w1 x h1, V = s3
       V=Dxm                D = density, m = mass
       Water displacement: Fill a container with
        water to the top,
       Typical unit of volume are cm3, m3, ml, or L.
   Density is mass per unit of volume
   Density is a defining physical property
    of matter.
   Density is calculated. D = m/V
   Units of density typically are g/cm3,
   3 Properties of Fluids
Fluids can be either in the
  liquid or gaseous
  phase. Three important
  physical properties
      Density
      Viscosity
      Buoyancy
April’06 Exit Exam
              1 The picture shows the results
                of pouring a blue liquid into a
                clear liquid and allowing the
                mixture to settle for 25
                minutes. Compared to the
                clear liquid, the blue liquid is
                more —
                A massive
                B dense
                C viscous
                D soluble
October’05 Exit Retest
18 A 500 mL quantity of vanilla ice cream has a
   mass of 400 grams. The manufacturer then
   bubbles air into the ice cream so that its
   volume increases by 300 mL. What is the ice
   cream’s approximate final density?
     F 0.30 g/cm 3
     G 0.50 g/cm 3
     H 0.80 g/cm 3
     J 1.30 g/cm 3
   The resistance to
    flow in fluids.
   The longer it takes a
    liquid to move, the
    higher the viscosity.
   Oils have higher
    viscosity than
    It is not buoyancy.
      10th Grade, April’06

   22 Students in a chemistry lab measure the time
       it takes four different 100 mL solutions to
       pass through a hole in the bottom of a cup.
       Which of the following properties of the
       solutions is most likely being measured?
              F Buoyancy
              G Mass
              H Viscosity
              J Volume
February ’06 Exit Retest

   25 As the viscosity of a liquid increases,
      the liquid —
      A conducts electricity
      B pours more slowly
      C evaporates more quickly
      D forms a precipitate
   Buoyancy is the upward force
    on an object produced by the
    surrounding fluid (i.e., a liquid
    or a gas) in which it is fully or
    partially immersed.
   Buoyancy is a result of two
    substances of different density
    coming into contact.
   Buoyant forces act to keep the
    substance with the lower density
    above the substance with the
    greater density.
   Buoyancy is important for many
    vehicles such as boats, ships,
    balloons, and airships.
July’06 Exit Retest

48 The buoyant force that a fluid exerts on
   objects is increased when there is an
   increase in the fluid’s —
     F acidity
     G clarity
     H solubility
     J density
I.7 Relationships exist
between properties of matter
and its components.
   (B) Relate the chemical behavior of an
    element including bonding, to its
    placement on the periodic table.
     Chemical Change
   A change in composition in which new
    substances are formed. The products are
    different from the reactants.
   4Fe + 3O2              2 Fe2O3
   Iron plus oxygen in the air produces rust.
   It is not a physical change such as cutting or
Chemical Change
   Evidence of a
    chemical change
       Change in color
       Release or
        absorption of energy
       Odor
       Formation of a
        precipitate (a solid)
       Formation of a gas
Chemical Change
   12 Rust (Fe2O3) forms on an iron (Fe)
       pipe after prolonged exposure to humid
       air. What type of change does this
               F Mechanical
               G Nuclear
               H Chemical
               J Physical
February ’06 Exit Retest
      February ’06 Exit Retest

   27 Which process best demonstrates a
      chemical change in distilled water?
           A Freezing the water
           B Separating the water into its
          C Calculating the water’s density
          D Dissolving sugar in the water
      February ’06 Exit Retest

   40 Which of these describes a chemical
           F Frost disappears from a window in
             the morning.
           G A decrease in temperature
              reduces the volume of a gas.
           H Soot is formed as a candle burns.
           J A cup of hot tea cools down.
    October’05 Exit Retest
   12 Limestone is a sedimentary rock consisting
        mostly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Which
        process is most likely to cause a chemical
        change to limestone?
       F Freezing water cracking limestone
       G Flowing water eroding a limestone
       H Acid rain forming puddles on limestone
       J Coastal waves dissolving limestone
  July’06 Exit Retest
14 In photography, which of these is an
   example of a chemical change?
     F Light being refracted by a camera lens
     G Adjusting a lens to focus light
     H Halide granules being activated by light
     J Allowing a certain wavelength of light
       into the camera
Physical Change
   A change in the form of a substance
    without changing the composition of
    the substance.
   Examples include forming gold into a
    necklace, cutting hair, and melting ice.
   They are not chemical changes.
      10th Grade, April’06

   18 Sheets of ice containing mostly pure water
       can be formed by decreasing the temperature
       of saltwater. Which of these best describes
       this change?
              F Chemical change
              G Physical change
              H Nuclear change
              J Atomic change
        Conservation of Mass
   Mass cannot be either created or destroyed.
   Problems may involve either:
       Balancing equations so you have the same number of
        atoms of each kind appear on each side of a balanced
        equation. Make a table listing each element and count
       Total number of atoms of each element of reactants =
        Total number of atoms of each element of products.
       Mass measurements in grams (g) or kilograms (kg)
        being the same for reactants and products. You add
        up all grams on one side of the equation and subtract to
        find the missing grams.
       Total grams of reactants =Total grams of products.
  10th Grade, April’06

  Carbon monoxide (CO) burns readily in
  oxygen (O2), forming carbon dioxide(CO2):

     __CO(g) + __O2(g)        __CO2(g)
9 What coefficient values will balance the
  reaction shown above?
     A 2, 2, 1
     B 1, 1, 1
     C 2, 1, 2
     D 1, 2, 2
         10th Grade, April’06

   40 In the procedure shown above, a calcium chloride solution is mixed
       with a sodium sulfate solution to create the products shown.
       Which of the following is illustrated by this activity?
                 F The law of conservation of mass
                 G The theory of thermal equilibrium
                 H The law of conservation of momentum
                 J The theory of covalent bonding
February’06 Exit Retest
                     20 Copper (Cu) and sulfur
                      (S) were heated in a covered
                      container. After the reaction
                      was complete, the unreacted
                      sulfur was removed. The
                      table contains the results of
                      the investigation. How much
                      sulfur, in grams, failed to
                      react with the copper? Record
                      and bubble in your answer to
                      the nearest hundredth on the
                      answer document.
July’06 Exit Retest
27 Which of these would support the idea that mass is
   conserved in a reaction that produces a gas as a
      A Heating the reactants to ensure the reaction
        occurs in a gaseous state
      B Subtracting the mass of the gas from the mass
        of the solid and liquid products
      C Mixing the reactants and measuring their total
      D Trapping the gas and measuring its mass
I. 9 Chemistry is a part of
        everyday life

   (A) Relate the structure of water to its
    function [as the universal solvent].
      Polar Nature of Water

   Water is a "polar" molecule,
    meaning that there is an
    uneven distribution of
    electron density. Water has a
    partial negative charge ( )
    near the oxygen atom due
    the unshared pairs of
    electrons, and partial positive
    charges ( ) near the
    hydrogen atoms.
            Water as a universal solvent
   An electrostatic attraction
    between the partial positive
    charge near the hydrogen
    atoms and the partial
    negative charge near the
    oxygen results in the
    formation of a hydrogen bond
    as shown in the illustration.
      The ability of ions and other
    molecules to dissolve in water
    is due to polarity.
    For example, in the
    illustration sodium chloride is
    shown in its crystalline form
    and dissolved in water.
Objective Five
   The student will demonstrate an
    understanding of motion, forces, and
I.4 Concepts of force and motion
    evident in everyday life.
(A) calculate speed, momentum,
    acceleration, work, and power in
    systems such as in the human body,
    moving toys, and machines.
   Speed = distance ÷ time; s = d/t
   The SI units of speed are meters per
    second (m/s)
   The speed formula is on the Formula
   Velocity = distance ÷ time, in a
    particular direction.
   Velocity = distance ÷ time + direction. v=d/t
   The SI units of velocity are meters per second;
   Other formulas you can use to solve velocity
    problems include acceleration, momentum,
    kinetic energy, velocity of a wave, and energy.
   All velocity formulas, execpt v=d/t, are on the
    Formula Chart.
         Velocity formulas
   v = d/ t
   If vi = 0, vf = a∆t          ∆t = tf – ti
       vi = initial velocity, vf = final velocity
       a = acceleration, t = time

   v = p/m    p = momentum, m=mass
   v = √2KE/m           KE = Kinetic Energy
   c = √E/m  c = speed of light = 3.0 x 108 m/s

   v = f λ, for sound and light waves in a
 July’06 Exit Retest
24 A 1-kilogram ball has a kinetic energy
 of 50 joules. The velocity of the ball is —
 F 5 m/s
 G 10 m/s
 H 25 m/s
 J 50 m/s
        July’06 Exit Retest

Car velocity = 6.3 m/s      Car velocity = 0 m/s        Car velocity = 0 m/s
Driver velocity = 6.3 m/s   Driver velocity = 6.3 m/s   Driver velocity = 0 m/s
Driver mass = 100 kg        Driver mass = 100 kg        Driver mass = 100 kg

20 The pictures show how an air bag functions in a collision. How much
   momentum in kg m/s does the air bag absorb from the crash-test
   dummy if all the crash-test dummy’s momentum is absorbed by the air
   bag? Record and bubble in your answer to the nearest whole number on
   the answer document.
          Solving # 20 July’06 Exit Retest
          Solving for momentum
   1st picture: The person is part      p=?
    of the car therefore has the         Givens:
    same velocity.                           vperson = 6.3 m/s,
                                             m = 100 kg
   2ndpicture: The car stops (an
    unbalanced force acted on it-        Formula
    wall, another car? F = ma,
    a=0), but the dummy keeps                P = mv
    going at the same velocity           Solve
    because it has inertia                   p = 100 kg x 6.3 m/s
                                             p = 630 kg m/s
   3rd picture: mass x velocity of
    dummy transferred to air bag.
July’06 Exit Retest
53 A 0.50 kg ball with a speed of 4.0 m/s
  strikes a stationary 1.0 kg target. If
  momentum is conserved, what is the total
  momentum of the ball and target after the
       A 0.0 kgm/s
       B 0.5 kgm/s
       C 1.0 kgm/s
       D 2.0 kgm/s
   A force is a push or a pull.
   Friction is a force that opposes forward
   Force = mass x acceleration; F=ma
   Net forces means adding all forces
    including the negative force
April’06 Exit Test

18 What is the net force exerted on a 90.0 kg
   race-car driver while the race car is
   accelerating from 0 to 44.7 m/s in 4.50 s?
     F 9.8 N
     G 20 N
     H 201 N
     J 894 N
Solving # 18 April’06 Exit Exam
Solving for force
   F=?                    Solve for a
   Givens:                    a= 44.7m/s - 0m/s
       m = 90.0 kg                / 4.50s
       vi = 0                 a= 9.93 m/s2
       vf = 44.7 m/s
        t = 4.50 s        Solve for F
   Formulas                   F = 90.0kg x 9.93
       a = vf-vi / t           m/s2
       F = ma                 F = 893.7 N ≈ 894 N
October’05 Exit Retest
7 A horizontal force of 600 N is used to push a
  box 8 m across a room. Which of these
  variables must be known to determine the
  power used in moving the box?
  A The weight of the box
  B The potential energy of the box
  C The time it takes to move the box
  D The length of the box
I.4 Concepts of force and motion
    evident in everyday life
   (B) Investigate and describe
    applications of Newton’s laws such as in
    vehicle restraints, sports activities,
    geological processes, and satellite orbits
   Inertia is the tendency to resist changes
    in motion.
   Once in motion, an object has a
    tendency to stay in motion and/or
   Once still, an object has a tendency to
    stay still.
   Example:
Newton’s Three Laws of Motion

   Law of Inertia
   Force= mass x acceleration
   For every action there is an equal and
    opposite reaction
Newton’s First Law of Motion
   Also known as the law of inertia
   An object that is still has a tendency to
    stay still and an object in motion has a
    tendency to stay in motion in a
    straight line path unless an
    unbalanced force acts upon it.
    Newton’s Second Law of Motion
   A force is equal to
    a mass that is
   The assumption is
    that forces (push
    or pull) are
       April’06 Exit Test

   32 Starting from rest at the center of a skating rink, two skaters push
    off from each other over a time period of 1.2 s. What is the force of
    the push by the smaller skater?
          F 16 N
          G 32 N
          H 88 N
          J 100 N
   To solve this problem:
       1st identify the question: F = ?
       2nd identify the smaller skater (girl with
        smaller mass, 40 kg.
     July’06 Exit Retest
8 A hockey player pushed a puck toward the opposite side of
  a level ice rink. The player expected the puck to continue
  all the way across the ice, but the puck slowed and
  stopped before reaching the other side. Which of these
  best explains why the puck failed to slide all the way to
  the opposite side?
  F The puck’s temperature changed.
  G An upward force acted on the puck.
  H The puck’s momentum remained unchanged.
  J An opposing force acted on the puck.
Newton’s Third Law of Motion

   For every action
    there is an equal
    and opposite
   Action = - Action
October’05 Exit Retest

    11 The picture above shows the directions in which
        water leaves this scallop’s shell. Which picture below
        shows the direction the scallop will move?
April’06 Exit Exam
52 When the air is released from a balloon, the air
   moves in one direction, and the balloon moves in
   another direction. Which statement does this
   situation best illustrate?
  F What goes up must come down.
  G For every action there is an equal and opposite
  H The shape and size of an object affect air
  J The acceleration due to Earth’s gravity is
         9.8 m/s 2.
I.4 Concepts of force and motion
    evident in everyday life

   (D) Investigate and demonstrate
        [mechanical advantage and]
        efficiency of various machines such
        as levers, motors, wheels and axles,
        pulleys, and ramps.
Six Simple Machines
   Lever
   Pulley
   Wheel & Axle
   Wedge
   Screw
   Ramp (Inclined
   April’06 Exit Test
29 Which of these
  represents a
  properly balanced
       April’06 Exit Exam
   22 Which configuration of pulleys and belts shown below
    will result in the fastest rotation of Spindle 2?
April’06 Exit Exam
I.5 Effects of waves on everyday life

    The assumption is that you know the
     properties of waves including:
        Wavelength, symbol λ
        Crest = top of wave
        Trough = bottom of wave
        Amplitude = height from origin
        Frequency = cycles per unit of time
        Velocity = wavelength x frequency, v=λf
   There are three types of
       Electromagnetic waves
       Mechanical waves
       Surface waves
   Electromagnetic waves do
    not need a medium to
    travel through, although they
    can travel through a medium.
   Mechanical and surface
    waves have to have a
    medium to travel through.
Electromagnetic Waves
   This is a general term for anything
    whether solid, liquid, or gas.
   Various materials = mediums
   For example, sound waves travel through air
    (gases), water (liquid), metal (solids).
   No medium = empty space, a vacuum, no
    atmosphere, like on the moon.
        Mechanical Waves
   Two types of
    mechanical waves
     Transverse waves
     Longitudinal

     or compressional
I.5 Effects of waves on everyday life

    (B) demonstrate wave interactions
     including interference, polarization,
     reflection, refraction, and resonance
     with various materials.
      July’06 Exit Retest

11. The diagram shows waves approaching a barrier.
    Which pattern will be formed after the waves
    pass through the opening in the barrier?
February’06 Exit Retest
   24 Diverging lenses are useful to people who
       suffer from nearsightedness because the
       lenses can cause images of distant objects to
       be focused on the retina. Lenses allow images
       to be focused on the retina because of —
         F diffusion
         G reflection
         H diffraction
         J refraction
   Polarized light waves
    are light waves in
    which the vibrations
    occur in a single
    plane. The process
    of transforming
    unpolarized light
    into polarized light is
    known as
 Consider the three pairs
 of sunglasses to the
 right. Which pair of
 glasses is capable of
 eliminating the glare
 from a road surface?
 Explain. (The
 polarization axes are
 shown by the straight
   Reflection occurs
    when parallel rays of
    light strike a smooth
   For reflection to occur,
    the angle of the
    incident ray
    (incoming) is the
    same as the angle of
    the reflected ray.
April’06 Exit Exam

                6 When a DVD is read, laser
                  light touches
                  the DVD surface and is
                  then measured at
                  location A. What allows
                  light to return to
                  location A after striking
                  the DVD surface?
                  F Conduction
                  G Refraction
                  H Magnification
                  J Reflection
   Refraction is the bending of light that occurs
    when light passes from one medium into a
    different medium.

   Resonance - when one object vibrating
    at the same natural frequency of a
    second object forces that second object
    into vibrational motion.
   The word resonance comes from Latin and
    means to "resound" - to sound out
    together with a loud sound.
    Resonance is a common cause of sound
    production in musical instruments.
   July’06 Exit Retest

39 A guitar player is seated next to a piano.
  The piano player strikes an E key on the
  piano. The guitarist reports that this causes
  the E string on his guitar to vibrate. What is the
  name of this phenomenon?
     A Polarization
     B Resonance
     C Reflection
     D Diffraction
April’06 Exit Test
17 An empty cup was tightly covered with plastic
   wrap, and a few grains of salt were sprinkled on top
   of the plastic. When a tuning fork was struck and
   placed slightly above the plastic wrap, the salt
   began to move. Which characteristic of waves does
   the movement of the salt best demonstrate?
       A Echo formation
       B Diffraction
       C Resonance
       D Specular reflection
I.6 Impact of energy transformations
     in everyday life

    (A) Describe the law of conservation of
Conservation of Energy
   When energy is
    changed from one form
    to another, energy is
    not created or
   Energy is conserved.
   The SI unit for energy is
    the joule, symbol J.
   For example, roller
    coasters work on
    converting potential
    energy to kinetic
Types of Energy & Formulas
   Kinetic Energy          KE = 1/2 mv2
   Gravitational           GPE = mgh
    Potential Energy
   Thermal (Heat)          Q = mCp∆t

   Electric Potential      V = IR
   Electrical Energy       E = Pt
    Gravitational Potential Energy
   Gravitational potential
    energy is the energy of
    position or arrangement.
   The higher the object ,
    the greater its potential
   The more massive an
    object is, the greater its
    potential energy.
   GPE = mgh
        m = mass
        g = gravity (9.8 m/s2)
        H = height
July’06 Exit Retest
             7 What is the approximate
               difference in gravitational
               potential energy of the two
               shaded boxes?
               A 19 J
               B 39 J
               C 59 J
               D 79 J
Kinetic Energy
   Kinetic Energy is
    energy of motion.
   KE = ½ mv2
I.6 Impact of energy transformations
     in everyday life

    (B) Investigate and demonstrate the
     movement of heat through solids,
     liquids, and gases by convection,
     conduction, and radiation.
3 Methods of Heat Transfer
   Conduction
   Convection
   Radiation
Conduction of Heat
   Transfer of heat
    by touch from
    molecule to
   Fire on the stove
    heats the pan.
   It is neither
    convection or
   The transfer of heat in fluids (liquids and
    gases) by currents.
   Rooms are heated by convection currents by
    forcing warm air in which moves up to the
    ceiling since it is less dense and pushing the
    cooler, denser air down and out the bottom
    of the door.
   It is neither conduction nor radiation.
   Method of heat transfer by
    electromagnetic waves
    including microwaves,
    infrared waves, light waves,
    ultraviolet waves, X-rays,
    and gamma waves.
   Food in the microwave oven
    is heated by radiation.
   It is not conduction or
10th Grade, April’06
February ’06 Exit Retest
10th Grade, April’06

   19 Which of these is the best example
      of heat transfer by radiation?
      A A satellite is warmed by sunlight.
      B Butter melts on warm bread.
      C A ceiling fan cools a warm room.
      D Puddles of water cool a warm tile
July’06 Exit Retest

   13 The transfer of heat by the
       movement of air currents in Earth’s
       atmosphere is an example of —
      A conduction
      B convection
      C radiation
      D fusion
I.6 Impact of energy transformations
     in everyday life

   (D) Investigate and compare economic
    and environmental impacts of using
    various energy sources such as
    rechargeable or disposable batteries
    and solar cells.
           Dry Cell
   The most common type of battery
     used today is the "dry cell" battery.
    There are many different types of
    batteries ranging from the relatively
    large "flashlight" batteries to the
    minaturized versions used for
    wristwatches or calculators.
    Although they vary widely in
    composition and form, they all
    work on the sample principle. A
    "dry-cell" battery is essentially
    comprised of a metal electrode
    or graphite rod (elemental carbon)
    surrounded by a moist electrolyte
    paste enclosed in a metal cylinder.
Rechargeable Batteries
   Rechargeable batteries are batteries that can be
    restored to full charge by the application of electrical
    energy. They come in many different designs using
    different chemistry. They are also called storage
    battery or secondary cell.

   One way to reduce the number of batteries in the
    waste stream is to purchase rechargeable
    batteries. Rechargeable batteries can be charged
    100's of times. Each recharging of a battery is one
    less required battery to purchase and dispose of.
       Disposable Batteries
   Batteries contain heavy metals
    such as mercury, lead, cadmium
    and nickel which can
    contaminate the environment
    when improperly disposed of.
   For example, the problem from
    lead (Pb) concentration is the
    accumulated use of Pb batteries.
   The highest concentrations of Pb
    are found in the vicinity of
    nonferrous and ferrous smelters,
    battery manufacturers, and
    other stationary sources of Pb
        Disposable Batteries-
   Health and Environmental Effects: Exposure to Pb occurs mainly
    through the inhalation of air and the ingestion of Pb in food, water,
    soil, or dust.
   It accumulates in the blood, bones, and soft tissues.
   Because it is not readily excreted, Pb can also adversely affect the
    kidneys, liver, nervous system, and other organs.
   Excessive exposure to Pb may cause neurological impairments
    such as seizures, mental retardation, and/or behavioral disorders.
   Even at low doses, Pb exposure is associated with damage to the
    nervous systems of fetuses and young children, resulting in learning
    deficits and lowered IQ.
   Recent studies also show that Pb may be a factor in high blood
    pressure and subsequent heart disease.
   Lead can also be deposited on the leaves of plants, presenting a
    hazard to grazing animals.
Disposal Batteries
          Photovoltic Cell

   A solar cell (or a
    "photovoltaic" cell) is a device
    that converts photons from
    the sun (solar light) into
    electricity. In general, a solar
    cell that includes the capacity
    to capture both solar and
    nonsolar sources of light (such
    as photons from incandescent
    bulbs) is termed a
    photovoltaic cell.
July ’06 Exit Retest
 19 Which of these devices uses the
    sun’s energy directly?
    A Windmill
    B Hydroelectric dam
    C Nuclear power plant
    D Photovoltaic cell
July’06 Exit Retest
28 A company has decided to market itself as
  environmentally friendly. If the company is
  going to sell calculators, the use of which
  energy source would produce the fewest
  by-products and the least waste?
     F Rechargeable batteries
     G Solar cells
     H Dry-cell batteries
     J Tesla coils
July’06 Exit Retest
9 Which of these is an advantage of producing
  electricity using solar power plants rather than using
  coal-fired power plants?
  A Solar power plants can operate for about 10 hours
     per day.
  B Solar power plants can produce variable amounts
    of energy.
  C Solar power plants produce fewer pollutants.
  D Solar power plants require continuous sunlight.
April’06 Exit Exam
37 Which of these produces most of the
   compounds responsible for causing acid
    A Nuclear fission
    B Fossil fuels
    C Solar cells
    D Windmills

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