Melody Tillyer September 30, 2011
Ms. Scott A.P. U.S. History, Per. 10
Cornelius Vanderbilt: built the New York Central Railroad
Jay Gould: speculator that went into the railroad business for quick profits and
made millions by selling of assets and watering stock.
J. Pierpont Morgan: bought Carnegie Steel from Andrew Carnegie in 1900;
United States Steel.
William Vanderbilt: Cornelius Vanderbilt’s son; inherited Vanderbilt empire;
Andrew Carnegie: started as a poor Scottish immigrant; became a superintendent
of a PA railroad in the 1850’s; started with steel in the 1870’s; used vertical
integration; sold Carnegie Steel in 1900 for $400+ million to a new steel company
run by J.P. Morgan; became a philanthropist.
John D. Rockefeller: founded Standard Oil Trust in 1863; retirement amounted to
Herbert Spencer: English social philosopher; most influential Social Darwinist;
“concluded that the concentration of wealth in the hands of the ‘fit’ was a benefit
to the future of the human race”
Russell Conwell: preached that everyone had a duty to become rich in his lecture,
“Acres of Diamonds”
Samuel F. B. Morse: invention of the workable telegraph in 1844; Morse Code.
Alexander Graham Bell: invention of the telephone in 1876.
George Westinghouse: inventor; had over 400 patents; invented: air-brake for
railroads (1869), transformer for producing high-voltage alternating current
Horatio Alger: author; each novel he wrote had a young man become rich and
successful; his concepts were debated as true or false.
Terence V. Powderly: leader of the Knights of Labor.
Samuel Gompers: leader of the American Federation of Labor from 1886-1924.
Eugene V. Debs: leader of the American Railroad Union; see “Pullman Strike
(1894)” and “In re Debs” for more details.
Jane Addams: started the most successful Settlement House in Chicago.
Carry A. Nation: raided saloons and caused violence; Antisaloon league.
Anthony Comstock: formed the Society for the Suppression of Vice “to be the
watchdog of American morals; passed the “Comstock Law” in 1873 which didn’t
allow the mailing/transportation of obscene/lewd material and photographs.
Oliver Wendell Holmes: believed the law should change with the times instead of
abiding by precedents.
W. E. B. Du Bois: black intellectual; first African American to get a doctorate
degree from Harvard; wanted equality for black people, integrated schools, “equal
access to higher education for the ‘talented tenth’ of African American youth.
Mark Twain: first great realist author; Huck Finn (1884) revealed the greed,
violence, and racism in American society.
Jack London: young writer and adventurer from California; showed the conflict
between nature and civilization.
James McNeill Whistler: American expatriate when he sailed to Europe at 21;
famous painting: Arrangement in Grey and Black (“Whistler’s Mother”);
influenced the development of modern art.
Mary Cassatt: learned impressionism in France.
Henry Hobson Richardson: changed the direction of American architecture; gave
gravity and stateliness to buildings.
Louis Sullivan: his buildings had a much-admired aesthetic unity, “in which the
form of a building flowed from its function.”
Daniel Burnham: brought back classical Greek and Roman architecture;
Columbian Exposition of 1893.
John Phillip Sousa: composed popular marches.
Jelly Roll Morton: African American musician; introduced jazz.
Panic of 1893: forced 25% of railroads into bankruptcy;
Second Industrial Revolution: after the Civil War; heavy industrial growth;
production of steel, petroleum, electric power, and industrial machinery to
produce other goods.
Antitrust Movement: the federal government banned monopolies; Sherman
Antitrust Act of 1890; United States v. E. C. Knight Co.
Railroad Strike of 1877: railroad companies had cut wages and a strike resulted;
11 states; shut down 2/3’s of the country’s rail trackage; railroad workers had the
support of about 500,000 workers from other industries; Hayes used federal
troops to end it; 100+ people were killed
Haymarket Bombing (1886): Chicago; police attempted to break up a meeting to
get an 8-hour work day, someone threw a bomb, killed 7 officers; anarchists were
tried for the crime but the bomber was never found.
Homestead Strike (1892): Henry Clay Frick, manager of Carnegie’s Homestead
Steel plant, started it by cutting wages by 20%; 5 months; Frick won; set back the
union movement in the steel industry until the New Deal in the 1930’s.
Pullman Strike (1894): George Pullman cut wages and fired the leaders of the
workers’ delegation; Eugene V. Debs wouldn’t let his workers handle Pullman
cars; federal court issued an injunction forbidding interference with the operation
of the mails and ordering railroad workers to abandon the boycott and the strike;
Deb and other union leaders were arrested and jailed, which ended the strike.
Social Gospel Movement: Protestant clergymen wanted justice for the poor;
stressed the importance of applying Christian principles to social problems.
Armory Show of 1913: had abstract, nonrepresentational paintings; wasn’t liked
by most Americans.
Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations: 1776; business should not be regulated by
government, it should be regulated by the “invisible hand” (impersonal economic
forces) of the law of supply and demand; appealed to Laissez-Faire; conservative.
Henry George, Progress and Poverty: thought a tax on land was a solution to
poverty; called attention to the inequalities of wealth that resulted from
Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward: envisioned a future without poverty, greed,
Joseph Pulitzer; New York World: first newspaper to exceed a million in
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890): banned any “contract, combination, in the form of
trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce.”
David Ricardo; Iron Law of Wages: argued raising wages randomly would only
increase the working population and then cause poverty in the long run; justified
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): banned any new immigrants from China.
Social Darwinism: Darwin’s idea of natural selection should be applied to
Survival of the Fittest: the best/strongest are the ones that survive, and the weak
Gospel of Wealth: basically the idea that wealth was given to someone by God’s
will (they have the divine right to their money).
Protestant Work Ethic: hard work and material success are signs of God’s favor.
Concentration of Wealth: by the 1890’s, the richest 10% of the population
controlled 90% of the nation’s wealth; millionaires flaunted their wealth with
huge mansions and parties.
Upward Mobility: movement into a higher economic bracket.
Middle Class: expanded as a result of industrialization; accountants, clerical
workers, salespersons, professionals, public employees, storekeepers, etc.;
increase in the number of good-paying jobs after the Civil War greatly increased
the income of the middle class.
Scab; Lockout; Blacklist; Yellow-Dog Contract; Injunction: unemployed people
desperate for jobs; closing the factory to break a labor movement before it could
get organized; names of prounion workers circulated among employers; workers
being told, as a condition for employment, that they must sign an agreement not to
join a union; court orders against strikes.
“Old” Immigrants: mainly Protestants; from northern and western Europe;
blended easily with rural American society in the early 1800’s.
“New” Immigrants: started in 1890’s; from southern and eastern Europe; poor and
illiterate; largely Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, and
Jewish; went to cities; many were “birds of passage”
Urbanization: life in the U.S. was becoming more focused on cities and big
business than farms and agriculture; agricultural societyindustrial society;
New York Central Railroad: went from NYC to Chicago; Cornelius Vanderbilt;
4500+ miles of track; 1867.
Trunk Line: the major route between cities; “consolidation of competing railroads
into integrated truck lines”; connected local lines.
Federal Land Grants: given to railroad companies; promoted hasty and poor
construction; led to corruption in all levels of government; were protested against
in the 1880’s.
Transcontinental Railroads: tied CA to the rest of the Union; Union Pacific built
westward from Omaha; Central Pacific built eastward from Sacramento; built by
the Chinese; came together on 5/10/1869; there were 4 other T.R.’s built before
1900 (Southern Pacific, Northern Pacific, the Atchison, Great Northern).
Union and Central Pacific: were the railroad companies that built the first
transcontinental railroad; Union was led by General Grenville Dodge and used
1000’s of war veterans and Irish immigrants; Central was led by Charles Crocker
and used 6000 Chinese immigrants.
Watered Stock: inflating the value of a corporation’s assets and profits before
selling its stock to the public.
Pools: a monopoly in which companies combine; wipes out competition.
Bessemer Process: blasting air through molten iron produced high-quality steel;
discovered by Henry Bessemer of England and William Kelly of the U.S. in the
Vertical Integration: a company buys out the companies that control every stage
of the industrial process.
U.S. Steel: J.P. Morgan; first billion-dollar company; largest enterprise in the
world; controlled over 3/5’s of the nation’s steel business.
Standard Oil Trust: founded by Rockefeller in 1863; controlled 90% of the oil
business by 1881; kept prices low; horizontal integration.
Horizontal Integration: former competitors are brought together into one giant
Laissez-Faire Capitalism: conservative economic theories (Social Darwinism,
Gospel of Wealth); free market; no monopolies; social classes; industrialization;
“the idea of government regulation of business was alien to the prevailing
economic, scientific, and religious beliefs of the late 19th century.”
Transatlantic Cable: Cyrus W. Field improved it in 1866; messages could be sent
across seas instantly.
Telephone: invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876.
Thomas A. Edison; Research Laboratory: success of early inventions (a machine
for recording votes, 1869) gave him the opportunity to create his lab in Menlo
Park, NJ; first modern research laboratory; possibly Edison’s most important
contribution to science and industry; 1000+ inventions came out of his lab
including the phonograph, the incandescent lamp, the dynamo for generating
electrical power, the mimeograph machine, and the video camera.
Consumer Goods: goods were made more available to consumers; stores were
becoming chains and were in towns and urban neighborhoods; products got
shipped to rural communities; packaged, brand-name foods became common
household products; advertising occurred; “going shopping” became a favorite
Sears, Roebuck; Montgomery Ward: large mail-order companies; used the
improved rail system to ship to rural customers.
White-Collar Workers: salaried workers whose jobs generally do not involve
National Labor Union: founded in 1866; goals were higher wages, 8-hour work
day, equal rights for women and blacks, monetary reform, and worker
cooperatives; biggest achievement was getting the 8-hour work day passed; lost
support after the depression of 1873 began.
Knights of Labor: began in 1869 as a secret society; Terence V. Powderly was the
leader; went public in 1881; wanted: worker cooperatives “to make each man his
own employer”, abolition of child labor, abolition of trusts and monopolies;
arbitration > strikes; declined after the Haymarket Riot.
American Federation of Labor: founded in 1886; led by Samuel Gompers from
1886-1924; wanted higher wages and better working conditions.
In re Debs: 1895; Supreme Court approved the use of court injunctions against
strikes; Debs was sentenced to 6 months in jail.
Ellis Island: immigration center; opened in 1892.
Ethnic Neighborhoods: over-crowded neighborhoods in which one immigrant
group would live in the same area to preserve their culture.
Tenements: over-crowded, unsanitary apartments usually lived in by immigrants.
Political Machine: a political party that dominates an area and tries to gain
support of the lower classes.
Party Boss: runs a political machine; would tell lower party members who to
target and such.
Settlement House: run by reformers (usually women); the most successful was
started by Jane Addams; many impoverished immigrants went here.
National American Women’s Suffrage Association: wanted to secure the vote for
women; founded partially by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.
Women’s Christian Temperance Union: 1874; wanted total abstinence from
alcohol; Frances E. Willard.
Antisaloon League: 1893; wanted prohibition; Carry A. Nation raided saloons.
Ashcan School: a group of social realists; painted everyday life in a poor urban
Chicago School: school of architecture; Sullivan’s building.
SUPREME COURT CASES
United States v. E. C. Knight: 1895; ruled that the Sherman Antitrust Act could
only apply to commerce.
2. CHAPTERS 24-25 OUTLINE (importance of the Brooklyn bridge, immigration
The federal government was giving railroads money to build and expand.
Union Pacific Railroad was started by Congress from Omaha westward.
Central Pacific Railroad started from Sacramento eastward.
Railroad Consolidation and Mechanization
o Cornelius Vanderbilt wanted to expand New York Central.
o Two important new improvements were the steel rail and the standard
o The Westinghouse air brake was also a great improvement.
o Pullman Cars (luxury cars) were introduced in the 1860’s.
Revolution by Railways
o The Transcontinental Railroad created a huge domestic market for
American raw materials and manufactured goods.
o Railroads sparked the other industries around the country to improve their
products too. It also increased immigration.
o Time zones resulted from the railroads.
Wrongdoing in Railroading
o Jay Gould used “stock watering”
o The railroad industry was corrupt (bribery, abuse of the public, etc).
o The millionaires thought they were above the law just because they had
Miracles of Mechanization
o New industries (oil, coal, steel, iron, etc) after the Civil War pushed the
U.S. to be first among the manufacturing nations of the word.
o The telephone and the light bulb were invented.
o Edison was the most versatile inventor (phonograph, mimeograph,
Dictaphone, video camera, and light bulb).
The Trust Titan Emerges
o Carnegie created “vertical integration.”
o Rockefeller used “horizontal integration” and the formation of a “trust.”
The Bessemer process brought about the popularity of steel during this time.
o Kelly and Bessemer “discovered that cold air blown on red-hot iron
caused the metal to become white-hot by igniting the carbon and thus
Morgan bought out Carnegie for $400 million. Carnegie then became a
philanthropist. Morgan used his new empire to make a huge, successful empire
that led to the first billion-dollar company.
The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 banned trusts.
The South in the Age of Industry
o The South produced much less in the industrial field than the North.
o Southern agriculture was boosted in the 1880’s because of new machines.
o The South remained largely agricultural.
o Railroads discriminated toward the South.
o Textile mills helped the South move toward industrialization.
Women were probably the most affected by the Industrial Revolution.
Urbanization was extremely unsanitary and there was a lot of crime.
Nativism emerged during this era.
o Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 was the first law to limit immigration.
o In 1885 Congress banned the importation of foreign workers under
o Old immigrants vs. new immigrants
Protestants started to become liberal.
Government supported high schools started to emerge.
Booker T. Washington wanted to get black people working in society and get
W. E. B. Du Bois was the first black man to earn a Ph. D. from Harvard
Morrill Act of 1862 provided a generous grant of the public lands to the states for
support of education. The Hatch Act of 1887 extended this, and provided federal
funds for the establishment of agricultural experiment stations in connection with
the land-grant colleges.
Sports, music, education, scandals, etc. became a bigger part of American culture.
This picture is really depressing. These children are no older than maybe 12 years
old, and they are covered in dirt, soot, and other filth from a long day’s work. Children
their age should be outside playing and laughing, not going to work in a factory where
the conditions are absolutely horrendous. If I were in this picture, whether I would be in
the background or wherever, I would probably see plenty of children just like the four
pictured here. It would probably smell terrible as a result of the unsanitary conditions of
the factories at this time, and it would be very loud. All and all, I think being in this
picture would be beyond-shocking.
This picture is of the tenement buildings that the immigrants lived in, and all I
have to say is wow. From what I’ve learned, I think it’s safe to assume that each
apartment only had one window. That means that on each floor there are at least 20
apartments. I cannot even imagine living in those conditions. If I were walking down the
street at the time of this picture, it would probably smell awful, as each floor only had
one bathroom; it would reek of garbage because people would just throw their trash on
the street. I would see tired, worn-down men, women, and children alike returning from a
hard day at the factory. It’s so hard to even imagine what these people went through.