Cement Industry Energy Efficiency and Benchmarking

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					Cement Industry Energy Efficiency and Benchmarking
Presentation for the China Building Materials Academy Delegation Visit to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory October 1, 2007 Berkeley • California

Lynn Price Energy Analysis Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 美国劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室 环境能源技术处 能源分析室

美国EPA工业能源之星 U.S. EPA Energy Star for Industry
• 美国政府部门的自愿项目,旨在通过提高能效,帮助生产商保护环境 Voluntary U.S. government program that helps manufacturers protect the environment through superior energy efficiency 超过450合作公司,涉及工业各个领域 Over 450 partner companies in a wide range of industries 为能源管理者提供能源管理信息 Provides energy management resources for energy managers 促进信息共享、网络和共识 Promotes sharing of ideas, networking & recognition 能源指南-为企业和能源管理者提供技术评价报告 Energy Guidebooks - technical opportunities assessment report for plant and energy managers 企业能源性能指标,以同能效进行对标 Energy performance indicator for enterprises to ―benchmark‖ energy efficiency

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美国EPA工业能源之星-能源指南 U.S. EPA Energy Star for Industry - Energy Guides
• • • • 工业概况 Industry overview 工艺描述 Process description 能耗概要 Energy use summary 提高能效机会 Energy efficiency opportunities
— 技术或实践的简要概述 Brief overview of technology or practice — 应用的局限性(如果有) Limitations on applicability (if any) — 典型的节能量 Typical energy savings — 典型的简单回收期 Typical simple payback period — 工业实际应用的案例数据 Case study data from real-world industrial applications — 出版物未来信息的参考 References to further information in the public domain
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=industry.bus_industry
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China-US Bilateral Cooperation on Persistent Organic Pollutants
• China ratified Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in 2004 • EPA signed Memorandum of Understanding with SEPA December 2003 • Comprehensive management of dioxins/furans from cement kilns • Goal: Reduce emissions of dioxins/furans from cement kilns — Accurate emissions factors for rotary and vertical shaft kilns — Source inventory of dioxins/furans from cement kilns in pilot provinces — China's National Implementation Plan (NIP) for reducing dioxins/furans emissions from cement production — Financing mechanisms and incentives for private sector investment to improve combustion efficiency and control particulate emissions from cement kilns • Dioxin/furan sampling from 8 Chinese cement kilns in 2006

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China-US Bilateral Cooperation on Persistent Organic Pollutants
Sampling Sites
Kiln # Province Kiln Type Production Volume (t/y) APCD 1 Shandong 2 Shandong 3 Shandong VSK 150,000 4 Henan PH/PC dry 1.5 M 5 Hebei VSK 135,000 6 Xinjiang VSK 100,000 7 Xinjiang Dry 700,000 8 Xinjiang Wet 200,000

5 stage PH/PC dry VSK 1.55 M

ESP

FF

FF

FF

Water spray

FF

ESP

ESP

Preliminary Results
Pollutant Unit Emission Factors (based on tests of 5 Chinese kilns) Small Vertical Shaft Large Rotary Dry Chinese Emission Standards Existing Units PCDDs/PCDFs
1

U.S. Kilns 2

New Units

ng TEQ/m3

0.041 - 1.591

0.035 - 0.518

0.1 ng TEQ/m3 0.1 ng TEQ/m3 ≥ 0.0163

1Polychlorinated 2Based

dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, in nanogram toxic equivalence (TEQ). on industry-wide emissions from the national emissions inventory. 3This is based on the regulatory limit. It is assumed all kilns are below this limit.

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China-US Bilateral Cooperation on Persistent Organic Pollutants
• Energy audit of 2 cement kilns in Shandong Province, September 2007 — US EPA/SEPA organized — LBNL and DOE energy expert participated — Significant technical assistance from CBMA Goal is to improve kiln combustion efficiency in order to reduce formation of dioxins and furans Energy efficiency recommendations will be provided to each cement plant Emissions testing repeated following energy efficiency retrofits

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Significant Technical Assistance from CBMA

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提高水泥窑能效的投资机遇
Investment Opportunities for Improving Cement Kiln Energy Efficiency

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LBNL受美国环保署和亚洲发展银行委托作的 报告 Report prepared by LBNL at request of U.S. EPA and the Asian Development Bank 基于国际和国内的案例资料 Relied on both international and Chinaspecific case study information 得到中国建材工业技术情报研究所的大力帮助 Significant assistance from the Institute of Technical Information for Building Materials Industry of China 报告正在评审中—中国建材研究院的汪澜教授 提供了帮助 Report now being reviewed – assistance provided by Prof. Wang Lan of China Building Materials Academy

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提高水泥窑能效的投资机遇
Investment Opportunities for Improving Cement Kiln Energy Efficiency
• 大量的文献调查 Extensive literature search — 技术文献:报告,杂志文章 Technical literature: reports, journal articles — 贸易杂志 Trade journals — 工厂-特定数据 Plant-specific data • 案例研究 Case studies • 调查 Surveys 每样技术都有以下信息 For each technology, the following information is provided: — 成本 ($/t) Capital costs ($/t) — 运行和维修成本 Operations and maintenance costs ($/t) — 投资回收期 (年) Simple payback period (years) — 节约燃料量 Fuel savings (GJ/t) — 节电量 Electricity savings (kWh/t) — 二氧化碳减排量 CO2 savings (kgC/t) — 措施年数(年) Lifetime of measure (years)

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提高水泥窑能效的投资机遇
Investment Opportunities for Improving Cement Kiln Energy Efficiency
22 options evaluated评估过的选项:
Improved refractories 改良的耐火材料 Energy management & process control 能源管理和过程控制 Convert VSK to NS preheater/precalciner 把VSK 改成 NS 型预热器/预分解炉 Long dry kiln upgrade to preheater/precalciner 长干窑改良为预热器/预分解炉 Preheater kiln upgrade to precalciner 预热器改良为预分解炉 Old dry kiln upgrade to multi-stage preheater 旧干窑改良为多级预热器 Convert to reciprocating grate cooler 改良为往复炉篦冷却器 Kiln combustion system improvements 改进窑燃烧 系统 Indirect firing 间接烧窑 Optimize heat recovery/upgrade clinker cooler 优化废热利用/改良熟料冷却器 Seal replacement 密封体替换
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Low temperature heat recovery for power 低温废热发电 High temperature heat recovery for power 高温废热发电 Low pressure drop cyclones 低压降旋流器 Efficient kiln drives 更高效的窑驱动器 Kiln shell heat loss reduction 减少窑壁热损失 Adjustable speed drive for kiln fan 窑鼓风机可变速驱动器 Blended cements 混合水泥 Use of waste-derived fuels Limestone cement Low alkali cement 低碱水泥 Use of steel slag 钢渣利用 废料利用

石灰石水泥

提高水泥窑能效的投资机遇
Investment Opportunities for Improving Cement Kiln Energy Efficiency
初期结果 Preliminary findings: • 在22种能用来改造和更新旧的能效低的水泥窑的措施和技术中 Of the 22 technologies or measures that can be used to retrofit or to replace old, inefficient cement kilns to improve their energy efficiency: — 大部分技术和措施能减少燃料消费或电力消费,其他的可以同时减少燃 料和电力消费 Most of the technologies and measures reduce fuel consumption, while some reduce electricity consumption and others reduce both — 14种技术和措施能在三年或更少的时间能回收投资 14 of the evaluated technologies and measures have simple payback periods of three years or less • 报告还在审查阶段 Report is still in review process

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对标 Benchmarking
• 对标是用于评估设备或企业绩效(资金、生产、能源)的一种普遍性方法 Benchmarking is a common way to evaluate facility or company performance: financial, production, energy, etc. 全球已经开发了一定数量的工业节能项目的节能对标工具 Energy efficiency benchmarking tools have been developed for use in a number of industrial energy efficiency programs around the world 节能对标的不同类型 Various types of energy efficiency benchmarking: — 与同行对比 Peer to peer — 定期自我对比 Self performance over time

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— 与国家或地区平均或最佳实践对比 Self performance to national or regional average and best practice
— 与国际最佳实践对比 Self performance to international best practice 不同类型的优缺点 Advantages and disadvantages to all types

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美国EPA工业能源之星 U.S. EPA Energy Star for Industry

Energy Performance Indicator (EPI) 能效指标 • 在美国同等企业规模范围内,就企业的能效情况进行排队 Ranks an enterprise’s energy performance within the US industry normalized to the enterprise’s configuration 将企业与美国平均和“高效”(即所有工厂中75%节能的)的工厂进行 对标,美国所有工厂的能效 Benchmarks the enterprise to the average and ―efficient‖ plants in the U.S., where efficiency is defined as the 75th percentile of all plants

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工厂经理输入工厂的运行数据,即得出一个能效等级 Plant managers input key plant operating data to receive an energy efficiency rating

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美国EPA工业能源之星 U.S. EPA Energy Star for Industry
• • 基于美国的普查数据 Based on US Census data 同时也基于产品产量或基于企业管理者不可控制的其他因素, 例如: Also based on product outputs or other factors beyond control of plant manager, for example: — 产品具体类型或结构 Specific type or mixture of products — 同能耗相关联的其他因素,例如:工时,气候 Other factors that correlate with energy use, e.g. labor hours, weather • 为改进和监督进度设定目标 Used to set goals for improvement and monitor progress

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成为为企业授“能源之星”标识的依据 Basis for awarding the ENERGY STAR label for a plant
已经提出了水泥、谷物磨制、汽车制造业的能效指标 EPIs have been developed for the cement, corn milling, and automobile manufacturing industries

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对标和节能工具 (BEST) BEST: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool
• BEST为每个设备提供了对标的核心,以表明在能效方面同国际最佳实践的距离 BEST provides a benchmark score for each facility indicating its distance from international best practice in terms of energy 只比对能源情况,其他变量不变 Compares only energy to best practices, keeping other variables the same. — 例如:最佳实践的水泥企业生产量同等,同样标号的水泥,使用同样的原 材料,但使用高效技术。 For example for cement, the best practice enterprise produces the same amount of cement, the same grades of cement and uses the same input raw materials but it (or they) uses the most efficient energy technologies to do so • BEST制定提高能效计划和目标制定 BEST allows for development of an efficiency improvement plan and target-setting

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BEST

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的能效指数 Energy Intensity Index (EII)

EII  100 

 P  EI
i 1 i

i 1 n

 P  EI
i

n

i

 100 

Etot

i , BP

 P  EI
i 1 i

n

i , BP

EII n EIi EIi,BP Pi Etot

= energy intensity index 能效指数 = number of products to be aggregated累计产品数量 = actual energy intensity for product I 产品l实际能耗 = best practice energy intensity for product i产品i最佳能耗 = production quantity for product i.产品i质量 = total actual energy consumption for all products 所有产品的实践总能耗

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水泥行业实例:设定边界 Cement Industry Example: Defining Boundaries

准备添加剂 Preparing Additives
(gypsum, fly ash, etc.)
prepared additives

Quarrying & Mining Materials
raw materials

准备燃料 Preparing Fuels
fuels

干燥 Drying Additives

dried additives

Raw Materials Preparation

Raw meal

熟料烧成 Clinker Making

clinker

水泥磨 Finish Grinding

水泥
cement

水泥业分析边界实例
Example boundary of analysis for cement
Bagging and/or Bulk Transport

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水泥行业实例:输入表格 Cement Industry Example: Input Sheet

生产数据 Production Data • 原材料的投入Raw materials input (t/year) • 石灰石Limestone • 添加剂种类Additives by type • 窑型 Kiln Type • 熟料产量 Clinker output (t/year) • 水泥产量 Cement output by type (t/year) • 水泥型号 Grades of cement

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水泥行业实例:输入表格 Cement Industry Example: Input Sheet
能源数据 Energy Data • 年燃料消耗 Fuel consumed per year (tce/year or kWh/year) • 煤、焦炭、生物质 Coal, coke, biomass (tce/year) • 电力 Electricity (kWh/year) • 其他 Other • 工序用能 By process step • 原料准备Raw material preparation (quarrying, conveying, prehomogenization, proportioning, limestone preparation, additives preparation, additive drying, fuel preparation, homogenization) • 熟料烧成 Clinker making (preheaters, precalciners, kiln, cooler) • 水泥磨 Finish grinding • 其他(运输、辅助、包装、非生产用能) Other (other conveying, auxiliaries, packaging, non-production energy use) • 年燃料成本 Cost of fuel per year (yuan/kWh or yuan/tce)

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水泥行业实例:假设的对标 Cement Industry Example: Hypothetical Benchmarking
离最佳实践的距离 Distance from best practice
Energy Intensity Index (EII)

137
BEST PRACTICE = 100

Summary Data
Electricity Consumption (kWh/year) Fuel Consumption (kgce/year) Final (site) Energy Consumption (kgce/year) Primary Energy Consumption (kgce/year) Energy Intensity (kgce/tonne cement produced)

Your Enterprise
18,741,000 13,950,000 16,253,269 21,501,701 172

Reference Enterprise
13,905,108 10,110,922 11,819,859 15,713,996 126

Potential for Efficiency
4,835,892 3,839,078 4,433,410 5,787,705 46

Potential Cost Reduction ($/year)
$270,810 $268,735 $539,545

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假设的对标结果 Hypothetical Benchmarking Results
能效指数 Energy Intensity Index (EII)

450 400 350 300 250 200

Indicates technical potential 表明技术潜力

150
100 50 0 Raw Materials Preparation Clinker Production Cement Grinding Total Plant International Best Practice 国际最佳实践

全厂

原料制备 熟料生产 实践能效指数 Actual energy intensity index (EII)

水泥研磨

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对标和节能工具 (BEST) BEST: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool

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不仅提供对标的核心为目标的制定和能源管理提供进一步的能效菜单 Provides not only benchmarking score BUT ALSO provides additional energy efficiency menu for target setting and energy management — 低成本和易评价的潜力 Allows low-cost and easy evaluation of potential
BEST制定提高能效计划和目标制定 In this way, BEST allows for development of an efficiency improvement plan and target-setting

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BEST

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节能机会 Energy Efficiency Opportunities
• 可实施的能效或减排措施清单 Extensive menu of energy-efficiency or carbon emission reduction measures that could be implemented — 跨行业:电机系统、风机、空压机、照明 Cross-cutting: motor systems, fans, compressed air, lighting — 同工艺相关:所有主要的工艺(窑炉升级,混磨) Process-related: all major process technologies (kiln upgrades, blending)
• 措施 Each measure — 产品单耗(熟料或水泥) Typical energy savings per ton product (clinker or cement) — 实施成本 Cost of implementation — 投资回收期 Typical payback period • 一旦实施方案选定,BEST计算企业新的潜力 Once options for implementation are selected, BEST calculates new, potential EII for plant
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水泥行业能效措施初步清单
Preliminary List of Energy Efficiency Options for the Cement Industry
Clinker Production (Wet) Energy management and process control Seal replacement Kiln combustion system improvements Kiln shell heat loss reduction Use of waste fuels Conversion to modern grate cooler Refractories Optimize grate coolers Conversion to pre-heater, pre-calciner kilns Conversion to semi-dry kiln (slurry drier) Conversion to semi-wet kiln Efficient kiln drives Oxygen enrichment Clinker Production (Dry) Energy management and process control Seal replacement Kiln combustion system improvements Kiln shell heat loss reduction Use of waste fuels Conversion to modern grate cooler Refractories Heat recovery for power generation Low pressure drop cyclones for suspension pre-heaters Optimize grate coolers Addition of pre-calciner to pre-heater kiln Long dry kiln conversion to multi-stage pre-heater kiln Long dry kiln conversion to multi-stage pre-heater, pre-calciner kiln Efficient kiln drives Oxygen enrichment Finish Grinding Energy management and process control Improved grinding media (ball mills) High-pressure roller press High efficiency classifiers

Raw Materials Preparation Efficient transport systems (dry process) Slurry blending and homogenization (wet process) Raw meal blending systems (dry process) Conversion to closed circuit wash mill (wet process) Highefficiency roller mills (dry process) High-efficiency classifiers (dry process) Fuel Preparation: Roller mills General Measures Preventative maintenance High efficiency motors Efficient fans with variable speed drives Optimization of compressed air systems Efficient lighting
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Product & Feedstock Changes Blended Cements Limestone cement Low Alkali cement Use of steel slag in kiln (CemStar®) Reducing fineness of cement for selected uses

假设对标结果 Hypothetical Benchmarking Results
能效指标Energy Intensity Index (EII)

450 400 350

300
250 200 150 100 50 0 Raw Materials Preparation Clinker Production

Indicates technical potential 表明技术潜力

International Best Practice

国际最佳实践
Cement Grinding Total Plant

全厂

原料备制

熟了生产 Actual energy intensity index (EII)

水泥磨制

实践能效指标

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假设对标结果 Hypothetical Benchmarking Results
能效指数Energy Intensity Index (EII)

450 400 350 300 250 200

Indicates technical potential 表明技术潜力

150
100 50 0 Raw Materials Preparation Clinker Production Cement Grinding Total Plant International Best Practice

国际最佳实践

全厂

原料备制 熟料生产 Actual energy intensity index (EII)实践能效潜力

水泥磨制

Potential energy intensity index (EII)能效潜力指数

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Next Steps
• • 发布中文的水泥行业能效指南 Publication of Energy Efficiency Guide for Cement in Chinese 完成提高水泥窑的能效的投资机会报告 Completion of Investment Opportunities for Improving Cement Kiln Energy Efficiency 为中国水泥能效技术和措施增加投资成本和绩效等信息 Incorporation of cost and performance information for Chinese cement energy efficiency technologies and measures 完成中国最佳水泥工具的开发 Completion of BEST-Cement for China

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联系信息 For further information
LBNL Industrial End Use Analysis Website: http://industrial-energy.lbl.gov/ LBNL China Group Website: http://china.lbl.gov BEST Website: http://industrial-energy.lbl.gov/node/100 Publications: http://industrial-energy.lbl.gov/publications

• Lynn Price (LKPrice@lbl.gov) • Christina Galitsky (CGalitsky@lbl.gov)

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