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Structural Designs that Accelerate Corrosion

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					Confined Space Safety

Presented by: Allan DeLange, CL Coatings, LLC
Introduction
• This webinar is being presented to issue
  guidance addressing the hazards and
  controls for surface preparation and
  coating application in confined spaces.
Learning Outcomes
• At the end of this webinar,
  you will be able to:
  – Identify confined space industry
    standards
  – Define a confined space
  – Recognize hazards in a Permit
    Required Confined Space (PRCS)
  – Define methods for control and
    elimination of hazards in a Permit
    Required Confined Space (PRCS)
  – Become familiar with the elements of a
    Permit-Required Confined Space
    Program
Introduction

• Note: This webinar is not a substitute for:
          - A confined space safety plan
          - A confined space training course
          - A OSHA regulation on confined
            space
Confined Space Industry
Standards
• During the webinar reference will be made
  to the following industry standards:
  – OSHA’s General Industry Standard 29 CFR
    1910.146 Permit Required Confined Spaces
  – OSHA’s Safety and Health Regulations for
    Construction 29 CFR 1926
    • OSHA is working on a proposed rule on confined
      spaces more specific to construction as part of its
      upcoming revision
What is a Confined Space?
• An area being large enough
  and so configured that an
  employee can enter and
  perform assigned work;
  having limited or restricted
  means for entry; and not
  designed for continuous
  occupancy
Examples of PRCSs
• Some examples of PRCSs commonly
  encountered in industrial and marine
  coating operation include:
  – Interiors of storage tanks
  – Silos
  – Ship holds
  – Boilers
  – Penstocks
Examples of PRCSs
Examples of PRCSs
Examples of PRCSs
Hazards of Confined Spaces
• Confined Spaces can be Deadly
• Some Confined Spaces are more Hazardous
  than others
• Confined Space Conditions can change
  rapidly
• Hazards can often be eliminated or controlled
  before entry
• Surface Preparation and Coating Application
  Hazards usually require a written Permit
  System for Entry
Main Hazards
•   Oxygen Deficiency
•   Hazardous Atmospheres
•   Abrasive Blasting & Waterjetting
•   Toxic Materials (Coatings)
•   Moving Parts
•   Electricity
•   Physical Hazards (Heights)
Hazardous Atmospheres
• A “hazardous atmosphere” in a confined
  space has one or more of the following:
  – Flammable gas, mist or vapor
  – Flammable Dust
  – Oxygen content below 19.5% or above 23.5%
  – Air contaminant concentrations that would
    cause death, incapacitation or permanent
    health problems
  – IDLH atmosphere
Fire and Explosion Hazard
• Flammable gases, vapors or dusts will
  ignite from a spark or flame if above the
  “Lower flammable limit” (LFL)
• Gas or vapor levels higher than 10% of the
  LFL are considered hazardous and the
  confined space cannot be entered until
  levels are reduced
Engulfment / Entrapment
• Engulfing materials include liquids or loose
  solids such as grain, sand or other granular
  material.
• Entrapment can occur in a space
  configured in a way that can trap a worker,
  for example, sides sloping towards the
  center.
Toxic Materials
• The most common toxic chemicals in
  confined space fatalities are hydrogen sulfide
  and carbon monoxide.
• Other toxic chemicals can include welding
  fumes, vapors from chemical residues or
  chemical products used in the confined space.
• Chemicals can quickly reach toxic levels in the
  air of a confined space, especially gases,
  solvent vapors or sprayed products.
Other Recognized Hazards
• Electrical lines, steam lines, or hydraulic
  lines
• Mechanical hazards (moving parts)
• Hazards caused by work operations
  – Welding
  – Abrasive Blasting
  – Waterjetting
  – Spray Painting
Entry Permits are Required:
• When there is an actual or potential
  Hazardous Atmosphere, or
• When the space contains loose material
  that can engulf a person, or
• When the space is configured in a way that
  can trap a person, or
• When there is any other recognized serious
  safety and health hazard
Permit Required Confined
Space
• Whenever a hazard is present in the
  confined space, it should be considered a
  permit-required confined space (PRCS)
 Confined Space Entry
 Program
• Establish and implement a written confined
  space entry program that is reviewed annually.
• Ensure all field personnel are trained in every
  aspect of each project-specific confined space
  safety plan, including the rescue plan and each
  person’s role in the event that the plan has to
  be implemented.
Permit Required
Confined Space Program
•   Identify the space
•   Identify the hazards
•   Eliminate or control the hazards
•   Isolate & control the space
•   Pre-entry verification
Permit Required
Confined Space Program
• Permit preparation, authorization &
  cancellation
• Safe work practices
• Emergency Response / Rescue Services
• Training
        Confined Space Permit
              Elements
•   Identity of Space
•   Purpose of Entry
•   Date and Duration
•   Supervisor, Entrants & Attendants
•   Hazards of the space
•   Means to isolate & control space
•   Acceptable entry conditions
       Confined Space Permit
          Elements cont.
• Rescue & emergency services
• Communication methods
• Safety, communication, rescue & PPE
  equipment required
• Atmospheric test results
• Authorization, release for entry, suspension
  and cancellation
Planning for Confined Space
Entry
            • Before beginning
              work, a job safety
              analysis (JSA)
              should be performed
              taking into
              consideration the
              equipment and
              materials to be used
Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
• Proper completion of a JSA, listing
  planned activities, identifying all potential
  hazards of a confined space entry and
  establishing the means to control the
  hazards and eliminate accidents is an
  excellent way to prepare for confined
  space entry and completion of an entry
  permit.
Hazard Control
• Hazardous Atmospheres
  – Drain or pump out liquid contents
  – Blank off, double block & bleed all in-feeding
    lines
  – Air test and ventilate
  – Continue ventilation during entry
  – Exit space if conditions deteriorate
  – Use non-sparking tools where feasible
Hazard Control
• Lock Out / Tag Out
  – Identify all potential energy sources
  – Comply with client operating procedures
  – Lock out / tag out energy isolating devices
  – Walk down all isolation points prior to each shift
  – Verify “Lock Out” of operating equipment
    (witness bump test)
Entry Control
•   Post Warning Signs
•   Limit access by using entry barriers or locks
•   Prevent entry by unauthorized workers
•   Holes and openings must be closed or
    guarded when not attended
Pre-Entry
• Complete pre-entry briefing for all planned
  entrants and attendants
• Complete pre-entry testing for air quality
• Verify isolation of the confined space
• Confirm required pre-entry requirements
  and availability of all permit required
  materials and equipment
Ventilation
•   Engineered Supply & Exhaust
•   Cross ventilation – circulation
•   Breathing zone issues
•   Source of ventilation
•   Point of exhaust
Monitoring Confined Spaces
• Confined spaces should always be
  monitored for hazardous atmospheres
  both prior to entry and continuously in
  areas where work is being performed
Air Monitoring
• Required prior to and during confined
  space entry
• Monitor for O2, LEL, CO, H2S, SO2
• Monitors must have current calibrations
• Results must be documented
Personal Protective
Equipment (PPE)
•   All required PPE per entry permit
•   Respiratory protection
•   Eye protection, hearing protection
•   Protective clothing, gloves & footwear
•   Fire retardant clothing - Chemical suits
•   Fall protection
•   Harness (& lifeline) to facilitate rescue
Lifelines
• Examine the workspace for snags and
  equipment and tool placement that could
  make retrieval difficult
• If obstructions render lifelines unusable,
  require entrants to wear the harnesses
  regardless to facilitate rescue
Communication
• A means of communication must be
  provided between the attendant and
  entrants
  – 2 way radio systems
  – Air Horns
  – Audible and/or visual direct contact
  – Signaling protocols
  – Lifelines
  – Alarm systems
Hazardous Materials
• Try to substitute less hazardous materials
• Use paints and solvents with flash points
  above 100F
• Minimize the total amount of hazardous
  materials within a confined space at any
  time
Electrical Systems
• GFCIs and Assured Grounding Program
• Ground and bond containers when
  transferring liquids
• Electrically ground coating spray systems
• Electrically ground blowers and duct work
• Explosion proof electrical and lighting
  systems are required when flammable
  atmospheres may be present.
Entry Supervisor
• The person (such as a foreman), trained,
  competent, and responsible for determining
  if acceptable entry conditions are present at
  a permit space where entry is planned, for
  authorizing entry and overseeing entry
  operations, and for terminating entry.

             REVIEW THE JSA!
Entry Supervisor Duties
• The Entry Supervisor has TOTAL Responsibility
  for the Confined Space and must:
  ‾ Pre-entry briefing on the confined space
  ‾ Know the hazards in the confined space
  ‾ Verify testing and confirm equipment availability before
      endorsing permits
  ‾ Terminate entry and cancel permits as needed
  ‾ Verify that a rescue team is available
  ‾ Remove unauthorized personnel
  ‾ Determine that operations are consistent with the
    terms of the permit and JSA
Confined Space Attendant
• An individual stationed outside one or
  more permit required confined spaces
  who monitors the authorized entrants
  and who is trained to perform all
  attendants duties assigned per the
  Confined Space Entry Program.
• Mandatory for PRCS.
Duties of the Attendant
• The Attendant must:
  ‾ Know the hazards in the confined space
  ‾ Be aware of the behavioral effects of
    exposure
  ‾ Maintain an accurate count of entrants
  ‾ Remain outside until relieved by another
    attendant
  ‾ Monitor activities in confined space and order
    an evacuation if necessary
Duties of the Attendant
• The Attendant must:
  ‾ Monitor activities in confined space and order
    an evacuation if necessary
  ‾ Summon rescue team when necessary
  ‾ Prohibit unauthorized entry
  ‾ Perform non-entry rescue if necessary
  ‾ Perform no other duties
Authorized Entrant
• An employee who is authorized and
  trained by the Company or an approved
  third party, to enter a permit space.
Duties of the Entrant
• The entrant is authorized by the entry permit to
  enter the confined space.

The entrant must:
  • Know the hazards faced during entry
  • Properly use the required equipment
  • Communicate with the attendant
  • Alert attendant of possible exposure or changes in
    conditions
  • Exit the space quickly when conditions warrant
Confined Space Rescue
• A means must be provided for both safe
  normal entry or exit , and emergency
  extrication. Tripods with hoist, lifeline, and
  full body harness are often used for
  emergency extrication. Ladders may be
  used for ordinary entry and exit.
Confined Space Rescue Team
• Rescue and emergency services must be
  available for Permit Required Confined Spaces
• The personnel designated to rescue employees
  from permit spaces, may be employees
  specifically trained for confined space rescue,
  client site services, local paid or volunteer fire
  department, or other trained services
Confined Space Rescue
• Require that confined space rescue team
  be readily available for call out within 5
  minutes at the permit spaces
Outside Rescue Service
• Visit the closest fire station
  and provide the Chief with a
  briefing about the job,
  including all entries.
• Give the Chief a copy of all
  MSDSs.
• Have a site visit with the fire
  Chief to review the entry
  permit and work site.
Training
• Employers are required to certify that
  all employees, including attendants,
  entrants and entry supervisors, have
  been properly trained for permit space
  operations.
• Rescue and emergency service
  providers must receive special training
  and practice permit space rescues
  annually
Summary
• Accepted industry practices and regulatory
  requirements should be implemented prior
  to and during all surface preparation and
  coating application operations in confined
  space which may create a hazardous
  atmosphere
Conclusion
• This concludes our webinar for today.
  Please join us for our next webinar, April
  13th at 11am EST on Common Legal
  Problems in Coating Work and How to
  Stay Out of Court

				
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