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					Discursive Constructions of terrorism
  in The People’s Daily and The Sun
         before and after 9.11



             Yufang Qian
          Lancaster University
           (qianyf@yahoo.com)
             13th March, 2008
   Corpora used in this research
Corpora    News sources        Time periods        Files     Tokens


 PTC      People’s Daily    Jan 2000 – June 2002    30      825,328



 STC         The Sun        Jan 2000 – June 2002    30      1,228,287


           Xinhua News
 CGC                        Jan 2000 - June 2002    30     64,060,728
              Agency

          Associate Press
 EGC                        Jan 2000 – June 2002    30     232,923,328
           Worldstream

                                                                      2
The newspapers with highest readerships in
        both China and in the UK

• The People’s Daily
  Chinese broadsheet, with a circulation of 3 to 4
  million; official newspaper of CPC
• The Sun
  English tabloid, standing at around 3,200,000
  copies daily; run by Rupert Murdoch’s News
  corporation



                                                     3
Corpus analytical techniques:
  –   frequency
  –   keyword
  –   clusters
  –   collocations
  –   concordances
  – discourse prosodies.

Corpus Analysis Tool:
  – Wordsmith Tools 4 (Scott 2004)


                                     4
          Collocational network
•   Borrowed similar technique from
    McEnery (2005) & Baker (2005)
•   Basic criteria for creation of collocational networks in
    this study:
     –   Calculating MI scores in WS for the word terrorists (in each
         of the three subdivisions in the STC and the PTC
     –   The lexical words in the strongest 20 collocates of terrorists
         in the PTC while the strongest 50 collocates in the STC
     –   Second order of collocates and ‘dead end’ collocates
     –   Slightly different rules for the words terror, terrorism,
         terrorist, terrorists




                                                                          5
                     Collocational networks(1)
Collocational network of terrorists before 9.11 in the STC

                                            chie
                                                                           cops
                                            f
                                                                terror
            last
                          police                sho
                                                t                          gun

                                            murderers
     sai                                                        loyalist
                                   forc
     d
                                   e                                         group
                                                              republican
           bom                            terrorists
                          convicted
           b

                                                            dissident
                            free             Irish
                            d
                   IRA                        terrorist
                                                                  threat

                   arms                            attack




                                                                                     6
                                                                 (2)
Collocational network of terrorists after 9.11 in STC
                             extremist               terrorism            fight
      raising
                                                                          threat               suicide
                                                            grou
        funds                            Islami              p
                                            c                                                people
      America
                              suspecte
                                 d                                          killed
                                                                                                                Palestinian
    terror
                                              leade
                 IRA                             r           terrorists

                                                                            fanatic                Israeli
      Al Qa’ida
                                                                            s
                                                                       Taliban          September
                                          fighters
             network


                terrorist                         Osama bin Laden                    Afghanistan


        fears               atrocities                                    evil                          chief
                                                      war

                                                                                                                              7
                     Collocational networks(1)
Collocational network of terrorists before 9.11 in the STC

                                            chie
                                                                           cops
                                            f
                                                                terror
            last
                          police                sho
                                                t                          gun

                                            murderers
     sai                                                        loyalist
                                   forc
     d
                                   e                                         group
                                                              republican
           bom                            terrorists
           b              convicted

                                                            dissident
                            free             Irish
                            d
                   IRA                        terrorist
                                                                  threat

                   arms                            attack




                                                                                     8
                                                                 (2)
Collocational network of terrorists after 9.11 in STC
                             extremist               terrorism            fight
      raising
                                                                                               suicide
                                                            grou          threat
        funds                            Islami              p
                                            c                                                people
      America                 suspecte
                                 d                                          killed
                                                                                                                Palestinian
    terror
                                              leade
                 IRA                             r           terrorists

                                                                            fanatic                Israeli
      Al Qa’ida
                                                                            s
                                                                       Taliban          September
                                          fighters
             network


                terrorist                         Osama bin Laden                    Afghanistan



                                                                          evil                          chief
        fears               atrocities
                                                      war

                                                                                                                              9
                                                                               (3)
Collocational network of terrorists before 9.11 in the PTC

                          组织                                 巴勒斯坦                            极端主义                        事件
                       organization                          Palestine                       extremism                 inciden t                    势力
                                                                                                                                                   forces

                                                   导弹                            合作                       恐怖
               宗教                                 missiles                    co-operation               terror                                 共同
              religion                                                                                                                        common

                                            国际                                                                                          民族
             安全                         international              袭击                          打击                                      nations
           security                                               attack                       fight
                                                                                                                            形式
                                            中亚                                                                             forms
           主权                              Mid-Asia
        sovereignty
                                                                                                          恐怖主义                               分裂主义
                                        国家                                                                terrorism                          separatism
            关系                         country
        relationship
                                                                                                            支持                                冲突
                                                                         恐怖分子                              support                           conflict
        发展                              独联体                              terrorists
     development                         CIS
                                                                                                             武装                                活动
                                                                                                            armed                            activities
            西方                           塞族
         T he West                       Serbs

                                                                                                                                             以色列
         极端分子                          阿族                                             联合国                                                    Israel
         extremist                    Albanian                                        the UN                       行动
                                                                                                                  action
                                                                                                                                                   维和
           部队                         科索沃                                                                                                      peacekeeping
          troops                      Kosovo
                                                                               车臣                                  军事
                                                                              Chechen                             military
             南联盟                                         地区
              FRY                                       region
                                                                                                                                    非法
                                                                                                        俄                          illegal
                          战争                                                  政府                       Russia
                          war                       问题                     government                                                                         10
                                                  problem
                           (4)
Collocational network of terrorists after 9.11 in the PTC

                                               自杀                                   事件
                                               suicide                            incident               表示
                         发生                                                                              said
                      take place
                                            袭击                                  9.11                                      布什
                                           attack                                                                         Bush
                 行动
                action
                                                          恐怖                                                           政府
                                                         terror                                 美国                  government
                 势力                                                                            America
                forces
                                                         恐怖分子                                                                总统
                                                         terrorists                                                        president
                 东突
            East T urkistan
                                                      活动                                                           阿富汗
                                                    activities                                                   Afghanistan

            组织
         organization                                                                                                 分裂主义
                                                                                                                      separatism
                                     基地                      军事                        打击
           建立                      Al Qa’ida                military                   fight
           set up                                                                                               国际
                                                                                                            internationa
                                                       问题                                                         l
            训练                     拉登                problem                      恐怖主义
          training                 Laden                                          terrorism                      共同
                                                                                                                common
                                                  合作
                                               cooperation              反对                 形式
                      成员                                               oppose              form                   支持
                     member                                                                                     support




                                                                                                                                       11
                          Findings
•   Changes before and after 9.11 in the STC
    Organizations (e.g. dissident, loyalist & Republican)  individual
    name (e.g. Osama bin Laden)
    No religion-believed related words  collocates relating to
    religion (e.g. Islamic, fanatics & extremist)
    Discourse of crime (e.g. police, crime & imprisonment) 
    discourse of war (e.g. war, fighters, chief, suicide (bomber) &
    killed)
    Local threat of terrorism (IRA, Irish, Republican & loyalist) world
    wide terrorist threat (e.g. network, suspected, raising & funds)
•   Changes before and after 9.11 in the PTC
    Russia, Middle East, the Kosovo war, military conflicts and
    religion  America and Al Qa’ida
    Discourse of armed conflict discourse of military combat


                                                                     12
•   Differences between the STC and the PTC
    The most distinguishing feature of the two Chinese collocational
    networks is that all except one of the collocates are keywords,
    suggesting that the choice of words on terrorism in the PTC is
    more relatively stable than the STC.
    None of the collocates reference crimes, nor the names of leaders
    and groups in the network of terrorists in PTC.
    There are no evaluative or subjective words appeared in the
    People’s Daily networks, whereas The Sun contained words such
    as evil, fanatics and extremist.
    There are more words referring to war after 9.11 in the STC while
    there is no war as collocate in the collocational network after 9.11
    in the PTC
•   Commonality between the STC and the PTC
    In terms of descriptive content, there are some commonality
    between two newspapers after 9.11 (e.g. fight, America, Al Qa’ida,
    Afghanistan, suicide, 9.11 & Laden).

                                                                      13
                Further work
• Looking at context:
  1. convergence in the networks
  2. concordance lines
• Looking at keywords:
   1. key verbs
   2. key adjectives
   3. key modal verbs
• Interpretation of discursive constructions of
  terrorism manipulated in both newspapers

                                                  14
             Conclusions
• The technique of collocational networks
  helps us understand more clearly the
  discursive constructions of terrorism in
  both newspapers.
• The discourses around terrorism changed
  before and after 9.11.
• The discourses around terrorism varied
  between two newspapers.
                                         15
Thank you!


             16

				
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