Parents Worries about Life Problems of Adolescent Girls with

					HAYAT
                                                                            Journal of Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences



     Parents' Worries about Life Problems of Adolescent
          Girls with Diabetes: a Qualitative Study

Hemmati Maslakpak* M (Ph.D) - Ahmadi** F (Ph.D) - Feizi* A (Ph.D).



     Abstract
                                 Background & Aim: Parents participation in management of diabetes has
 Received: Oct. 2010             been recognized to be beneficent. Recognizing parents' worries should be
 Accepted: Mar. 2011
                                 addressed to plan effective health promoting programs. This study aimed to
                                 explore parents' worries about life problems of adolescent girls with
                                 diabetes.
                                 Methods & Materials: In this qualitative study, 26 parents (16 mothers and
                                 10 fathers) of adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes were recruited using
                                 purposive sampling from the Diabetes Society in west Azerbaijan. Data
                                 were collected using in-depth and semi-structured interviews. Analysis of
                                 the transcripts was guided by qualitative content analysis.
                                 Results: Qualitative content analysis demonstrated three original categories
                                 from parents' worries: 1) worries about the future; 2) worries about the
                                 treatments; and 3) worries about the society.
                                 Conclusion: Better perception of parents' concerns may promote effective
 Corresponding author:
                                 communication between health professionals and parents. Modification of
 Hemmati Maslakpak M             parents' personal control and perceived threat through appropriate
 e-mail:                         educational programs that acknowledge and address their concerns may be a
 hemmatma@yahoo.com              means of empowering parents.

                                 Key words: parents concerns, diabetes mellitus, girl adolescents, parents,
                                 qualitative research




Assistant Professor, Dept. of Medical & Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
 Associate Professor, Dept. of Medical & Surgical Nursing, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran



Vol 17, No 1, 2011                                                                                                                                       78
                                                                                                                         HAYAT
Journal of Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences



      Informational and Structural Needs of Nursing Data
            Classification in Computerized Systems

Ahmadi* M (Ph.D) - Rafii** F (Ph.D) - Hoseini*** F (MSc.) - Habibi Koolaee**** M (MSc.) -
Mirkarimi***** A (B.Sc).



       Abstract
                                         Background & Aim: Healthcare classification systems help to gather
  Received: Sep. 2010                    information and process health data. Nursing management focus on
  Accepted: Jan. 2011
                                         developing computerized records to answer legal, managerial and clinical
                                         needs. The Classification systems help organizations to use nursing data.
                                         This study investigated informational and structural needs of nursing data
                                         classification.
                                         Methods & Materials: This descriptive-comparative study was carried out
                                         in 2009. Current classification systems for nursing were investigated and
                                         their specifications were gathered in a questionnaire. The items were
                                         prioritized by experts in four degrees. Using statistical analysis items with a
                                         priority over 80 percent (average 2.4) were selected.
                                         Results: Findings about nursing diagnosis, intervention and outcomes
                                         showed that diagnosis item (average 2.93 out of 3), intervention item
                                         (average 2.52 out of 3), and outcome item (average 2.84 out of 3) should be
                                         presented in the system. Structure of nursing data classification was
                                         identified as a hierarchical and combinational classification. The
                                         computerized terminology (average 1.86 out of 3) had no priority.
  Corresponding author:
                                         Conclusion: It is suggested to make decisions for standardizing nursing data
  Habibi Koolaee M                       to use in computerized systems. Since, nursing system in Iran is moving
  e-mail:                                toward defining tariff for nursing services, coding nursing care components
  m.habibi@iran.ir                       will help this plan to be developed.

                                         Key words: classification, information systems, nursing, computer systems,
                                         nursing classification systems, data




 Associate Professor, Dept. of Health Information Management, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
 Associate Professor, Center for Nursing Care Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  Instructor, Dept. of Statistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
   MSc., Medical Records, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Golestan, Iran
    B.Sc, Nursing, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Golestan, Iran



79                                                                                                                  Vol 17, No 1, 2011
HAYAT
                                                                      Journal of Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences



    Perspectives of Retired Nurses on Factors that Affect
                  Quality of Nursing Care

Ahmadi* F (Ph.D) - Nobahar** M (Ph.D Student) - Alhani* F (Ph.D) - Falahi Khoshknab*** M (Ph.D).



     Abstract
                               Background & Aim: Quality of health care services shows the degree of
 Received: Dec. 2010           achievement of health outcomes. From ethical and legal perspectives, nurses
 Accepted: Apr. 2011
                               should be responsible for quality of presented care. Retired nurses can help
                               to elaborate real and valuable concepts related to effective factors on quality
                               of nursing care due to their experiences. The aim of this study was to
                               explore the perspectives of retired nurses on factors that affect quality of
                               nursing care in Semnan.
                               Methods & Materials: In this qualitative content analysis method, 20
                               retired nurses were invited to the study using purposeful sampling. Data
                               were collected mainly using semi-structured interviews. The analysis was
                               carried out using content analysis.
                               Results: Findings of the study yielded to three significant themes including:
                               1) necessity of humanistic relationships; 2) suitable selection and education
                               (3) planning and organizing nursing cares related to quality of nursing cares.
 Corresponding author:
 Ahmadi F                      Conclusion: Findings of this study explored perspectives of retired nurses
 e-mail:                       on the effective factors on quality of nursing care. The three themes
 ahmadif@Modares.ac.ir         emerged in the study should be mentioned in planning programs.

                               Key words: Nursing, Retired nurses, Quality of nursing cares, Content
                               analysis




 Associate Professor, Medical Sciences Faculty, Dept. of Nursing, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
 Ph.D Student, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
  Assistant Professor, Social Welfare and Rehabilitation University, Tehran, Iran



Vol 17, No 1, 2011                                                                                                                                 80
                                                                                                                           HAYAT
Journal of Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences



Assessment of Patient Satisfaction from Nursing Care in
    Hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences

Joolaee* S (Ph.D) - Hajibabaee** F (MSc.) - Jafar Jalal*** E (MSc.) - Bahrani**** N (MSc.).



       Abstract
                                         Background & Aim: Patient satisfaction has been recognized as a key
  Received: Aug. 2010                    indicator of health care quality which is used by accreditation agencies to
  Accepted: Jan. 2011
                                         monitor quality of care in hospitals. A high proportion of health caregivers
                                         are nurses. The services provided by nurses are significantly influential in
                                         satisfaction of patients. The aim of this study was to assess patients'
                                         satisfaction from nursing care in hospitals of Iran University of Medical
                                         Sciences in 2010.
                                         Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 200
                                         patients from different wards (except for special wards, Emergency
                                         department, Pediatric and Psychiatric wards) at the time of discharge from
                                         hospital through multistage sampling method. Data were collected using
                                         Patient Satisfaction Instrument (PSI). Data analysis was performed using
                                         descriptive statistics, chi-square and regression analysis.
                                         Results: Majority of patients (72%) were moderately satisfied. Patient
                                         satisfaction had a significant relationship with the type of ward (PG0.001),
                                         and type of hospital (PG0.001). Of demographic variables, only patients’
                                         level of education was significantly associated with patient satisfaction
                                         (PG0.019).
                                         Conclusion: In this study, patients were moderately satisfied from nursing
                                         care services. Educating hospital staff, especially nurses; and encouraging
  Corresponding author:
  Hajibabaee F                           them to actively participate in activities to promote patient satisfaction
  e-mail:                                should be a priority for hospital management. We should also consider that
  hajibabaeefateme@yahoo.                in a competitive market of health and treatment care giving, institutions that
  com                                    put patient satisfaction as their main goal are more successful.

                                         Key words: patient satisfaction, nursing care services, hospital




 Assistant Professor, Nursing Care Research Center, School of Nursing& Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  MSc., Instructor, Dept. of Medical Surgical Nursing, Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
  MSc., Instructor, Dept. of Nursing Management, School of Nursing& Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
   MSc., Shahid Sattari University, Tehran, Iran



81                                                                                                                    Vol 17, No 1, 2011
HAYAT
                                                                    Journal of Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences



   Effects of a Nursing Intervention on Improving Self-
  Efficacy and Reducing Cardiovascular Risk Factors in
          Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases

Baljani* E (MSc.) - Rahimi** Jh (B.Sc) - Amanpour** E (B.Sc) - Salimi*** S (Ph.D) -
Parkhashjoo**** M (B.Sc).



     Abstract
                             Background & Aim: Patients adherence to medical recommendations
 Received: Oct. 2010         requires new and effective strategies. Promoting self-efficacy is considered
 Accepted: Apr. 2011
                             as an important measurement to help patients to participate in their own
                             treatment protocol. This study was conducted to determine the effect of a
                             nursing intervention on improving self-efficacy and reducing cardiovascular
                             risk factors in patients with cardiovascular diseases in a public hospital in
                             Urmia.
                             Methods & Materials: In this single group before/after study, 81 patients
                             with at least two cardiovascular adjustable risk factors were recruited. The
                             self-efficacy intervention was presented to the patients and one of their
                             family members. The self-efficacy was scored before, immediately and one
                             month after the intervention. The Cardiovascular risk factors were measured
                             before and one year after the intervention. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA
                             with repeated measures, paired t-tests, and McNemar test were used to
                             analyze data.
                             Results: Overall self-efficacy scores and its sub-groups were significantly
                             improved after one month. There were significant differences in the mean
                             BMI, HDL, LDL, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and weight before
                             and one year after the intervention. The number of smokers and patients
                             with hyperlipidemia were significantly decreased one year after the
                             intervention. However, there were not significant differences in the number
                             of overweight patients and patients with hypertension before and after the
                             intervention.
                             Conclusion: Results showed that our intervention to improve self-efficacy
                             had positive effect on the overall self-efficacy score and the scores of its
                             subgroups. Our intervention was also effective in controlling cardiovascular
                             risk factors and in reducing the frequency of smokers and patients with
 Corresponding author:
 Baljani E                   hyperlipidemia. It seems that combination of medical orders with self-
 e-mail:                     efficacy improving interventions on patients and their families are
 baljani1@yahoo.com          influential in controlling cardiovascular risk factors.

                             Key words: cardiovascular risk factors, self-efficacy, nursing intervention




MSc. in Nursing, Dept. of Medical Surgical Nursing, Urmia Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran
B.Sc in Nursing, Urmia, Iran
 Associate Professor, Dept. of Medical Surgical Nursing, Urmia Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran
 Educational Supervisor, Shahid Talegani Hospital of Urmia, Urmia, Iran



Vol 17, No 1, 2011                                                                                                                               82
                                                                                                                     HAYAT
Journal of Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences



       Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hepatitis C in
               Self-introduced Substance Abusers

Azizi* A (Ph.D) - Amirian** F (MD) - Amirian** M (MD).



       Abstract
                                         Background & Aim: Considering the importance and high prevalence of
  Received: Oct. 2010                    hepatitis C among substance abusers, especially injection drug users, this
  Accepted: Apr. 2011
                                         study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C in
                                         self-introduced substance abusers in Farabi Addiction Hospital in
                                         Kermanshah in 2007.
                                         Methods & Materials: A total of 263 drug addicts' medical files were
                                         assessed during the study. Data (individual characteristics and results of
                                         serological tests) were gathered through the files. Data were analyzed by
                                         measuring frequency of correlation between the variables (Chi square test
                                         and logistic regression).
                                         Results: The mean age was 31.82±9.18 years; mean duration of drug abuse
                                         was 121.7±29.1 months for prisoners. From 263 individuals in the study,
                                         22.1% were infected with HCV. The most common ways of substance use
                                         were injection (33.1%), and fumigation (32.3%). There was no history of
                                         imprisonment in 74.9% of individuals; and 52.9% had no history of drug
                                         injection. There was a history of physical or mental disorder in 25.5% of
                                         individuals. The Chi square statistical test showed significant relationship
                                         between HCV infection and substance abuse, and the way of consumption;
                                         and the t-test showed significant relationship with average daily
                                         consumption frequency. The highest relative risk ratio was for positive
                                         history of physical or mental illness (OR=8.33), and positive history of
                                         imprisonment (OR=5.94). Having multiple sexual partners increased the
                                         risk of being infected with the HCV (OR=2.92).
  Corresponding author:                  Conclusion: The risk of HCV infection was independently increased with
  Azizi A                                having a history of imprisonment, having multiple sexual partners, presence
  e-mail:                                of physical or mental illnesses, and consumption methods in substance
  aliazizi@kums.ac.ir                    abusers.

                                         Key words: addiction, addiction injection, prevalence of hepatitis C




 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Community Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Science, Kermanshah, Iran
 MD, Community Medicine, Kermanshah, Iran



83                                                                                                              Vol 17, No 1, 2011
HAYAT
                                                                       Journal of Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences



      Constructs of the Health Belief Model as Predicting
             Factors in Breast Self-Examination

Hasani* L (MSc.) - Aghamolaei** T (Ph.D) - Tavafian*** SS (Ph.D) - Zare**** Sh (Ph.D).



     Abstract
                               Background & Aim: Early diagnosis of breast lumps through breast self-
 Received: Dec. 2010           examination (BSE) is important for early detection of breast cancer. The aim
 Accepted: Mar. 2011
                               of this study was to evaluate factors predict the BSE behavior using Health
                               Belief Model constructs in women referred to health centers in Bandar
                               abbas, Iran.
                               Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study, 240 eligible women
                               were randomly selected from eight health centers. Data were collected using
                               a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics and
                               Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). The CHBMS measures
                               the HBM concepts of susceptibility (3 items), seriousness (6 items), benefits
                               (4 items), barriers (8 items) and self-efficacy (10 items). All items were
                               ranged in a Likert scale ranging from ‘‘strongly disagree (score: one)’’ to
                               ‘‘strongly agree (score: five)’’.
                               Results: A total of 240 women took part in the study. The mean age of
                               participants was 37.2 (SD=6.1). Of all, 32.5% had high school education;
                               and 95.8% were married. The results showed that 31.7% of the women had
                               performed the BSE; however, only 7.1% had performed it regularly.
                               Perceived BSE benefits, perceived BSE barriers and perceived BSE self-
                               efficacy of the participants who performed the BSE were significantly
                               higher than those who did not (P<0.03). The results from regression analysis
                               indicated that the perceived BSE self-efficacy and perceived BSE barriers
                               predicted breast self-examination behavior (P<0.001).
                               Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that perceived BSE
 Corresponding author:         barriers and perceived BSE self-efficacy were influencing factors in
 Aghamolaei T                  predicting the BSE behavior. Therefore, in order to improve self-efficacy
 e-mail:                       and decrease the barriers, BSE training programs are strongly
 taghamolaei@hums.ac.ir        recommended.

                               Key words: Health belief model, Prediction, Breast self-Examination,
                               Breast Cancer, Bandar Abbas, Iran




 MSc. Dept. of Public Health, School of Health, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
 Associate Professor, Dept. of Public Health, School of Health, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
  Assistant Professor, Dept. of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modaress University, Tehran, Iran
  Associate Professor, Dept. of Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran



Vol 17, No 1, 2011                                                                                                                                  84
                                                                                                                        HAYAT
Journal of Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences



  Prevalence and Severity of Primary Dysmenorrhea and
        its Relation to Anthropometric Parameters

Haidari* F (Ph.D) - Akrami** A (B.Sc) - Sarhadi** M (B.Sc) - Mohammad Shahi* M (Ph.D).



       Abstract
                                         Background & Aim: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common medical disorder
  Received: Oct. 2010                    in young women that affects their quality of life. According to the research
  Accepted: Mar. 2011
                                         studies, overweight and obesity increase biosynthesis of the prostaglandin;
                                         and consequently increase the severity of dysmenorrhea. The aim of this
                                         study was to examine the prevalence and severity of primary dismenorrhea
                                         and its relation to anthropometric parameters.
                                         Methods & Materials: In this descriptive-analytical study, 388 students
                                         from Ahwaz University of Medical Sciences were selected using random
                                         cluster sampling. Demographic data were collected using a questionnaire.
                                         The height and weight, BMI, fat mass, waist and hip circumferences, waist
                                         to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were measured. Visual
                                         Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the severity of dysmenorrhea.
                                         Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test. The p<0.05 was
                                         considered to be significant.
                                         Results: Mean age of the participants was 20.7±1.8 years. The mean age at
                                         menarche was 13.4±1.2 years. Moderate or severe dysmenorrheal were
                                         experienced by 71.65% of the participants. The severity of dysmenorrhea
                                         was significantly related to body fat mass, waist circumference, hip
                                         circumference and WHtR (P<0.05). However, there was no significant
                                         relationship between the severity of dysmenorrhea with weight or BMI.
                                         Conclusion: Anthropometric parameters that are associated with central
  Corresponding author:                  obesity such as waist circumference and WHtR are more related to the
  Mohammad Shahi M                       severity of dysmenorrhea. Increased visceral fat mass is a more effective
  e-mail:                                predictor for dysmenorrhea. More studies are needed to clarify these
  shahi334@gmail.com                     relationships.

                                         Key words: Primary dysmenorrhea, BMI, Waist circumference, Hip
                                         circumference, Fat mass




 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Nutrition, Nutrition Research Center, Ahwaz Jondi Shapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz, Iran
 Member of the Students Research Committee, Ahwaz Jondi Shapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz, Iran



85                                                                                                                 Vol 17, No 1, 2011

				
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