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Chemistry Grade 10 Chemical Reactions

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					Chemistry Grade 10 Chemical Reactions and Equations


Chemistry Content Objectives:
  1. Distinguish between chemical and physical changes.
  2. Write word and balanced chemical equations for the different types of
     reactions and be able to predict products for a given reaction
  3. Identify reaction type as being either: synthesis, decomposition, single
     replacement, double replacement, or combustion.
  4. Predict products of a chemical reaction using solubility rules and an
     activity series.

Lab Skill Objectives
   1. State a Research question that is highly focused and specific and
      relates a detailed independent and dependent variable with clarity. The
      research question will demonstrate experimental limits. All variables
      that require control will be stated explicitly.
   2. Develop a Controlled procedure that effectively controls the
      experimental variables. Specific explanations will be provided that
      outline the manipulation of the independent variable and that describe
      the quantitative control of the controlled variables. A method that allows
      for collection of sufficient relevant data will be presented.
   3. Record experimental data by providing detailed relevant qualitative
      data. Quantitative data will be recorded in titled and numbered tables.
      Units and uncertainty will be recorded in each column heading. There
      is evidence of consistency in precision of recorded data that matches
      the precision of the measuring instrument.
   4. Process raw experimental data correctly to obtain a final value (or
      graphed to find a trend line). Sample calculations will be shown with
      clear wording to show the steps in the process.


Terms to Know

Chemical change
Chemical reaction
Balanced equation
Conservation of mass
Synthesis reaction
Decomposition reaction
Single replacement reaction
Double replacement reaction
Combustion reaction




Activity I: Evidence of Chemical Changes
Objectives
Distinguish between chemical and physical changes.
State a Research question that is highly focused and specific and relates a
detailed independent and dependent variable with clarity.

 A. Add 10ml of 0.5M HCl to a test tube. Measure the volume to nearest
0.01ml. Add a small piece of magnesium to the solution. Observe and
record your observations.

B. Add 2-3 ml NaCl solution to a test tube. Measure the volume to the
nearest 0.01ml. Add 1ml of BaCl2 to the test tube. Observe and record your
observations.

C. Add 2-3 of drops of BaCl2 solution to a micro well plate. Add 2-3 drops of
Na2CO3. Observe and record your observations.

D. Use a mortar a pestle to crush a cube of sugar.

Observations:


1. Which combinations of chemicals produced chemical reactions? How do
you know? Which were physical changes?


2. How do you think the reaction would change if you used a larger piece of
aluminum to add to the copper(II)sulfate?



3. What other variables may have affected how the reactions occurred?



4. Choose one variable and write how you think it might affect the reaction in
the form of How does _________ affect _____________?



5. Consider how you test your question. What data would you need to take?


6. What would the independent and dependent variables be?


7. What equipment would you need?
Activity II Using Chemical Equations to Describe Chemical Reactions
Write word and balanced chemical equations for the different types of
reactions.
Part A
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tqa1gX5lEjo Take notes.

Use the molymod kit to build a molecule of hydrogen (H2), molecule of
oxygen (O2), and a molecule of water. Write a chemical equation to
represent the formation of water.

Use the molymod kits to build molecules to represent the following chemical
reactions and then write a chemical equation for each reaction.

1. Carbon solid reacts with an oxygen gas molecule to produce carbon
dioxide.


2. A nitrogen gas molecule reacts with a hydrogen gas molecule to produce
ammonia gas.



3. Methane burns (reacts with oxygen) to produce carbon dioxide gas and
water vapor.


Now answer the following:

Writing Complete Equations Practice

For each of the following problems, write complete chemical equations to
describe the chemical process taking place. Important note: There are a few
physical processes on this sheet – remember, you can’t write an equation for
a physical process!

1)    When lithium hydroxide pellets are added to a solution of sulfuric acid
      (H2SO4), lithium sulfate and water are formed.




2)    When dirty water is boiled for purification purposes, the temperature is
      brought up to 1000 C for 15 minutes.
3)    If a copper coil is placed into a solution of silver nitrate, silver crystals
      form on the surface of the copper. Additionally, highly soluble copper
      (I) nitrate is generated.




4)    When crystalline C6H12O6 is burned in oxygen, carbon dioxide and
      water vapor are formed.




5)    When a chunk of palladium metal is ground into a very fine powder and
      heated to drive off any atmospheric moisture, the resulting powder is
      an excellent catalyst for chemical reactions.


Part B
Balancing Chemical Equations
Balance chemical equations.


Again, use the molymod kit to build a molecule of hydrogen (H2), molecule of
oxygen (O2), and a molecule of water. Write a chemical equation to represent
the formation of water.
A. How many hydrogen atoms in the hydrogen molecule?

B. How many hydrogen atoms in the water molecule?


C. Build the number of hydrogen molecules, oxygen molecules, and water
molecules you would need so that you have the same number of each kind of
atom before the reaction and after the reaction.

How many of each type of molecule did you build?

D. Define Law of Conservation of Mass. How does this apply to chemical
reactions?

Go to http://www.wwnorton.com/college/chemistry/gilbert2/chemtours.asp.
Scroll down and select the tutorial called “Balancing Chemical Equations.”
Complete the tutorial and take notes. Answer the questions, and write the
entire balanced equation for each question.
Now answer the following questions:
                          Writing Word Equations

Write the word equations below as chemical equations and balance:

1)      Zinc and lead (II) nitrate react to form zinc nitrate and lead.



______________________________________________________________
_
2)   Aluminum bromide and chlorine gas react to form aluminum chloride
     and bromine gas.



______________________________________________________________
_
3)   Sodium phosphate and calcium chloride react to form calcium
     phosphate and sodium chloride.



______________________________________________________________
     _
4)   Potassium metal and chlorine gas combine to form potassium chloride.



______________________________________________________________
     _
5)   Aluminum and hydrochloric acid react to form aluminum chloride and
     hydrogen gas.



______________________________________________________________
     _
6)   Calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid react to form calcium
     phosphate and water.



______________________________________________________________
     _
7)   Copper and sulfuric acid react to form copper (II) sulfate and water and
     sulfur dioxide.


Activity III
Identify reaction type as being either: synthesis, decomposition, single
replacement, double replacement, or combustion.

Read the following and use the index of the textbook and find types of
chemical reactions. Read and take notes and then complete “Chemical
Reaction types” (next page).
There are five basic types of chemical reactions: synthesis, decomposition,
single replacement, double replacement, and combustion.

Synthesis: A reaction between 2 or more substances to produce 1 product.
A + B - AB
Example: 2Na (s) + Cl2(g) -- 2NaCl(s)

Decomposition: A reaction in which 1 reactant breaks into two or more simpler
products. AB -- A + B

Single replacement: A reaction in which a more reactive (active) ion replaces
another ion in a compound.
AB + C - AC + B OR AB + D -- DA + B
Example of cation replacement: Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) - ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)
Example of anion replacement: 2NaI(aq) + Cl2(g) - 2NaCl(aq) + I2(g)

Double replacement reaction: A double replacement reaction occurs between
two ionic compounds. The positive ions switch places to form two new
compounds, one of which is either liquid water, a gas, or most often, an
insoluble solid (precipitate).
AB+CD-AD+CB
Example: AgNO3 + NaCl ---> AgCl + NaNO3

Combustion Reactions: Combustion, in its most general sense, can include
any reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen, but we will focus on
hydrocarbons reacting with oxygen. A compound containing only hydrogen
and carbon is called a hydrocarbon. The products on combustion are carbon
dioxide and water.
CHx + O2 - CO2 +H2O
Example: CH4(g) + 2O2(g) -- 2H2O(g) + CO2(g)




Chemical Reaction Types



1. Watch
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mx5JJWI2aaw&feature=related

Observations:

Evidence a chemical reaction is taking place
Reaction type and evidence

Chemical reaction in words:

Balanced chemical equation

Another example of this type of chemical reaction:



2. Add a small piece of aluminum to the copper(II)sulfate solution

Observations

Evidence a chemical reaction is taking place

Reaction type and evidence

Chemical reaction in words:

Balanced chemical equation

Another example of this type of chemical reaction:


3. Add a 1 drop of sodium iodide and 1 drop of lead(II)nitrate to one well of a
micro-well plate.

Observations

Evidence a chemical reaction is taking place

Reaction type and evidence

Chemical reaction in words:

Balanced chemical equation

Another example of this type of chemical reaction:

4. Watch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nYhWH1HRqo4

Observations

Evidence a chemical reaction is taking place

Reaction type and evidence
Chemical reaction in words:

Balanced chemical equation

Another example of this type of chemical reaction:

What is the reverse reaction? Write the chemical equation for the reaction in
reverse.

5. Watch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gXcug7RqPgs&feature=related

Observations:

Evidence a chemical reaction is taking place

Reaction type and evidence

Chemical reaction in words:

Balanced chemical equation

Another example of this type of chemical reaction:


Activity IV Predicting the Products in a Single Replacement Reaction
Predict products of a chemical reaction using solubility rules and an activity
series.
Develop a Controlled procedure that effectively controls the experimental
variables. Specific explanations will be provided that outline the manipulation
of the independent variable and that describe the quantitative control of the
controlled variables. A method that allows for collection of sufficient relevant
data will be presented.

Part A
Complete the lab activity “Develop an Activity Series.” (attached) Watch
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ph6xowy5fNc and use your textbook to
help you answer the post-lab questions.

Part B
Read and take notes on the “Predicting Products PowerPoint.
Complete the Lab Activity “Precipitation Reactions.” (attached)

More Practice

Five Types of Chemical Reactions Worksheet

Balance the following reactions and indicate which of the six types of chemical
reaction are being represented:

1)     ____ NaBr + ____ Ca(OH)2  ___ CaBr2 + ____ NaOH
                         Type of reaction: _____________________________


2)     ____ NH3+ ____ H2SO4  ____ (NH4)2SO4

                         Type of reaction: _____________________________


3)     ____ C5H9O + ____ O2  ____ CO2 + ____ H2O

                         Type of reaction: _____________________________


4)     ____ Pb + ____ H3PO4  ____ H2 + ____ Pb3(PO4)2

                         Type of reaction: _____________________________


5)     ____ Li3N + ____ NH4NO3  ___ LiNO3 + ___ (NH4)3N

                         Type of reaction: _____________________________


6)     ____ HBr + ___ Al(OH)3  ___ H2O + ___ AlBr3

                         Type of reaction: _____________________________




                       Double Displacement Reactions

Indicate which of the following double displacement reactions will go to
completion, and circle what the product of the reaction will be (if any). You
must use a solubility chart (attached) to solve these problems.

1)     ___ NaOH + ___ CaBr2 


                                          Will this reaction occur? _____
2)   ___ Pb(NO3)2 + ___ HCl 


                                Will this reaction occur? _____

3)   ___ Na2CO3 + ___ KF 


                                Will this reaction occur? _____

4)   ___ AgNO3 + ___ CuSO4 


                                Will this reaction occur? _____

5)   ___ AgF + ___ NiCl2 


                                Will this reaction occur? _____

				
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