CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Research Design The study will deal with the comparison of water quality of the Tambacan and Bayug River. To be able to determine the water quality, the researchers will use three methods called secchi disk test for the turbidity of water, ph test for acidity determination and the electrical conductivity test to determine the salinity. Assessment is divided into two ctegories: the physical and chemical atributes of water. The physical attributes measured are turbidity and electrical conductivity. The chemical attribute meaured is pH only. B. Materials and Equipment Materials Equipment 20 pcs container EC meter Meter stick pH meter 200 mL in each water samples(1-10 Bayug river water, 1-10 Tambacan river water) 20 cm square piece of plywood Washers Knot Barena Back paint & White paint 16 C. General Procedure Collection of Water Samples Collect water samples from the Tambacan River and Bayug River. A total of ten 200 mL samples were taken. Measure the turbidity at the sampling site. Bring the collected water samples to the IDS laboratory not more than one hour after collecting. This is done in order to get an accurate result on all water attributes. Construction of secchi disk 1. Draw a line from corner to corner to find centre. Make a 200mm circle on your white plastic, use the compass. Cut out the disc with the jig saw or coping saw. Figure 4: Step 1 in Making the Secchi Disk 2. Follow the instructions on the contact glue packet and glue the two squares of black plastic onto the disc as shown in the photo. After the glue has set use a sharp knife to trim the plastic to size. Figure 5: Step 2 in Making the Secchi Disk 17 3. Drill an appropriate sized hole in the disc to install lead weights and the ring that allows the attachment of the chord. Cut some lead sheet with tin snips to add weight to the disc to allow it to sink more quickly. Figure 6: Step 3 in Making the Secchi Disk 4. The underside of the disc where the weights are attached. Figure 7: Step 4 in Making the Secchi Disk Preparation and calibration of the pH meter Turn on the pH meter and calibrate the probe using two standard solutions (pH 4, 7, and 10 buffers are recommended, dependant on the range the researchers are measuring. Be sure to rinse the probe thoroughly between buffers using deionized water and carefully blot the probe dry using a wipe. pH meters should be calibrated before each use (before each series of samples, not between each sample itself) or when measuring a large range of pH. 18 Preparation and calibration of the EC meter Turn on the Electrical Conductivity meter and calibrate the probe using a standard solution of known conductivity. Be sure to rinse the probe thoroughly between buffers using deionized water and carefully blot the probe dry using a wipe. Electrical Conductivity meters should be calibrated before each use (before each series of samples, not between each sample itself) or when measuring a large range of electrical conductivity. Check calibration by measuring the electrical conductivity of the standard solutions in measure rather than calibrate mode. Turbidity Testing Procedures: Secchi Disk Lower the Secchi disk into the water until it disappears, then raise it until the disk can be seen again. It is important that the disk travels vertically through the water and is not "swung out" by the river current. Record the height of the rope in which the secchi disk is seen. Drop the disk even further (until it disappears), then note the number of centimeters on the rope. Add the results of step I and step 2 and divide by two. This is the turbidity level using the Secchi disk. Measuring pH of a liquid using a pH meter and probe: Collect sample water (Bayug and Tambacan River) in a glass so the probe tip can be submerged in sample; rinse the probe with deionized water (and blot dry). Submerge the probe into the sample and wait until the pH reading on the meter stabilizes. Many meters have automatic temperature correction (ATC), which calculates the pH taking into account temperature, if the meter does not have this feature, adjust a knob on the meter to correct the pH for temperature. Record the measurement when the pH reading is stable. (serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/research_methods/environ_sampling/pH_EC.html) 19 Measuring Electrical Conductivity of a liquid sample using a meter and probe: Collect sample water (Bayug and Tambacan River) in a glass so the probe tip can be submerged in sample; rinse the probe with deionized water (and blot dry). Submerge the probe into the sample and wait until the electrical conductivity reading on the meter stabilizes. Many meters have automatic temperature correction (ATC), which calculates the electrical conductivity taking into account temperature, if your meter does not have this feature, adjust a knob on the meter to correct the pH for temperature. Record the measurement when the pH reading is stable. Record the measurement when the electrical conductivity reading is stable. (serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/research_methods/environ_sampling/pH_EC.html) 20 D.Experimental set-up Table 1: Measurement of the turbidity of Tambacan River and Bayug River This table is used in recording the data during experimentation. Let A be the measurement of the appearance, Let B be the measurement of the disappearance, Let C be the secchi disk reading, and let D be the depth of the river. WATER SAMPLE TAMBACAN RIVER BAYUG RIVER SAMPLE TEST A B 1 C D A B 2 C D A B 3 C D A B 4 C D A B 5 C D A B 6 C D A B 7 C D A B 8 C D 21 A B 9 C D A B 10 C D Table 2: Turbidity minifact and analysis (James E. Kotoski) Water Depth Secchi Disk reading Turbidity Rating For Water Over 4 Feet Disappears in less than1 Turbid foot ( 30 cm ) For Water Over 4 Feet Disappears in less than1 to Moderately Turbid 2 feet (31 to 60 cm) For Water Over 4 Feet Disappears in less than 2.1 Slightly Turbid to 4 feet ( 61 to 120 cm ) For Water Over 4 Feet Visible at more than 4 feet Clear (121 cm or more ) For 2 feet of water Disappears at less than1 Turbid foot (less than 30 cm) For 2 feet of water(Secchi Visible but black/white Moderately Turbid boundary not defined disk on the bottom) clearly For 2 feet of water(Secchi Visible with black/white Clear boundary clearly defined disk on the bottom) For 2 to 4 feet of water Disk disappears in Turbid less than 1 foot (less than 30 cm) For 2 to 4 feet of water Disk disappears between 1 Moderately Turbid and 2 foot (30 to 60 cm) For 2 to 4 feet of Visible but black/white Slightly Turbid boundary not clearly water(Secchi disk on the defined bottom) For 2 to 4 feet of water(SD Visible black/white Clear boundary clearly defined on the bottom) 22 Table 3: Turbidity minifact and analysis of Tambacan Rivers and Bayug River This table is used for determining the turbidity rate. The secchi disk test is the letter C of tabe 1.The second column is the water depth of the rivers. # of sample Water Depth (ft.) Secchi Disk Turbidity Rating reading (cm) T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 23 Table 4: pH minifact and analysis (Steven Institute and Technology) pH Level Water quality Less than 5.5 Poor: Very Basic fish and other organisms may find it impossible to survive 5.5 - 5.9 Fair 6.0 - 6.4 Good 6.5 - 7.5 Excellent 7.6 - 8.0 Good 8.1 - 8.5 Fair Greater than 8.6 Poor: Very Acidic fish and other organisms may find it impossible to survive Table 5: pH minifact and analysis of Tambacan River # of water sample pH Level Water quality 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Table 6: pH minifact and analysis of Bayug River # of water sample pH Level Water quality 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 24 Table 7: EC minifact and analysis (Helen Anderson and David Cummings, Melbourne) EC range Water Quality (µS/cm) Excellent Good drinking water for humans (provided there is no organic pollution 0 - 800 and not too much suspended clay material) Generally good for irrigation, though above 300 µS/cm, some care must be taken, particularly with overhead sprinklers which may cause leaf scorch on some salt sensitive plants. Suitable for all livestock Good Can be consumed by humans although most would prefer water in the 800 - 2,500 lower half of this range if available. When used for irrigation, requires special management including suitable soils, good drainage and consideration of salt tolerance of plants. Suitable for all livestock. Fair Not recommended for human consumption, although water up to 3000 2,500 - 10,000 µS/cm could be drunk if nothing else was available. Not normally suitable for irrigation, though water up to 6000 µS/cm can be used on very salt tolerant crops with special management techniques. Over 6000 µS/cm, occasional emergency irrigation may be possible with care, or if sufficient low salinity water is available, this could be mixed with the high salinity water to obtain an acceptable supply. When used for drinking water by poultry and pigs, the salinity should be limited to about 6000 µS/cm. Most other stock can use water up to 10,000 µS/cm. Water over 4000 µS/cm can cause shell cracking in laying hens. High magnesium levels can cause stock health problems in this range. Analysis recommended. Poor Not suitable for human consumption or irrigation Over 10,000 Not suitable for pigs, poultry or any lactating animals. Beef cattle can use water up to 17,000 µS/cm and adult dry sheep can tolerate 23,000 µS/cm. However it is possible that waters below these EC levels could contain unacceptable concentrations of particular ions. Detailed chemical analysis should therefore be considered before using high salinity water for stock. 25 Table 8: EC minifact and analysis of Tambacan River and Bayug River Sample Tambacan River Bayug River EC reading Water Quality EC reading Water Quality 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 E. Statistical Tools The statistical tool this study is going to use is the ANOVA and a t-test. The ANOVA or analysis of variance is used so that the researchers can compare K (more than 2) population means on the assumptions that independent random samples have been drawn from the k normal populations and the variability of each sampled population is σ2 while the t-test is used to compare two independent sample means.
Pages to are hidden for
"chap3"Please download to view full document