chap3 by lanyuehua

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 11

									                                      CHAPTER III

                                   METHODOLOGY



A. Research Design

           The study will deal with the comparison of water quality of the Tambacan and

Bayug River. To be able to determine the water quality, the researchers will use three

methods called secchi disk test for the turbidity of water, ph test for acidity determination

and the electrical conductivity test to determine the salinity. Assessment is divided into

two ctegories: the physical and chemical atributes of water. The physical attributes

measured are turbidity and electrical conductivity. The chemical attribute meaured is pH

only.

B. Materials and Equipment

                 Materials                                   Equipment

 20 pcs container                              EC meter
 Meter stick                                   pH meter
 200 mL in each water samples(1-10
 Bayug river water, 1-10 Tambacan river
 water)
 20 cm square piece of plywood
 Washers
 Knot
 Barena
 Back paint & White paint
                                                                                             16




C. General Procedure


Collection of Water Samples
         Collect water samples from the Tambacan River and Bayug River. A total of ten
200 mL samples were taken. Measure the turbidity at the sampling site.
         Bring the collected water samples to the IDS laboratory not more than one hour
after collecting. This is done in order to get an accurate result on all water attributes.


Construction of secchi disk

    1.         Draw a line from corner to corner to find centre. Make a 200mm circle on
         your white plastic, use the compass. Cut out the disc with the jig saw or coping
         saw.




                        Figure 4: Step 1 in Making the Secchi Disk

    2. Follow the instructions on the contact glue packet and glue the two squares of
       black plastic onto the disc as shown in the photo. After the glue has set use a
       sharp knife to trim the plastic to size.




                        Figure 5: Step 2 in Making the Secchi Disk
                                                                                              17




   3. Drill an appropriate sized hole in the disc to install lead weights and the ring that
      allows the attachment of the chord. Cut some lead sheet with tin snips to add
      weight to the disc to allow it to sink more quickly.




                      Figure 6: Step 3 in Making the Secchi Disk



   4.   The underside of the disc where the weights are attached.




                     Figure 7: Step 4 in Making the Secchi Disk

Preparation and calibration of the pH meter
        Turn on the pH meter and calibrate the probe using two standard solutions (pH 4,
7, and 10 buffers are recommended, dependant on the range the researchers are
measuring. Be sure to rinse the probe thoroughly between buffers using deionized water
and carefully blot the probe dry using a wipe. pH meters should be calibrated before each
use (before each series of samples, not between each sample itself) or when measuring a
large range of pH.
                                                                                                18


Preparation and calibration of the EC meter
       Turn on the Electrical Conductivity meter and calibrate the probe using a standard
solution of known conductivity. Be sure to rinse the probe thoroughly between buffers
using deionized water and carefully blot the probe dry using a wipe. Electrical
Conductivity meters should be calibrated before each use (before each series of samples,
not between each sample itself) or when measuring a large range of electrical
conductivity. Check calibration by measuring the electrical conductivity of the standard
solutions in measure rather than calibrate mode.




Turbidity Testing Procedures: Secchi Disk

       Lower the Secchi disk into the water until it disappears, then raise it until the disk
can be seen again. It is important that the disk travels vertically through the water and is
not "swung out" by the river current. Record the height of the rope in which the secchi
disk is seen. Drop the disk even further (until it disappears), then note the number of
centimeters on the rope. Add the results of step I and step 2 and divide by two. This is the
turbidity level using the Secchi disk.




Measuring pH of a liquid using a pH meter and probe:


       Collect sample water (Bayug and Tambacan River) in a glass so the probe tip can
be submerged in sample; rinse the probe with deionized water (and blot dry). Submerge
the probe into the sample and wait until the pH reading on the meter stabilizes. Many
meters have automatic temperature correction (ATC), which calculates the pH taking into
account temperature, if the meter does not have this feature, adjust a knob on the meter
to correct the pH for temperature. Record the measurement when the pH reading is stable.
(serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/research_methods/environ_sampling/pH_EC.html)
                                                                                            19


Measuring Electrical Conductivity of a liquid sample using a meter and probe:


       Collect sample water (Bayug and Tambacan River) in a glass so the probe tip can
be submerged in sample; rinse the probe with deionized water (and blot dry). Submerge
the probe into the sample and wait until the electrical conductivity reading on the meter
stabilizes. Many meters have automatic temperature correction (ATC), which calculates
the electrical conductivity taking into account temperature, if your meter does not have
this feature, adjust a knob on the meter to correct the pH for temperature. Record the
measurement when the pH reading is stable.
Record the measurement when the electrical conductivity reading is stable.
(serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/research_methods/environ_sampling/pH_EC.html)
                                                                                        20



D.Experimental set-up


Table 1: Measurement of the turbidity of Tambacan River and Bayug River

    This table is used in recording the data during experimentation.

    Let A be the measurement of the appearance, Let B be the measurement of the
disappearance, Let C be the secchi disk reading, and let D be the depth of the river.

 WATER
            SAMPLE            TAMBACAN RIVER                       BAYUG RIVER
SAMPLE
             TEST
               A
               B
   1
               C
               D
               A
               B
   2
               C
               D
               A
               B
   3
               C
               D
               A
               B
   4
               C
               D
               A
               B
   5
               C
               D
               A
               B
   6
               C
               D
               A
               B
   7
               C
               D
               A
               B
   8
               C
               D
                                                                                  21



                 A
                 B
    9
                 C
                 D
                 A
                 B
   10
                 C
                 D




Table 2: Turbidity minifact and analysis (James E. Kotoski)

 Water Depth                  Secchi Disk reading             Turbidity Rating
For Water Over 4 Feet         Disappears in less than1        Turbid
                              foot ( 30 cm )
For Water Over 4 Feet         Disappears in less than1 to     Moderately Turbid
                              2 feet (31 to 60 cm)
For Water Over 4 Feet         Disappears in less than 2.1     Slightly Turbid
                              to 4 feet ( 61 to 120 cm )
For Water Over 4 Feet         Visible at more than 4 feet     Clear
                              (121 cm or more )
For 2 feet of water           Disappears at less than1        Turbid
                              foot (less than 30 cm)
For 2 feet of water(Secchi    Visible but black/white         Moderately Turbid
                              boundary not defined
disk on the bottom)
                              clearly
For 2 feet of water(Secchi    Visible with black/white        Clear
                              boundary clearly defined
disk on the bottom)
For 2 to 4 feet of water      Disk disappears in              Turbid
                              less than 1 foot (less than
                              30 cm)
For 2 to 4 feet of water      Disk disappears between 1       Moderately Turbid
                              and 2 foot (30 to 60 cm)
For 2 to 4 feet of            Visible but black/white         Slightly Turbid
                              boundary not clearly
water(Secchi disk on the
                              defined
bottom)
For 2 to 4 feet of water(SD   Visible black/white             Clear
                              boundary clearly defined
on the bottom)
                                                                                              22



Table 3: Turbidity minifact and analysis of Tambacan Rivers and Bayug River

         This table is used for determining the turbidity rate. The secchi disk test is the
letter C of tabe 1.The second column is the water depth of the rivers.


# of sample             Water Depth (ft.)      Secchi Disk               Turbidity Rating
                                               reading (cm)


         T1
         T2
         T3
         T4
         T5
         T6
         T7
         T8
         T9
        T10
        M1
        M2
        M3
        M4
        M5
        M6
        M7
        M8
        M9
        M10
                                                                                              23




Table 4: pH minifact and analysis (Steven Institute and Technology)

                pH Level                                Water quality
Less than 5.5                               Poor: Very Basic
                                            fish and other organisms may find it impossible
                                            to survive
5.5 - 5.9                                   Fair
6.0 - 6.4                                   Good
6.5 - 7.5                                   Excellent
7.6 - 8.0                                   Good
8.1 - 8.5                                   Fair
Greater than 8.6                            Poor: Very Acidic
                                            fish and other organisms may find it impossible
                                            to survive

Table 5: pH minifact and analysis of Tambacan River

# of water sample            pH Level                       Water quality
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Table 6: pH minifact and analysis of Bayug River

# of water sample            pH Level                       Water quality
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
                                                                                                     24



Table 7: EC minifact and analysis (Helen Anderson and David Cummings, Melbourne)

EC range                              Water Quality
(µS/cm)
                      Excellent

                     Good drinking water for humans (provided there is no organic pollution
0 - 800               and not too much suspended clay material)
                     Generally good for irrigation, though above 300 µS/cm, some care must
                      be taken, particularly with overhead sprinklers which may cause leaf
                      scorch on some salt sensitive plants.
                     Suitable for all livestock

                      Good

                     Can be consumed by humans although most would prefer water in the
800 - 2,500           lower half of this range if available.
                     When used for irrigation, requires special management including suitable
                      soils, good drainage and consideration of salt tolerance of plants.
                     Suitable for all livestock.

                      Fair

                     Not recommended for human consumption, although water up to 3000
2,500 - 10,000        µS/cm could be drunk if nothing else was available.
                     Not normally suitable for irrigation, though water up to 6000 µS/cm can
                      be used on very salt tolerant crops with special management techniques.
                      Over 6000 µS/cm, occasional emergency irrigation may be possible with
                      care, or if sufficient low salinity water is available, this could be mixed
                      with the high salinity water to obtain an acceptable supply.
                     When used for drinking water by poultry and pigs, the salinity should be
                      limited to about 6000 µS/cm. Most other stock can use water up to
                      10,000 µS/cm.
                     Water over 4000 µS/cm can cause shell cracking in laying hens.
                     High magnesium levels can cause stock health problems in this range.
                      Analysis recommended.

                      Poor

                     Not suitable for human consumption or irrigation
Over 10,000          Not suitable for pigs, poultry or any lactating animals. Beef cattle can use
                      water up to 17,000 µS/cm and adult dry sheep can tolerate 23,000 µS/cm.
                      However it is possible that waters below these EC levels could contain
                      unacceptable concentrations of particular ions. Detailed chemical
                      analysis should therefore be considered before using high salinity water
                      for stock.
                                                                                           25




Table 8: EC minifact and analysis of Tambacan River and Bayug River


Sample            Tambacan River                            Bayug River
          EC reading   Water Quality             EC reading     Water Quality
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10



E. Statistical Tools

        The statistical tool this study is going to use is the ANOVA and a t-test. The
ANOVA or analysis of variance is used so that the researchers can compare K (more than
2) population means on the assumptions that independent random samples have been
drawn from the k normal populations and the variability of each sampled population is σ2
while the t-test is used to compare two independent sample means.

								
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