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NOUNS

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  • pg 1
									Prepositions
     The meaning and use of
          prepositions
 Prepositions  are words which show the
  relationship between things, people, or
  events.
 They express the relationships in space,
  time, purpose, possession, result, etc.
e.g. He lived by himself in an old house on
  the edge of the village. (space)
He stared at the dog for a while… (time)
 He  ought to have a pet for company.
  ( purpose)
 It went to sit on the other side of my room.
  (possession)
 Death from drowning.      (result)
    Patterns with prepositions
 PREPOSITION     + NOUN/PRONOUN
Sit on the chair ( followed by a noun)
The dog sat under it. (followed by a
  pronoun)
Why do you always do the opposite of what I
  tell you to do? ( followed by a noun
  phrase)
    Patterns with prepositions
 PREPOSITION    + ING VERB FORM
  (GERUND)
 I am no good at typing.
 He went home without saying good night.
 The dog responded by doing exactly the
  opposite.
                     Note
 Itis important to distinguish between to
  when it is part of the infinitive , as in I
  want to go home, and to as a preposition
  as in I’m not used to eating so much. You
  can decide which it is by trying to put it
  after to: if it still makes sense, then to is a
  preposition
 I want to go = I want to it (this does not
  make sense, so it is part of the infinitive)
 I am not used to eating= to it ( this makes
  sense, so to is preposition)
     Patterns with prepositions
 Prepositions at the end of the sentence
This means that the preposition is separated from
  its noun or pronoun. In most cases, a phrasal
  verb of the type VERB + PREPOSITION is
  involved, and the pronoun is either relative
  ( who, which, that ) or interrogative ( what, who
  which)
 Relatives
I was talking about a book + here is the book =
  Here is the book (that) I was talking about.
I have money ( that) you asked for.
She is a girl (whom) I work with
    Patterns with prepositions
Interrogative
 He is looking at sth + What? =
 What is he looking at?
  What were they talking about?
  Where do you come from?
  Who did you give it to?
  Tell me what are you thinking about.
       Prepositions that express
        relationships in space
Prepositions that express relationships in
  space
 At, in to(wards), (away) from, by,
  (a)round, up and down
 In(to), inside, outside, out of, behind, in
  front of
 Above and below, over and under
 On, on to, off, across
 Near, next to, by, beside
    Prepositions that express
     relationships in space
 Against
 Between   and among
    At, in to(wards), (away) from,
     by, (a)round, up and down
 Examples
 Movement
Move away from the fire
He pointed up the road
The dog ran down the road
 Rest
She lives away from home
Stay up the ladder
My house is just down the road
  At, in to(wards), (away) from,
   by, (a)round, up and down
At or in?
At is used to describe where you are in a
  general way without defining exactly
  where you are in , on, under, behind, etc.,
  the space:
e.g. I am sitting at my desk
My children are at school,
my sister is at University
We stayed at Heathrow Hotel.
In is more specific(definite):
 e.g. I keep my pens in my desk.
 you’re welcome any time in my house.
 There were some policemen in (the) school today.
Note
With the names of villages, towns and cities,
     especially with the verb arrive, the choice of at
     or in can be a little bit difficult. Use arrive at
     when you are thinking of the station, airport, or
     seaport
Use arrive in when you are thinking of the place
     itself.
At or to?
At describes the final point of the movement,
    seen as sth separate from the person or
    thing which moves. To suggests a
    relationship between the person/ thing and
    the destination. In a transferred sense, at
    can suggest aggression, to cooperation:
Don’t throw the ball at me!
Throw it to me! (playing)
 He shouted at him saying that he is fool.
    (arguing)
 He is shouting to him saying hello. (greeting
    him)
Similarly to point at/to. The meaning of at is
   suggested in to laugh at someone, which is
   unkind, to shoot at and to aim at, t which treat the
   final point of the movement as a target. Even to
   look at suggests a similar idea.
   In(to), inside, outside, out of,
         behind, in front of
In(to), inside, outside, out of, behind, in front
    of
 In , into, inside?
 Both in and inside can be used for
    movement or rest; into refers only to
    movement. Think of in as the more
    general word, and of into/ inside as
    more specific, emphasizing the
    movement (into) and the
    location(inside)
 In(to), inside, outside, out of,
       behind, in front of
e.g. A in B: Don’t put all your eggs in one
  basket.
A into B: We drove into Spain ( we moved
  from one country to another)
We drove in Spain. (When we were in
  Spain, we travelled by car)
A inside B: Circle A is inside circle B
   Above and below, over and
            under
The meaning of these pairs of prepositions
 is very similar, and in some cases you can
 use one or the other. The difference
 between them is :
Over and under describe a vertical
 relationship.
Above and below describe the relative
 position of two things when one is higher/
 lower than the other.
     House B is under house A
                    A

horizontal                B

     Square B is under square A
    Above and below, over and
             under
   Above and below zero
   E.g.
The temperature is 3° below zero.
Her skirt is below the knee, but her sister’s is
    above the knee.
The sun is sinking below the horizon.
 a over b equals c
E.g.
The ladder is leaning over the wall.
The plane is flying over the city.
Inder the circumstances, below average, under
    10.00£.
       On, on to, off, across
  These expressions describe movement or
  rest in relation to a surface
 See page 110
 On to is used like into to make it clear to
  emphasize that movement is from one
  place to another:
 E.g. the cat jumped on the table could
  mean that the cat is jumping on to the
  table or 2. the cat is on the surface of the
  table.
       On, on to, off, across
To make it clear, you could say: the cat
 jumped on to the table.
Examples of some expressions that use on:
a calendar on the wall, a fly on the ceiling,
 the news on page 4, a program on
 television on one hand/on the other hand,
 on the left /right.
       Between and among
Between refers to position or movement of
  sth or sb in relation to two objects
Among describes position or movement in
  relation to more than two objects.
e.g. what is the difference between a boat
  and a ship?
The present was divided among students.
It is nice to be among friends.
      Prepositions which express
         relationships in time

Prepositions which express relationships in
   time
Before and after
Since, for, during, by, until
In, at, on, within, past, to, from, between
   Prepositions which express
      relationships in time
 Before  and after
 They refer to points or periods of time
  either side of an event.
E.g. before the war after dinner before the
  game before Thursday after the weekend
 They are followed by the –ing form of the
  verb, as in the notice:
Please adjust your dress before leaving
  ( notice in public lavatories).
   Prepositions which express
      relationships in time
 Afterthinking about it for a while, I decided
  to choose the dark blue suit.
 However you can use the construction
  CONJUNCTION+ CLAUSE as in the
  sentences: have a drink before you go.
 We’ll go out after we’ve had sth to eat.
Have a drink before you go.
 The construction PREPOSITION + …
  ING would seem very formal or unusual.
    Since, for, during, by, until
 See  p. 113
 Since: since 1982 since breakfast since
  the beginning of May
 For: for a week for several years
 During: during the concert during the
  night
 By: She will come by nine if the roads are
  quiet. ( not later than)
    Since, for, during, by, until
 Until:until Friday until the end of the
  lesson
 Since and until can be used as
  conjunctions. E.g. We’ve had nothing but
  trouble ever since she arrived
Don’t hurry. I’ll wait until you have finished.
 During is only a preposition; the
  corresponding conjunction is while:
      Since, for, during, by, until

I   fell asleep 1) during the concert.
              2) while the concert was going on

 By, in the sense of not later than,
  becomes BY THE TIME + VERB:
 E.g. By the time you receive this letter, I
  shall be on the other side of the world.
 In, at, on, within, past, to, from,
              between
 At    POINT OF TIME
 ON A DAY OR DATE
 IN     PERIOD OF TIME
 Examples
 At 10 o’clock at Easter at the weekend
 On Monday on the first of the month
 In 1999 in July in the first three months (
  in is similar in meaning to during. It can be
 In, at, on, within, past, to, from,
              between
 also  used to mean not more than:
 E.g. I’ll be back in a minute.
 Note
 All the three prepositions can be used with
  the word time, but with different meanings:
 On time: Try to arrive on time. ( punctual)
 In time: I f you hurry, you should be in
  time to catch the train ( you will not be
  too late)
 In, at, on, within, past, to, from,
              between
 At one time: At one time you could get the
  hotel room for 5.00£ a night. ( there was a
  time when this was true)
 At times: he behaves a little strangely at
  times. (sometimes)
 TO, FROM, PAST A POINT OF TIME
 BETWEEN              TWO TIMES
 In, at, on, within, past, to, from,
              between
 Examples:
 Half past 4, 5 past 4, 20 past 4
 10 to 5, a quarter to 5
 From July to September
 Between July and September
 Note the useful extension of from in these
  expressions: from the time + clause…
 From the moment I saw you, I knew that
  you were the one for me.
Prepositions that express other
         relationships
 Prepositions   that express other
  relationships
 Simple prepositions
About against at besides by but despite
  except for from in like of on out of
  than to unlike with without
 Compound prepositions
 Prepositions in -ing
 Prepositions that express other
          relationships
    Simple prepositions
A.   Usage
1.      Some of these expressions are used
     with adjectives : afraid of different from
     amazed at angry with
2.    Some of these expressions form fixed
     expressions: by heart from memory on
     leave without fail
 Prepositions that express other
          relationships
1.  Some of these expressions are used
   with verbs: depend on go without wait
   for prevent from
A. Meaning of relationships
 About
Subject matter: a book about insects
Concerning:     She is worried about her
  exams
Prepositions that express other
         relationships
 Against
Opposition: I am against the idea.
             Some MPs voted against the
  proposal
 At
Reaction: I am amazed at your suggestion.
           At my request, he has resigned
  from the party.
Prepositions that express other
         relationships
 Level of ability: good at games bad at
   remembering faces.
 Besides
 It means the same as apart from or in
   addition to. The sentence
I know you have oranges, but do you have
   sth else? Can be simply expressed using
   besides:
Do you have sth else besides oranges?
Prepositions that express other
         relationships
 But
It is similar to except:
 She said hello to everyone but me.
The compound but for is useful. The
   sentence
If it had not been for me, you would all have
   been killed.
Can be: But for me, you would all have
   been killed.
 Prepositions that express other
          relationships
 By
Means or method: go by car
 He entered by the window and left by the
   side door.
 The creator: a novel by Charles Dickens
 Despite
It is similar to inspite of
Despite their political differences, the two
   countries do a lot of trade with each other.
Prepositions that express other
         relationships
 Except
Commoner than but:
She said hello to everyone except me.
 For
Purpose: I only did it for the money.
Destination: Where are you heading for?
Support: I am all for the idea.
A kind of comparison: He is a bit too old for
  you. 2. She is very advanced for her age.
Prepositions that express other
         relationships
 From
Origin: I come from Barcelona.
Separation\distinction: It was stolen from the
  office safe.
Can’t you tell butter from margarine?
 In
Manner: Tell me in a few words what
  happened next.
She replied in a most offensive manner.
Prepositions that express other
         relationships
 Like
 Manner:  He smokes like a chimney.
 He plays football like his brother.
 Comparison: like father like son.
 Of
 Possession: the symphonies of Mozart a
  man of few words the University of …
 Material: made of cold a door of steel
Prepositions that express other
         relationships
Result: to die of old age.
Quantity: a piece of paper full of hatred
 On
subject matter: He spoke on The Birds of
  Christchurch Harbor. You could also use
  about instead of on to refer to subject
  matter (e.g. a book about birds). The
  preposition on suggests a formal situation,
Prepositions that express other
         relationships
about suggests an informal unprepared
  one. Thus, you would say to lecture on a
  subject but to have a chat about sth.
 Out of
No longer possessing: out of stock run out
  of food out of breath
Material/origin: He made a table out of old
  orange boxes.
Motive/cause: She acted out of spite.
Prepositions that express other
         relationships
 Than
Using in making comparisons: Half a loaf is
  better than none. (proverb)
 To
Comparison/ratio: We won by two goals to
  nill.
Odds of 10 to 1.
A petrol consumption of 25 miles to the
  gallon. (comparing two amounts).
Prepositions that express other
         relationships
Cause (emotional reaction): To my surprise,
   nobody replied to advertisement.
It replaces of or for: in some expressions like
   secretary to the managing director,
   financial advisor to the board, where to
   means who works for.
Prepositions that express other
         relationships
 With
Manner: with a smile with pleasure
Instrument: He cut it with a knife.
 Note
There is a difference between the use of by
  and with to express the
  means/instrument. With tells us what sn
  used in order to do sth, but there is not
necessarily a person with an intention when
  we use by. For this reason, you could say
  He was killed with a sword but you could
  not use with in sentences like He was
  killed by a train or by a lion. The test is
  this: if you can substitute the word using,
  the preposition should be with.
Accompaniment: Come with me. I’d like a
  steak with a green salad.
Prepositions that express other
         relationships
Support: We are with you.
Ingredients/contents: filled with walnuts
 Without
It expresses the opposite of with:
Manner: without hesitation
Instrument: he cut it without a knife.
Accompniment: You must go with me.
Possession: A beard without a moustache is
   like a violin without a bow
     Compound Prepositions
 These   prepositions often have the pattern
  PREPOSITION + NOUN + PREPOSITION
 In addition to at the bottom of by means
  of
 Notes
 There are many compound prepositions
  which are used by people, especially in
  writing, in order to make what they write
  seem more important and educated.
     Compound Prepositions
 E.g.  We wish to talk to you …your
  proposal.
With respect to
With reference to
 in respect of
In connection with
 All these long-winded compounds can be
  replaced by the simple word about.
       Compound Prepositions
 2.The expression due to is often used as
 a preposition with the same meaning as
 because of or owing to, but they are
 different in construction: say X is due to Y
 or Because of Y,X
Because of bad weather, the match has
 been cancelled.
The cancellation is due to bad weather.
          Prepositions in -ing
 There are a number of words derived from
  verbs which may be regarded as
  prepositions expressing relationships.
  They are mostly used in formal situations
  such as written English, and can
  sometimes be replaced by a simpler word.
 Concerning, regarding, including, and
  excluding.

								
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