VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 54 POSTED ON: 2/23/2012
Prepositions The meaning and use of prepositions Prepositions are words which show the relationship between things, people, or events. They express the relationships in space, time, purpose, possession, result, etc. e.g. He lived by himself in an old house on the edge of the village. (space) He stared at the dog for a while… (time) He ought to have a pet for company. ( purpose) It went to sit on the other side of my room. (possession) Death from drowning. (result) Patterns with prepositions PREPOSITION + NOUN/PRONOUN Sit on the chair ( followed by a noun) The dog sat under it. (followed by a pronoun) Why do you always do the opposite of what I tell you to do? ( followed by a noun phrase) Patterns with prepositions PREPOSITION + ING VERB FORM (GERUND) I am no good at typing. He went home without saying good night. The dog responded by doing exactly the opposite. Note Itis important to distinguish between to when it is part of the infinitive , as in I want to go home, and to as a preposition as in I’m not used to eating so much. You can decide which it is by trying to put it after to: if it still makes sense, then to is a preposition I want to go = I want to it (this does not make sense, so it is part of the infinitive) I am not used to eating= to it ( this makes sense, so to is preposition) Patterns with prepositions Prepositions at the end of the sentence This means that the preposition is separated from its noun or pronoun. In most cases, a phrasal verb of the type VERB + PREPOSITION is involved, and the pronoun is either relative ( who, which, that ) or interrogative ( what, who which) Relatives I was talking about a book + here is the book = Here is the book (that) I was talking about. I have money ( that) you asked for. She is a girl (whom) I work with Patterns with prepositions Interrogative He is looking at sth + What? = What is he looking at? What were they talking about? Where do you come from? Who did you give it to? Tell me what are you thinking about. Prepositions that express relationships in space Prepositions that express relationships in space At, in to(wards), (away) from, by, (a)round, up and down In(to), inside, outside, out of, behind, in front of Above and below, over and under On, on to, off, across Near, next to, by, beside Prepositions that express relationships in space Against Between and among At, in to(wards), (away) from, by, (a)round, up and down Examples Movement Move away from the fire He pointed up the road The dog ran down the road Rest She lives away from home Stay up the ladder My house is just down the road At, in to(wards), (away) from, by, (a)round, up and down At or in? At is used to describe where you are in a general way without defining exactly where you are in , on, under, behind, etc., the space: e.g. I am sitting at my desk My children are at school, my sister is at University We stayed at Heathrow Hotel. In is more specific(definite): e.g. I keep my pens in my desk. you’re welcome any time in my house. There were some policemen in (the) school today. Note With the names of villages, towns and cities, especially with the verb arrive, the choice of at or in can be a little bit difficult. Use arrive at when you are thinking of the station, airport, or seaport Use arrive in when you are thinking of the place itself. At or to? At describes the final point of the movement, seen as sth separate from the person or thing which moves. To suggests a relationship between the person/ thing and the destination. In a transferred sense, at can suggest aggression, to cooperation: Don’t throw the ball at me! Throw it to me! (playing) He shouted at him saying that he is fool. (arguing) He is shouting to him saying hello. (greeting him) Similarly to point at/to. The meaning of at is suggested in to laugh at someone, which is unkind, to shoot at and to aim at, t which treat the final point of the movement as a target. Even to look at suggests a similar idea. In(to), inside, outside, out of, behind, in front of In(to), inside, outside, out of, behind, in front of In , into, inside? Both in and inside can be used for movement or rest; into refers only to movement. Think of in as the more general word, and of into/ inside as more specific, emphasizing the movement (into) and the location(inside) In(to), inside, outside, out of, behind, in front of e.g. A in B: Don’t put all your eggs in one basket. A into B: We drove into Spain ( we moved from one country to another) We drove in Spain. (When we were in Spain, we travelled by car) A inside B: Circle A is inside circle B Above and below, over and under The meaning of these pairs of prepositions is very similar, and in some cases you can use one or the other. The difference between them is : Over and under describe a vertical relationship. Above and below describe the relative position of two things when one is higher/ lower than the other. House B is under house A A horizontal B Square B is under square A Above and below, over and under Above and below zero E.g. The temperature is 3° below zero. Her skirt is below the knee, but her sister’s is above the knee. The sun is sinking below the horizon. a over b equals c E.g. The ladder is leaning over the wall. The plane is flying over the city. Inder the circumstances, below average, under 10.00£. On, on to, off, across These expressions describe movement or rest in relation to a surface See page 110 On to is used like into to make it clear to emphasize that movement is from one place to another: E.g. the cat jumped on the table could mean that the cat is jumping on to the table or 2. the cat is on the surface of the table. On, on to, off, across To make it clear, you could say: the cat jumped on to the table. Examples of some expressions that use on: a calendar on the wall, a fly on the ceiling, the news on page 4, a program on television on one hand/on the other hand, on the left /right. Between and among Between refers to position or movement of sth or sb in relation to two objects Among describes position or movement in relation to more than two objects. e.g. what is the difference between a boat and a ship? The present was divided among students. It is nice to be among friends. Prepositions which express relationships in time Prepositions which express relationships in time Before and after Since, for, during, by, until In, at, on, within, past, to, from, between Prepositions which express relationships in time Before and after They refer to points or periods of time either side of an event. E.g. before the war after dinner before the game before Thursday after the weekend They are followed by the –ing form of the verb, as in the notice: Please adjust your dress before leaving ( notice in public lavatories). Prepositions which express relationships in time Afterthinking about it for a while, I decided to choose the dark blue suit. However you can use the construction CONJUNCTION+ CLAUSE as in the sentences: have a drink before you go. We’ll go out after we’ve had sth to eat. Have a drink before you go. The construction PREPOSITION + … ING would seem very formal or unusual. Since, for, during, by, until See p. 113 Since: since 1982 since breakfast since the beginning of May For: for a week for several years During: during the concert during the night By: She will come by nine if the roads are quiet. ( not later than) Since, for, during, by, until Until:until Friday until the end of the lesson Since and until can be used as conjunctions. E.g. We’ve had nothing but trouble ever since she arrived Don’t hurry. I’ll wait until you have finished. During is only a preposition; the corresponding conjunction is while: Since, for, during, by, until I fell asleep 1) during the concert. 2) while the concert was going on By, in the sense of not later than, becomes BY THE TIME + VERB: E.g. By the time you receive this letter, I shall be on the other side of the world. In, at, on, within, past, to, from, between At POINT OF TIME ON A DAY OR DATE IN PERIOD OF TIME Examples At 10 o’clock at Easter at the weekend On Monday on the first of the month In 1999 in July in the first three months ( in is similar in meaning to during. It can be In, at, on, within, past, to, from, between also used to mean not more than: E.g. I’ll be back in a minute. Note All the three prepositions can be used with the word time, but with different meanings: On time: Try to arrive on time. ( punctual) In time: I f you hurry, you should be in time to catch the train ( you will not be too late) In, at, on, within, past, to, from, between At one time: At one time you could get the hotel room for 5.00£ a night. ( there was a time when this was true) At times: he behaves a little strangely at times. (sometimes) TO, FROM, PAST A POINT OF TIME BETWEEN TWO TIMES In, at, on, within, past, to, from, between Examples: Half past 4, 5 past 4, 20 past 4 10 to 5, a quarter to 5 From July to September Between July and September Note the useful extension of from in these expressions: from the time + clause… From the moment I saw you, I knew that you were the one for me. Prepositions that express other relationships Prepositions that express other relationships Simple prepositions About against at besides by but despite except for from in like of on out of than to unlike with without Compound prepositions Prepositions in -ing Prepositions that express other relationships Simple prepositions A. Usage 1. Some of these expressions are used with adjectives : afraid of different from amazed at angry with 2. Some of these expressions form fixed expressions: by heart from memory on leave without fail Prepositions that express other relationships 1. Some of these expressions are used with verbs: depend on go without wait for prevent from A. Meaning of relationships About Subject matter: a book about insects Concerning: She is worried about her exams Prepositions that express other relationships Against Opposition: I am against the idea. Some MPs voted against the proposal At Reaction: I am amazed at your suggestion. At my request, he has resigned from the party. Prepositions that express other relationships Level of ability: good at games bad at remembering faces. Besides It means the same as apart from or in addition to. The sentence I know you have oranges, but do you have sth else? Can be simply expressed using besides: Do you have sth else besides oranges? Prepositions that express other relationships But It is similar to except: She said hello to everyone but me. The compound but for is useful. The sentence If it had not been for me, you would all have been killed. Can be: But for me, you would all have been killed. Prepositions that express other relationships By Means or method: go by car He entered by the window and left by the side door. The creator: a novel by Charles Dickens Despite It is similar to inspite of Despite their political differences, the two countries do a lot of trade with each other. Prepositions that express other relationships Except Commoner than but: She said hello to everyone except me. For Purpose: I only did it for the money. Destination: Where are you heading for? Support: I am all for the idea. A kind of comparison: He is a bit too old for you. 2. She is very advanced for her age. Prepositions that express other relationships From Origin: I come from Barcelona. Separation\distinction: It was stolen from the office safe. Can’t you tell butter from margarine? In Manner: Tell me in a few words what happened next. She replied in a most offensive manner. Prepositions that express other relationships Like Manner: He smokes like a chimney. He plays football like his brother. Comparison: like father like son. Of Possession: the symphonies of Mozart a man of few words the University of … Material: made of cold a door of steel Prepositions that express other relationships Result: to die of old age. Quantity: a piece of paper full of hatred On subject matter: He spoke on The Birds of Christchurch Harbor. You could also use about instead of on to refer to subject matter (e.g. a book about birds). The preposition on suggests a formal situation, Prepositions that express other relationships about suggests an informal unprepared one. Thus, you would say to lecture on a subject but to have a chat about sth. Out of No longer possessing: out of stock run out of food out of breath Material/origin: He made a table out of old orange boxes. Motive/cause: She acted out of spite. Prepositions that express other relationships Than Using in making comparisons: Half a loaf is better than none. (proverb) To Comparison/ratio: We won by two goals to nill. Odds of 10 to 1. A petrol consumption of 25 miles to the gallon. (comparing two amounts). Prepositions that express other relationships Cause (emotional reaction): To my surprise, nobody replied to advertisement. It replaces of or for: in some expressions like secretary to the managing director, financial advisor to the board, where to means who works for. Prepositions that express other relationships With Manner: with a smile with pleasure Instrument: He cut it with a knife. Note There is a difference between the use of by and with to express the means/instrument. With tells us what sn used in order to do sth, but there is not necessarily a person with an intention when we use by. For this reason, you could say He was killed with a sword but you could not use with in sentences like He was killed by a train or by a lion. The test is this: if you can substitute the word using, the preposition should be with. Accompaniment: Come with me. I’d like a steak with a green salad. Prepositions that express other relationships Support: We are with you. Ingredients/contents: filled with walnuts Without It expresses the opposite of with: Manner: without hesitation Instrument: he cut it without a knife. Accompniment: You must go with me. Possession: A beard without a moustache is like a violin without a bow Compound Prepositions These prepositions often have the pattern PREPOSITION + NOUN + PREPOSITION In addition to at the bottom of by means of Notes There are many compound prepositions which are used by people, especially in writing, in order to make what they write seem more important and educated. Compound Prepositions E.g. We wish to talk to you …your proposal. With respect to With reference to in respect of In connection with All these long-winded compounds can be replaced by the simple word about. Compound Prepositions 2.The expression due to is often used as a preposition with the same meaning as because of or owing to, but they are different in construction: say X is due to Y or Because of Y,X Because of bad weather, the match has been cancelled. The cancellation is due to bad weather. Prepositions in -ing There are a number of words derived from verbs which may be regarded as prepositions expressing relationships. They are mostly used in formal situations such as written English, and can sometimes be replaced by a simpler word. Concerning, regarding, including, and excluding.
Pages to are hidden for
"NOUNS"Please download to view full document