NOx Emission Factors

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					NOx Emission Factors




          Robert Fowler
  ME 449: Sustainable Air Quality
           April 2001
            Table of Contents
•   Objective of work
•   Major contributors for NOx emissions
•   Emission factor equations
•   Data sources
•   Summary
•   Recommendations
                  Objective
         • Show emission factor calculations




                     Method
Web search and EPA manual foe emission factors AP-42
           Major Contributors to NOx
• Transportation - gas and diesel
              vehicles
                                                 Nox Emissions   Industrial
• Fuel combustion - power plants       Fuel                      Processes
                                    Combustion                      7%
 • Industrial Processes - waste       41%

    disposal/petroleum refinery




                                                                 Transportation
                                                                     52%
           Transportation emission equation

Driving factors: Emission factor and vehicle miles traveled
         Equation for emission factor
                  EF = (BER*OMTCF+OMTTAM)*SALCHF*TF
• BER - basic emission rate
• OMTCF - operating mode/temperature correction factor
• OMTTAM - Tampering offset
• SALCHF - Speed correction factor
• TF - Travel fraction

To get the emission inventory:
                  EI = EF * VMT
   Fuel combustion emission equation

Driving factors: emission factor & quantity of fuel consumed
         Emission factor: Mass of pollutant/mass of fuel (or
                           output)
•Boilers - lb NOx/ton fuel
•ICE’s - lb NOx/hp-hr power output and lb NOx/MMBtu
         fuel input
•Gas turbines - lb NOx/MMBtu fuel
•Stationary diesels - lb NOx/hp-hr power output and lb
                      NOx/MMBtu fuel input
•Stationary dual fuel engines - lb NOx/hp-hr power output
                               and lb NOx/MMBtu fuel input
       Industrial Processes emission equations

Driving factors: Emission factor and mass of fuel burned
         Emission factor: mass pollutant/mass (or volume) fuel
• Solid waste disposal - kg NOx/Mg refuse or lb NOx/ton refuse
• Sewage sludge - kg NOx/Mg refuse or lb NOx/ton sludge
• Medical - kg NOx/Mg refuse or lb NOx/ton refuse
• Open burning - kg NOx/Mg refuse or lb NOx/ton refuse
• Auto Body - kg NOx/Mg refuse or lb NOx/ton refuse
• Evaporation losses - g/drum or lb/drum
• Petroleum refineries - kg NOx/103 L fresh feed; lb NOx/1000 bbl
                         (barrel) fresh feed; kg NOx/1000 m3 gas burned;
                         lb NOx/1000 ft3 gas burned; kg NOx/103 L
                         refinery feed; lb NOx/1000 bbl refinery feed
                           Data Source
• Transportation data - EPA AP-42 Vol II Appendix G
                http://www.epa.gov/otaq/ap42.htm
• Fuel combustion and industrial processes - EPA AP-42 Vol I Chapter
                                            1-5, 11
                http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch01/
               http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch02/
               http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch03/
               http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch04/
               http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch05/
               http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch11/
                              Summary


• The major contributors of NOx emissions are transportation, fuel
  combustion, and industrial processes
• Emission inventory is determined by the emission factor times the
  driving force
• Data came from EPA AP-42 manual Vol I & II


                             Conclusion
• Still don’t know what the equations are to determine the numbers for
  the emission factors
• EPA website very useful obtaining the emission factor for whatever
  fuel you need it for
Recommendations for improving emission factors
• The uncontrolled emission factors can be reduced by better controls
  within the system prior to exhaust
• The controlled emission factors can be reduced by better scrubbers and
  filters at the exhaust

				
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