Ullman�s Spatial Interaction Model by 491nVtn

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									 Ullman’s Spatial
Interaction Model


    AP Geography
                         Travel patterns for purchase of clothing and yard goods.
                         A) Canadian rural cash-economy.
                         B) Canadian older Mennonite sect.



                                                               Very different
                                                               travel behaviors
                                                               show the
                                                               differences that
                                                               may exist in the
                                                               “action spaces”
                                                               of different
                                                               cultural groups
                                                               occupying the
                                                               same territory.
Getis, Getis, Fellmann
 Getis, Geits, Fellmann




Chicago Travel Patterns: shows 96% of all trips.

What factors influence & create these patterns of interaction?
       Edward Ullman’s Theory
   Spatial Interaction is
    controlled by three
    flow-determining
    factors.
1. Complementarity
2. Transferability
3. Intervening
    Opportunity
                    Complementarity
   For two places to interact,
    one place must have a
    supply of an item for
    which there is an effective
    demand.
   Example: product: Oil -
    Interaction: US - Middle East


   Differences of place is
    not enough to create
    interaction.
   Example: rain forest and Greenland
      What is Effective Demand?
   Desire for the item
    (demand)
   Purchasing Power -
    $$$
   Means to transport the
    product - rail, road,
    internet, ship etc.
Transferability
           Refers to mobility of a
            commodity
           Spatial interaction
            occurs only when
            acceptable costs of an
            exchange are met.
           Costs include both
            Time and Money
      Transferability Function of Three
                Conditions.
   Characteristics and value of product.
   The distance measured in time and money.
   The ability of the commodity to bear the
    costs of movement.
    – Both physical and economic.
    – If the time and money costs are too great
      interaction does not occur.
    – Buyer seeks substitute or goes without product.
        Intervening Opportunity

                     Closer opportunities will
                      reduce the the
                      attractiveness of interaction
                      with more distant- even
    B
                      slightly better- alternatives.
                     Example -ski area in Big
                      Bear. The snow is not as
C                     good as Tahoe. But people
                      in Southern Calif. are more
              A       likely to ski in Big Bear.
Measuring Spatial
  Interactions

Key Concepts and Theories
           Friction of Distance
   Distance has a retarding effect on human
    interactions because there are increasing
    penalties in time and cost associated with
    longer distances.
       Space-Time Compression
   How do we measure relative distance - miles,
    time, cost?
   How is this different than absolute distance?
   What effects has information technology had on
    relative distance?
   Discuss - impacts on daily lives, cultural change,
    migration.
   Draw graphic to illustrate Space-Time
    Compression

								
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