The Silent Way
Theoretical Background (1)
1. Challenge of Audio-Lingua Method:
Ss are unable to transfer habits formed in the
classroom to communicate outside of it.
2. Noam Chomsky:
Language must not be considered a product of
habit formation, but rule formation.
Language acquisition must be a procedure of
people using their own thinking process, or
cognition, to discover the rules of the language
they are acquiring.
Theoretical Background (2)
Cognitive Approach 認知教學法
Rather than responding to stimuli, Ss are
responsible for their learning,
engaged in formulating hypotheses to
discover the rules of target language
American educator, Galeb Gattegno created in
the 70s, 1983.
Basic principle: Teaching should be
subordinated to learning.
Teaching is to serve learning process rather
than to dominate it.
Learners are actively searching for rules of the
target language regarding to the learner in the
errors signs that Ss were actively testing
No English teaching methods are directly
from cognitive approach, but a number of
innovative methods emerged.
The silent way is one of them.
Learning is a process which we initiate by
ourselves by mobilizing our inner
resources. (perception, awareness,
cognition, imagination, intuition,
In the process of learning, we integrate
into ourselves whatever ‘new’ that we
create, and use it as a stepping stone for
Gattegno “The teacher works with the
students; the students work on the
In a period of class, teacher should not talk
more than 10%.
Have Ss talk.
Ss should use language for self-expression.
Ss develop their inner criteria for correctness.
Only the learners can do the learning.
Ss is to make use of what they know.
Learning is Ss’ personal responsibility.
Teacher should respect the autonomy of
the learners in language.
Teaching involves only one structure at a
With minimal spoken cues, Ss are guided
to produce the structure.
Ss practice without repetition.
Ss gain autonomy in the language by
T sets up situation to ‘force awareness’
through the use of nonverbal gestures
and the tools which are available.