Docstoc

Quick Quiz 1

Document Sample
Quick Quiz 1 Powered By Docstoc
					                                           Chapter 11 Quick Quiz
 1. Good nutrition promotes
    a. growth of strong bones and teeth.              c. increases in height and weight.
    b. cognitive performance.                         d. all of these answers.

 2. Artificial human growth hormones have been administered to promote growth in children for the last 20 years.
    What factor is inhibiting more widespread use of these drugs?
    a. There is no way to stop the child’s growth.
    b. Height is not considered an advantage in the United States.
    c. There are potentially dangerous side effects.
    d. The only thing preventing more usage is availability of the drug.

 3. Factors that have been identified as contributing to childhood obesity include
    a. genetic predispositions.                        c. poor nutritious diets.
    b. little exercise.                                d. all of these answers.

 4. The most frequent source of injury to school age children is
    a. fires and burns.                              c. drowning.
    b. auto accidents.                               d. gun-related deaths.

 5. During the middle childhood years, children begin to participate in organized sports activities. If you want a
    child to enjoy and continue playing sports you should make sure that the goals for playing include all of the
    following EXCEPT
    a. maintaining physical fitness.                 c. winning as many competitions as possible.
    b. having fun.                                   d. becoming comfortable with one’s body.

 6. While there have always been threats to the health and safety of school aged children, many parents are most
    concerned about the safety of children in cyberspace. To make cyberspace visits safer, all of following could be
    effective EXCEPT
    a. supervising computer use by keeping the computer in more public areas instead of bedrooms.
    b. establishing guidelines and discussing those guidelines with everyone in the family.
    c. locking the child out of the computer entirely.
    d. making use of parental controls available to block out inappropriate sites.

 7. This miniature computer transforms sounds into digital signals to the brain, allowing a formerly deaf person to
    hear. This is accomplished through the placement of a(n)
    a. digital hearing aid.                         c. amplified ear horn.
    b. cochlea implant.                             d. auditory nerve transplant.

 8. Treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder can include
    a. behavior modification.                          c. adding structure to the classroom.
    b. drug therapy.                                   d. all of these answers.

 9. The most common speech impediment, which involves a substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of
    speech is
    a. a lisp.                                  c. stuttering.
    b. phonetic distraction.                    d. selective mutism.

10. Which of the following statements best describes the difference between mainstreaming and full inclusion in
    terms of exceptional students?
    a. Both mainstreaming and full inclusion involve integrating exceptional students in the traditional classrooms.
    b. Only full inclusion offers the exceptional student with additional support.
    c. While both programs integrate exceptional students into the traditional classroom, in the full inclusion
       classroom all students are in the regular classrooms.



                                                        218
    d. Full inclusion teachers have extra aides to assist with the exceptional students.
                                      Chapter 11 Quick Quiz Answers
 1. Chapter Section: The Growing Body
    Answer: d             Page(s): 297          Type: Conceptual
    Rationale: Good nutrition is important for all of these listed items. Longitudinal research in Guatemalan
    villages also demonstrated that good nutrition is related to social and emotional functioning at school age.

 2. Chapter Section: The Growing Body
    Answer: c             Page(s): 298          Type: Applied
    Rationale: While the short-term benefits have been documented, there are still potentially dangerous side
    effects and no conclusive long term safety studies.

 3. Chapter Section: The Growing Body
    Answer: d               Page(s): 299          Type: Conceptual
    Rationale: Obesity in children ages 6 to 12 has risen dramatically over the past 40 years by more than three-
    fold. Factors that are contributing to this epidemic include genetic predispositions, sedentary activities, little
    exercise, and poor diet.

 4. Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
    Answer: b            Page(s): 307          Type: Factual
    Rationale: Automobile accidents are the most frequent injury to school age children. Fires and burns,
    drowning, and gun-related deaths follow in frequency.

 5. Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
    Answer: c               Page(s): 307            Type: Conceptual
    Rationale: Participation in organized athletics should have the following as goals: 1) to maintain physical
    fitness, 2) to become comfortable with one’s body, 3) to learn physical skills, and 4) to have fun! When children
    feel that success in sports is the sole goal, the pleasure of playing the game is diminished.

 6. Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
    Answer: c              Page(s): 308        Type: Applied
    Rationale: All of the suggestions are good ideas for working to create secure environments online except
    completely blocking your child from using the computer. Computers are used more in school and for out of
    class assignments, and banning your child from using the computer will not help to keep him or her safe.

 7. Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
    Answer: b              Page(s): 310         Type: Factual
    Rationale: Through an operation, an electronic device known as a cochlea implant is inserted into a bone in the
    ear, allowing the patient to hear, sometimes for the first time.

 8. Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
    Answer: d            Page(s): 311, 312 Type: Factual
    Rationale: Treatments for ADHD may include drug therapy, behavioral modifications, and structuring the
    classroom and school schedule.

 9. Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
    Answer: c             Page(s): 310         Type: Factual
    Rationale: Stuttering is the most common speech impediment. It involves a substantial disruption in the rhythm
    and fluency of speech, and despite extensive research, no specific cause has been uncovered.

10. Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
    Answer: c           Page(s): 323         Type: Factual




                                                          219
    Rationale: Despite high activity levels, there are significant variations among children, and those individual
    differences are influenced by genetics (individual temperament) and by environmental factors (parental
    discipline style and cultural expectations).
                                         Chapter 11
                          Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Multiple Choice Questions

11.1 Middle childhood is often referred to as the “school years” because it marks the beginning of formal
     education for most children. Middle childhood ranges from
     a. 2 to 7 years.                                c. birth to 2 years.
     b. 6 to 12 years.                               d. 5 to 8 years.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: b              Page(s): 296          Type: Factual
Rationale: Beginning at age 6 and continuing to the start of adolescence at around age 12, middle childhood is often
referred to as the “school years” because it marks the beginning of formal education for most children.

11.2 While they are in elementary school, children in the United States grow, on average, 2 to 3 inches per year.
     By the age of 11, the average height for girls is ___________, and the average height for boys is slightly
     shorter at ___________.
     a. 3'5"; 4'5"                                    c. 4'9"; 4'10"
     b. 3'10"; 4'10"                                  d. 4'10"; 4'9½"

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: d                Page(s): 297      Type: Factual
Rationale: By the age of 11, the average height for girls is 4 feet, 10 inches, and the average height for boys is
slightly shorter at 4 feet, 9½ inches.

11.3 Weight gain follows a pattern similar to height. During middle childhood, both boys and girls gain around
     ___________ pounds a year.
     a. 2 to 5                                       c. 6 to 9
     b. 5 to 7                                       d. 9 to 12

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: b           Page(s): 297         Type: Factual
Rationale: During middle childhood, both boys and girls gain around 5 to 7 pounds a year.

11.4 While in elementary school, children in the United States grow, on average, ___________ a year.
     a. 5 to 6 inches                              c. 3 to 6 inches
     b. 4 to 8 inches                              d. 2 to 3 inches

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: d            Page(s): 297          Type: Factual
Rationale: While they are in elementary school, children in the United States, grow an average of 2 to 3 inches a year.

11.5 Children who had received more nutrients
     a. were more involved with their peers.           c. had less anxiety.
     b. showed more positive emotion.                  d. all of these answers.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: d           Page(s): 297            Type: Factual




                                                         220
Rationale: Children who received more nutrients were more involved with their peers, showed more positive
emotion, had less anxiety, and had more moderate activity levels than did their peers who had received less adequate
nutrition.




                                                       221
11.6 Starting at around the age of 6, the primary teeth fall out at the rate of about ___________ per year until the
     age of 11.
     a. 2                                             c. 6
     b. 4                                             d. 8

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: b              Page(s): 297           Type: Factual
Rationale: Starting at around the age of 6, the primary teeth fall out at the rate of about 4 per year until the age of 11.

11.7 Individual differences in height can be as much as ___________ inches apart for children that are the same age.
     a. 2 to 3                                       c. 6 to 7
     b. 10 to 12                                     d. 12 to 15

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: c             Page(s): 297         Type: Factual
Rationale: Average height and weight increases disguise significant individual differences. It is not unusual to see
children of the same age who are 6 or 7 inches apart in height.

11.8 Children in poorer areas of cities such as Calcutta, Hong Kong, and Rio de Janeiro are smaller than their
     counterparts in affluent areas of the same cities. These differences in height are a reflection of
     a. genes and environment.                        c. ethnicity and diet.
     b. heredity and diet.                            d. nutrition and disease.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: d              Page(s): 297          Type: Factual
Rationale: In these cities and other areas of the world, inadequate nutrition and disease take their toll and children
are shorter and weigh less than they would if they had sufficient nutrients.

11.9 In the United States most variations in height and weight are the result of different people’s
     a. genes.                                       c. diet.
     b. environment.                                 d. lifestyles.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: a               Page(s): 297          Type: Factual
Rationale: Most children in North America receive sufficient nutrients to grow to their full potential. In the United
States, most variations in height and weight are the result of different people’s unique genetic inheritance, including
genetic factors relating to racial and ethnic background.

11.10 Longitudinal studies in Guatemalan villages show that nutritional backgrounds are related to ___________
      functioning at school age.
      a. intellectual and personality               c. intellectual and behavioral
      b. social and emotional                       d. behavioral and psychological

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: b             Page(s): 297         Type: Factual
Rationale: Longitudinal studies over many years in Guatemalan villages show that children’s nutritional
backgrounds are related to several dimensions of social and emotional functioning at school age.

11.11 Good nutrition is linked to all of the following EXCEPT
      a. social and emotional functioning.             c. obesity.
      b. strong bones.                                 d. cognitive performance.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: c            Page(s): 297        Type: Factual
Rationale: Good nutrition promotes strong bones, and is linked to cognitive performance and social and emotional
functioning.



                                                            222
11.12 Concern for weight borders on obsession for many girls in middle childhood. About ___________ of girls in
      middle childhood are trying to lose weight.
      a. 40%                                       c. 80%
      b. 60%                                       d. 90%

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: a           Page(s): 298        Type: Factual
Rationale: Concern about weight can border on obsession; some 40% of 9- and 10-year-olds are trying to lose
weight.

11.13 Ten-year-old Marissa’s worst fear is that she will become fat and nobody will want to be her friend. Like
      many girls her age, Marissa’s concern over her weight borders on obsession. We can probably assume that
      Marissa, like ___________ of her peers, has tried to lose weight.
      a. 40%                                         c. 80%
      b. 60%                                         d. 90%

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: a            Page(s): 298        Type: Conceptual
Rationale: Concern about weight can border on obsession; some 40% of 9- and 10-year-olds are trying to lose weight.

11.14 Obesity is defined as body weight that is more than 20% above the average for a person of a given age and
      height. By this definition, ___________ U.S. children is obese—a proportion that has tripled since the 1960s.
      a. one in five                                 c. one in eight
      b. one in six                                  d. one in nine

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: c              Page(s): 298          Type: Factual
Rationale: Based on the definition of obesity as more than 20% above average for a person of a given age and
height, one in eight U.S. children is obese.

11.15 Obesity in children ages 6 to 12 years has risen dramatically over the past 4 decades by more than
      ___________-fold.
      a. two                                          c. four
      b. three                                        d. five

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: b           Page(s): 298          Type: Factual
Rationale: The proportion of U.S. children that are obese has tripled since the 1960s.

11.16 Eight-year-old Kevin spends much of his day at his desk at school. During his two 15 minute recess breaks,
      Kevin exchanges baseball cards with his friends. At home, he prefers sedentary activities like playing
      computer games and watching television over riding his bike or swimming. His parents allow him to eat high
      calorie fat-laden foods because they say he refuses to eat anything else and they do not want him to go
      hungry. Kevin’s lifestyle puts him at risk for
      a. obesity.                                     c. allergies.
      b. asthma.                                      d. maramus.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: a             Page(s): 299          Type: Applied
Rationale: Factors that contribute to obesity include poor diets, lack of exercise, and sedentary activities that
encourage snacking.




                                                          223
11.17 Adopted children tend to have weights that are more similar to those of their birth parents than those of their
      adoptive parents because
      a. the influence of environment is stronger than the influence of genes.
      b. the influence of heredity is stronger than the influence of environment.
      c. of the amount of nutrients in their diets.
      d. of their susceptibility to food cues found on television commercials.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: b              Page(s): 299         Type: Conceptual
Rationale: Particular inherited genes are related to obesity and predispose certain children to be overweight.
Adopted children tend to have weights that are more similar to those of their birth parents than to those of their
adoptive parents.

11.18 The Bedouis have just adopted a baby from China. They can expect that their child’s height and weight will
      be a reflection of the
      a. quality and quantity of diet and exercise they provide for their child.
      b. genes the child was born with.
      c. environment in which the child is raised in.
      d. environment they raise their child in, but not the genes the child was born with.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: b              Page(s): 299         Type: Applied
Rationale: Particular inherited genes are related to obesity and predispose certain children to be overweight.
Adopted children tend to have weights that are more similar to those of their birth parents than to those of their
adoptive parents.

11.19 Parents that are particularly controlling and directive regarding their children’s eating may produce children who
      a. have a healthy attitude towards food.
      b. eat everything on their plates.
      c. rely on their parents to tell them how much they should eat.
      d. maintain appropriate weight through diet and exercise.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: c             Page(s): 300          Type: Conceptual
Rationale: Parents who are particularly controlling and directive regarding their children’s eating may produce
children who lack internal controls to regulate their own food intake.

11.20 Michelle’s parents tell her not only what foods she should eat, but also how much food she must eat. When
      she says she has had enough to eat, they insist that she eat what is put on her plate. Michelle’s controlling and
      directive parents are likely to cause her to
      a. have a healthy attitude towards food.
      b. learn to eat everything on her plate.
      c. always rely on her parents to tell her how much she should eat.
      d. maintain appropriate weight through diet and exercise.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: c             Page(s): 300          Type: Applied
Rationale: Parents who are particularly controlling and directive regarding their children’s eating may produce
children who lack internal controls to regulate their own food intake.




                                                         224
11.21 Approximately ___________ of elementary school aged boys are unable to do more than one pull-up.
      a. 40%                                    c. 30%
      b. 10%                                    d. 20%

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: a            Page(s): 299         Type: Factual
Rationale: School-age children tend to engage in relatively little exercise and are not particularly fit; for instance,
around 40% of boys ages 6 to 12 are unable to do more than one pull-up.

11.22 School fitness surveys reveal that children in the United States have shown little or no improvement in the
      amount of exercise they get, despite national efforts to increase the level of fitness of school-age children.
      From the ages of 6 to 18, boys decrease their physical activity by ___________ and girls by 36%.
      a. 10%                                           c. 20%
      b. 14%                                           d. 24%

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: d              Page(s): 299           Type: Factual
Rationale: School fitness surveys reveal that despite the efforts in increase the level of fitness of school-age children in
the United States, from the ages of 6 to 18, boys decrease their physical activity by 24% and girls by 36%.

11.23 Television viewing and obesity are highly correlated for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
      a. it is a sedentary activity.
      b. it leads to snacking.
      c. food commercials lead children to be overly interested in food.
      d. children watch exercise programs and then think they need no further exertion.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: d            Page(s): 299        Type: Factual
Rationale: Many children watch television with food commercials that focus on food, a sedentary activity that also
encourages snacking.

11.24 The goal of treatment for childhood obesity is to
      a. temporarily maintain a child’s current weight through diet and exercise.
      b. put the child on a strict weight loss regime.
      c. put the child and his family on a low calorie diet without exercise.
      d. send the child to a camp that deals with overweight children.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: a             Page(s): 301         Type: Factual
Rationale: The goal of treatment for obesity is to temporarily maintain a child’s current weight through an
improved diet and increased exercise.

11.25 Childhood obesity is treated by temporarily maintaining a child’s current weight through an improved diet
      and increased exercise until the
      a. child can control his or her own eating.
      b. child’s height comes in-line with his or her weight.
      c. child loses weight and goes back to his or her previous eating habits.
      d. child learns the value of healthy eating and proper fitness.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: b             Page(s): 301          Type: Factual
Rationale: The goal of treatment for obesity is to temporarily maintain a child’s current weight through an
improved diet and increased exercise until the obese child’s normal growth in height will result in his or her weight
becoming more normal.




                                                           225
11.26 Which of the following can be done to encourage children to become more physically active?
      a. Make exercise fun.
      b. Gear activities to the child’s physical level and motor skills.
      c. Encourage the child to find a partner.
      d. All of these answers.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: d              Page(s): 301          Type: Factual
Rationale: Ways to encourage children to become more physically active include making exercise fun, being an
exercise role model, gearing activities to the child’s level, encouraging the child to find a partner, starting slowly;
urging participation in group activities without pushing too hard, and never using physical exercises as punishment.

11.27 While middle childhood is a healthy period, more than ___________ of children are likely to have at least
      one serious medical condition over this time period.
      a. 10%                                         c. 60%
      b. 30%                                         d. 90%

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: d             Page(s): 302         Type: Factual
Rationale: During middle childhood illness is not uncommon. More than 90% of children are likely to have at least
one serious medical condition over the 6-year period of middle childhood.

11.28 A chronic condition characterized by periodic attacks of wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath is
      called
      a. asthma.                                     c. pneumonia.
      b. bronchitis.                                 d. emphysema.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: a            Page(s): 302         Type: Factual
Rationale: Asthma is a chronic condition characterized by periodic attacks of wheezing, coughing, and shortness of
breath.

11.29 Although most children have short-term illnesses, about ___________ has a chronic, persistent condition,
      such as repeated migraine headaches.
      a. one in five                                c. one in nine
      b. two in six                                 d. two in nine

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: c             Page(s): 302       Type: Factual
Rationale: Although most children have short-term illnesses, about one in nine has a chronic, persistent condition,
such as repeated migraine headaches.

11.30 Asthma attacks are triggered by a variety of factors. Among the most common are
      a. respiratory infections.                      c. stress.
      b. exercise.                                    d. all of these answers.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: d               Page(s): 302            Type: Factual
Rationale: Asthma attacks are triggered by a variety of factors. Among the most common are respiratory infections,
allergic reactions to airborne irritants, stress, and exercise.




                                                         226
11.31 Some researchers suggest that the increase in the number of children suffering from asthma over the last two
      decades is caused by
      a. a greater number of children getting better health care.
      b. more children receiving their immunizations.
      c. weather-proofed new buildings.
      d. government mandates to reduce smog.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: c             Page(s): 302       Type: Conceptual
Rationale: Some researchers have suggested that exposure to “asthma triggers,” such as dust, may be increasing
because new buildings are more weatherproof, and therefore less drafty, than old ones, and consequently the flow of
air within them is more restricted.

11.32 ___________ in five children and adolescents have a psychological disorder that produces at least some
      impairment.
      a. One                                       c. Three
      b. Two                                       d. Four

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: a             Page(s): 303        Type: Factual
Rationale: One in five children and adolescents has a psychological disorder that produces at least some
impairment.

11.33 Seven-year-old Andrew spent a great deal of time just sitting in his room thinking about how awful life was.
      When he started to talk about suicide, his parents took him to a psychiatrist who diagnosed Andrew’s
      depression and treated him with
      a. acupuncture.                                 c. an anti-depressant.
      b. vitamins and herbs.                          d. psychotherapy.

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Answer: c            Page(s): 303         Type: Conceptual
Rationale: The use of antidepressant drugs has become a popular treatment for childhood depression and anxiety.

11.34 During middle childhood, children master many types of skills that earlier they could not perform well, such
      as riding a bike, ice-skating, swimming, and skipping rope, all of which involve ___________ skills.
      a. fine motor                                  c. muscle
      b. gross motor                                 d. none of these answers

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Answer: b             Page(s): 304, 305 Type: Applied
Rationale: Motor skills that utilize major muscle groups such as riding a bike, ice-skating, swimming, and skipping
rope are all examples of gross motor skills.

11.35 Typing at a computer keyboard, writing in cursive with pen or pencil, drawing detailed pictures—these are
      just some of the accomplishments that depend on improvements in ___________ motor coordination that
      occur during early and middle childhood.
      a. fine                                       c. grand
      b. gross                                      d. puberty

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Answer: a              Page(s): 306        Type: Factual
Rationale: Typing at a computer keyboard, writing in cursive with pen or pencil, drawing detailed pictures—these
are just some of the accomplishments that depend on improvements in fine motor coordination that occur during
early and middle childhood.




                                                       227
11.36 Running, jumping, and riding a bicycle are examples of ___________ motor skills.
      a. fine                                       c. small
      b. gross                                      d. large

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Answer: b           Page(s): 304          Type: Factual
Rationale: Gross motor skills include running, jumping, and riding a bicycle.

11.37 Children 6 and 7 years old are able to tie their shoes and fasten buttons; by age 8, they can use each hand
      independently; and by ages 11 and 12, they can manipulate objects with almost as much dexterity as they will
      have in adulthood. These are examples of ___________ motor skills.
      a. fine                                           c. grand
      b. gross                                          d. puberty

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Answer: a              Page(s): 306          Type: Factual
Rationale: Skills such as tying their shoes, fastening buttons, using each hand independently, and manipulating
objects with adult-like dexterity are all examples of fine motor skills.

11.38 The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that physical education classes for boys and girls should
      a. be held separately at all times.
      b. be held separately for competitive games only.
      c. be held together for noncompetitive sports like square dancing.
      d. always be held together.

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Answer: d             Page(s): 305, 306 Type: Conceptual
Rationale: The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that physical education classes for boys and girls should
always be held together to encourage their physical development; one way to decrease the gender variations in gross
motor skills.

11.39 One of the reasons for advances in fine motor skills is
      a. children are now receiving handwriting and keyboarding instruction.
      b. the neurons are continuing to myelinate.
      c. children are able to concentrate on complex, intricate tasks.
      d. children now know the value of work well done.

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Answer: b              Page(s): 306          Type: Conceptual
Rationale: One of the reasons for the advances in fine motor skills during middle childhood is that the amount of
myelin in the brain increases significantly between the ages of 6 and 8.

11.40 The most frequent source of injury to children is automobile accidents. Auto crashes annually kill
      ___________ out of every 100,000 children between the ages of 5 and 9. Fires and burns, drowning, and gun-
      related deaths follow in frequency.
      a. 5                                            c. 15
      b. 10                                           d. 20

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Answer: a             Page(s): 307         Type: Factual
Rationale: The most frequent source of injury to children is automobile accidents. Auto crashes annually kill 5 out
of 100,000 children between the ages of 5 and 9.




                                                        228
11.41 The link between physical competence and popularity is stronger for boys than for girls because
      a. boys are better at sports than girls.
      b. girls that play sports are considered bullies by their peers.
      c. of differing societal standards for appropriate male and female behavior.
      d. boys seek out public admiration, whereas girls shy away from veneration.

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Answer: c               Page(s): 306           Type: Conceptual
Rationale: The reason why the link between physical competence and popularity is considerably stronger for boys
than for girls most likely related to differing societal standards for appropriate male and female behavior.

11.42 Research suggests that the link between physical competence and popularity
      a. diminishes in junior high school as students become interested in the opposite sex.
      b. diminishes in high school as students prepare for the college entrance exams.
      c. remains unchanged throughout life.
      d. increases in elementary and secondary school, and then starts to diminish.

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Answer: d             Page(s): 306          Type: Factual
Rationale: Although the social desirability of athletically proficient boys increases throughout elementary school
and continues into secondary school, at some point the positive consequences begin to diminish.

11.43 The goals of participation in sports and other physical activities should be all of the following EXCEPT to
      a. learn to be competitive in order to survive in society.
      b. maintain physical fitness.
      c. learn physical skills.
      d. become comfortable with one’s body.

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Answer: a               Page(s): 307        Type: Factual
Rationale: The goals of participation in sports and other physical activities should be to maintain physical fitness, to
learn physical skills, and to become comfortable with one’s body.

11.44 The rate of injury for children increases during the elementary school years. Furthermore, boys are more
      prone to injuries than girls because
      a. boys are more clumsy than girls.
      b. boys are more physically active than girls.
      c. boys are told to participate in risky activities.
      d. girls are agile and avoid obstacles better than boys.

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Answer: b            Page(s): 307         Type: Factual
Rationale: Boys are more apt to be injured than girls are, probably because their overall level of physical activity is
greater.

11.45 Christopher and Cristina are fraternal twins. According to your text, which twin is more prone to physical
      injuries?
      a. Christopher is more injury-prone because males tend to be more physically active than females.
      b. Cristina is more injury-prone because females are fragile.
      c. Christopher is more injury-prone because males are clumsy.
      d. There is not enough information to determine the injury rate for either child.

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Answer: a            Page(s): 307         Type: Conceptual
Rationale: Christopher, since boys are more apt to be injured probably because of their greater overall level of
physical activity.



                                                         229
11.46 The most frequent source of injury to children is
      a. fires.                                       c. automobile accidents.
      b. drowning.                                    d. gun-related deaths.

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Answer: c            Page(s): 307         Type: Factual
Rationale: The most frequent source of injury to children is automobile accidents.

11.47 Two ways to reduce motion-related injuries considerably are to
      a. sit in the back of a vehicle and to wear a helmet.
      b. sit in the front seat of a vehicle and to wear knee and elbow pads.
      c. sit as far back from the car airbags as possible and to wear shin guards.
      d. use a seat belt inside the car, and use helmets and knee and elbow pads.

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Answer: d              Page(s): 307      Type: Factual
Rationale: Two ways to reduce auto and bicycle injuries are to use seat belts consistently inside the car and to wear
appropriate protective gear outside.

11.48 Parents and teachers need to be aware of the signals of visual problems in children. What signs could indicate
      eye problems?
      a. frequent eye irritation (redness, sties, or infection)
      b. continual blinking and facial contortions when reading
      c. difficulty in writing and frequent headaches
      d. all of these answers

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: d              Page(s): 309        Type: Factual
Rationale: Signs of visual problems include frequent eye irritation, continual blinking and facial contortions when
reading, holding reading material unusually close to the face, difficulty in writing, and frequent headaches,
dizziness, or burning eyes.

11.49 Joy is unable to see at 20 feet what most people see at 200 feet, even with her glasses on. Joy is
      a. partially blind.                             c. blind.
      b. far-sighted.                                 d. near-sighted.

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: c              Page(s): 309         Type: Factual
Rationale: Blindness is visual acuity of less than 20/200 after correction, meaning the inability to see even at 20 feet
what a typical person can see at 200 feet.

11.50 Partial sightedness is visual acuity of less than ___________ after correction.
      a. 20/50                                          c. 20/100
      b. 20/70                                          d. 20/200

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: b              Page(s): 309         Type: Factual
Rationale: Partial sightedness is visual acuity of less than 20/70 after correction.

11.51 A special need that involves some aspect of hearing or the loss of hearing is known as a(n) ___________
      impairment.
      a. visual                                     c. motor
      b. auditory                                   d. speech

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: b           Page(s): 309         Type: Factual



                                                          230
Rationale: Auditory impairment is a special need that involves some aspect of hearing or the loss of hearing.

11.52 Hearing loss, which affects some ___________ of the school-age population, is not simply a matter of not
      hearing enough. Rather, auditory problems can vary along a number of dimensions.
      a. 1% to 2%                                  c. 5% to 6%
      b. 3% to 4%                                  d. 7% to 8%

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: a             Page(s): 309        Type: Factual
Rationale: Hearing loss, which affects some 1% to 2% of the school-age population, is not simply a matter of not
hearing enough, but varies along a number of dimensions.

11.53 Kendall lost his hearing when he was just a year old due to viral meningitis. As a result, Kendall may have
      difficulty with
      a. abstract thinking.                          c. semi-abstract thinking.
      b. concrete thinking.                          d. communicating.

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: a            Page(s): 310          Type: Conceptual
Rationale: Severe and early loss of hearing is associated with difficulties in abstract thinking.

11.54 A substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of speech is the most common speech impairment and is
      called
      a. slurred speech.                             c. speech impediment.
      b. stuttering.                                 d. disrupted speech.

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: b             Page(s): 310         Type: Factual
Rationale: Stuttering, which involves a substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of speech, is the most
common speech impairment.

11.55 The underlying cause of stuttering is
      a. stress.
      b. the child’s thinking not being able to keep pace with speech production.
      c. no single cause has been identified.
      d. the child being excited and hurrying to communicate.

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: c             Page(s): 310, 311 Type: Factual
Rationale: Despite a great deal of research, no specific cause for stuttering has been identified.

11.56 Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, which occurs in ___________ of the school-age population.
      a. 1% to 2%                                     c. 6% to 9%
      b. 3% to 5%                                     d. 10% to 15%

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: b            Page(s): 311           Type: Factual
Rationale: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder occurs in 3% to 5% of the school-age population.

11.57 Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder—(ADHD)—is marked by
      a. attention, impulsiveness, and a high tolerance for frustration.
      b. inattention, impulsiveness, and a low tolerance for frustration.
      c. inattention, impulsiveness, and a high tolerance for frustration.
      d. attention, impulsiveness, and a low tolerance for frustration.

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs



                                                          231
Answer: b              Page(s): 311           Type: Factual
Rationale: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for
frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity.

11.58 Dyslexia is characterized by difficulty with
      a. math.                                          c. speech.
      b. science.                                       d. reading.

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: d             Page(s): 311           Type: Factual
Rationale: Dyslexia is a reading disability.

11.59 Least restrictive environment means
      a. the setting most similar to that of children without special needs.
      b. an educational approach in which exceptional children are integrated as much as possible into the
         traditional educational system and are provided with a broad range of educational alternatives.
      c. the integration of all students, even those with the most severe disabilities, into regular classes and all
         other aspects of school and community life.
      d. none of these answers.

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: a             Page(s): 313         Type: Factual
Rationale: Least restrictive environment is the setting most similar to that of children without special needs.

11.60 Treatment for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder usually involves
      a. behavioral therapy.                          c. changes in diet (no sugar).
      b. psychotherapy.                               d. drug therapy.

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: d               Page(s): 312         Type: Factual
Rationale: In spite of questions on the long-term effectiveness, drug therapy is involved in treatment for children
with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with increasing frequency.

11.61 The most common symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is all of the following EXCEPT
      a. persistent difficulty completing tasks.
      b. difficulty with following instructions.
      c. difficulty in organizing work.
      d. total absorption in television programs.

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: d                Page(s): 311           Type: Factual
Rationale: Some of the most common symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder include persistent difficulty
in finishing tasks; inability to watch an entire television program; frequent interruption of others or excessive talking;
tendency to jump into a task before hearing all of the instructions; difficulty in waiting; and fidgeting or squirming.

11.62 The setting most similar to that of children without special needs is known as
      a. the least restrictive environment.            c. full inclusion.
      b. mainstreamed education.                       d. resource.

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: a             Page(s): 313         Type: Factual
Rationale: Least restrictive environment is the setting most similar to that of children without special needs.

11.63 The intent of Public Law 94-142 was to ensure that children with special needs received a full education in
      the ___________, the setting most similar to that of children without special needs.
      a. least restrictive environment               c. full inclusion



                                                          232
       b. access to technology                          d. resource rooms

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: a             Page(s): 313         Type: Factual
Rationale: Least restrictive environment is the setting most similar to that of children without special needs.

11.64 An educational approach in which exceptional children are integrated to the extent possible into the
      traditional educational system and provided with a broad range of educational alternatives is known as
      a. the least restrictive environment.          c. full inclusion.
      b. mainstreaming.                              d. resource rooms.

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: b               Page(s): 313         Type: Factual
Rationale: Mainstreaming is an educational approach in which exceptional children are integrated as much as
possible into the traditional educational system and are provided with a broad range of educational alternatives.

11.65 The integration of all students, even those with the most severe disabilities, into regular classes as well as
      every other aspect of school (and community) life is known as
      a. the least restrictive environment.           c. full inclusion.
      b. mainstreaming.                               d. resource.

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: c               Page(s): 313         Type: Factual
Rationale: Full inclusion is the integration of all students, even those with the most severe disabilities, into regular
classes and all other aspects of school and community life.

11.66 Martha has profound mental retardation and is in a wheelchair. Martha attends a fully integrated regular
      classroom. This approach to mainstreaming is known as
      a. a least restrictive environment.           c. full inclusion.
      b. mainstreamed education.                    d. a resource room.

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Answer: c               Page(s): 313         Type: Factual
Rationale: Full inclusion is the integration of all students, even those with the most severe disabilities, into regular
classes and all other aspects of school and community life.


Essay Questions

11.67 In what ways do children grow during the school years, and what factors influence their growth?

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Page(s): 296–298      Type: Conceptual
Answer: A good answer would include the following key points:
           During middle childhood, height and weight increase gradually, and the body loses its baby fat.
           Differences in height and weight are related partly to affluence and poverty.
           Nutrition is important because it contributes to physical growth but also because it affects aspects of
              social, emotional, and cognitive learning.

11.68 Why are there so many obese children in the United States?

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Page(s): 297–299      Type: Conceptual
Answer: A good answer would include the following key points:
           School-age children in the United States tend to engage in relatively little exercise and are not
              particularly fit.


                                                          233
   Many children engage in sedentary activities, i.e. watching television or working on a computer, that
    provide no exercise and in addition promote snacking while engaging in the activity.




                                             234
11.69 Why is the number of children with asthma increasing?

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Page(s): 302        Type: Factual
Answer: A good answer would include the following key points:
           Research has suggested increasing air pollution
           Better diagnosis and identification of asthma may result in increasing cases
           Exposure to asthma triggers such as dust from new weatherproof buildings that restrict air flow

11.70 What are the advantages and disadvantages of prescribing antidepressants for use with children?

Chapter Section: The Growing Body
Page(s): 303        Type: Factual
Answer: A good answer would include the following key points:
           Certain disorders, such as depression and anxiety disorders, can be treated successfully with drugs
           In some cases drugs provide the only relief for the child
           Little evidence for long-term effectiveness
           Impact on brain development is not known
           Inadequate testing for appropriate doses for children
           Some evidence links antidepressant medication with increased risk of suicide

11.71 What safety threats affect school-age children, and what can be done about them?

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Page(s): 307, 308  Type: Conceptual
Answer: A good answer would include the following key points:
           Due to increased independence, accidents are a serious threat affecting school-age children
           Children’s increased access to cyberspace and unsupervised access also provides a threat

11.72 What are some ways that children can be kept safe in cyberspace?

Chapter Section: Motor Development and Safety
Page(s): 308        Type: Applied
Answer: A good answer would include the following key points:
           Supervise child’s time online
           Spend time with the child online
           Establish rules and guidelines for online behaviors
           Educate child not to give personal information online
           Encourage children to communicate to parents any unusual online behaviors
           Discourage children from arranging any meeting with someone they met online

11.73 What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder? What are the symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity
      disorder and how is it treated?

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Page(s): 311, 312     Type: Conceptual
Answer: A good answer would include the following key points:
           Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a learning disability
           ADHD is marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and a great deal of
               inappropriate activity
           ADHD is treated with drugs, although this treatment is controversial because of unwanted side effects
               and doubts about long-term consequences.




                                                        235
11.74 What was the intent of Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act?

Chapter Section: Children with Special Needs
Page(s): 313          Type: Factual
Answer: A good answer would include the following key points:
           Intent of this law was to ensure that children with special needs received a full education in the least
             restrictive environment
           The least restrictive environment is the setting most similar to that of children without special needs
           The goal of the law is to integrate exceptional children and typical children to the fullest extent
             possible
           Resulted in the mainstreaming movement, an educational approach in which exceptional children are
             integrated as much as possible into the traditional educational system and are provided with a broad
             range of educational alternatives




                                                        236

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:3
posted:2/23/2012
language:
pages:19