CBS, STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF ISRAEL 2009 2009 למ''ס, שנתון סטטיסטי לישראל
5 HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES
LABOUR FORCE SURVEYS are related to one another as husband and
wife, as an unmarried couple, or as parent
HOUSEHOLDS - and child. Thus, a family can be only a
couple, a couple with children (in various
DEMOGRAPHIC age groups, defined by the age of the
CHARACTERISTICS youngest child), or a single parent with
(Tables 5.1-5.13) children.
A single-parent family includes also families
The estimates for households and families in which the parent is married but the
are obtained from current labour force spouse does not reside in the household
surveys. most of the week or does not belong to the
For a description of the survey, see the survey population.
Introduction to Chapter 12 - Labour and A “family” also includes a family of
Wages. grandparents with grandchildren aged 15
DEFINITIONS and over without parents, or only siblings
Population of households: The tables aged 15 and over who live together without
refer to all households, with the exception of spouses or children.
households in kibbutzim, institutions, Family size is determined by the number of
students’ dormitories and people living persons in the family, as defined above.
outside localities (Bedouins in the South and Other persons in the household: Persons
others) (see Table at the end of the without a family of their own, who live in a
Introduction). household together with a “family” that is not
A household is defined as one person or a their nuclear family.
group of persons living together in one Religion and Population group: The head
dwelling on a permanent basis most of the of the household is the only household
week, who have a common expense budget member who is questioned regarding his
for food. A household may include persons religion. The head of the household’s
who are not a family. religion is registered as the religion of all the
Size of household is determined by the members of the household. The
number of persons in the household, classification according to religion includes:
according to the above definition. Jews, Moslems, Christians, Druze and other
Type of household is determined by the religions (other religions also include no
relationships between the persons residing religion or religion unknown).
in the household, as well as by other The category “Other Religions” includes all
demographic variables. those who replied that they are not Jews.
Type of household includes family Until the beginning of the 1990s, “Other
households and non-family households. Religions” mainly included Arabs. Following
the wave of immigration in the 1990s, the
The data according to this variable have
population group “Others” was added to this
been published since 1997.
category (see below). As of 2002, this
A family household is a household that
group was divided into two population
contains at least one “family”.
A “family household” can include: one
- “Arabs”: a. live in non-Jewish localities, or
family, one family with other persons, or
b. live in Jewish or mixed localities, were
two families or more.
born in Israel or arrived in Israel before
A non-family household includes one
person only or a group of persons who
- “Others”: live in Jewish or mixed localities,
are not a family.
and arrived in Israel in 1990 and after.
Family: A nuclear family of two persons or
District: See the definition of district and
more who share the same household and
sub-district in the paragraph “Labour Force
HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES )42( משקי בית ומשפחות
Surveys - Households - Economic Until 2005, calculation of the sampling
Characteristics and Housing” below. errors for the estimates was based on the
Continent of origin: For those born assumption that the demographic
abroad, the continent of birth was recorded; characteristics of households do not change
for those born in Israel - the father’s during the course of a year, and that those
continent of birth. characteristics remain constant during the
Highest diploma received: See definition different quarters of a given year.
in the Introduction to Chapter 12 - Labour As of 2006, the method of calculation was
changed. The new method includes a
and Wages. For additional explanations,
calculation of the correlations of the
see definitions of Levels of education in demographic characteristics of households
the Introduction to Chapter 8 - Education. between every two quarters of a year, for
Type of locality by which data are classified households in which data were collected for
is the permanent type of locality (see two quarters in the course of a given year.
definitions in “Geographical Distribution of To caution the reader against data with low
the Population” in the introduction to levels of reliability, estimates with a relative
Chapter 2 - Population). sampling error (sampling error divided by
Since 2002, localities have been classified the estimate) ranging from 25% to 40% are
according to the type of locality as set in parentheses. For estimates with a
determined according to population relative sampling error exceeding 40% no
estimates at the end of 2001, as of 2007, numerical values are presented and two
the classification is based on estimates of dots (“..”) are indicated in their place.
population size at the end of 2005. Regarding tables 5.14-5.25, calculations of
Development localities: See definition in the sampling error are approximate.
the Introduction to Chapter 12 - Labour and Therefore, data based on a population
Wages. estimate below 3,000 are set in
parentheses, see explanation in Chapter 12
ESTIMATION - Labour and Wages.
For each of the estimates presented here, a For more details about methods of
“weighting coefficient” was determined for collecting, processing and estimation, see
each household participating in the sample. Introduction to Chapter 12 - Labour and
This coefficient reflects the number of units Wages.
in the survey population represented by
each unit in the sample. LABOUR FORCE SURVEYS
The “weighting coefficient” was identical for
each of the “households” “families”, HOUSEHOLDS - ECONOMIC
“couples”, and “persons” in the same CHARACTERISTICS AND
household. The “weighting coefficient”
system is determined through an iterative HOUSING
process, so that after the “weighting” there is (Tables 5.14-5.25)
a correlation between the distribution of DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS
persons in the sample households by Population of households - see above
primary variables and the corresponding definition.
distribution of persons by current The investigation unit is a household.
demographic estimates. Household : See above definition.
In 2002, a number of changes were Size of household: See above definition.
introduced in the definitions of the weighting Characteristics of the labour force:
groups. The main change was to break the The labour force includes persons aged 15
weighting group of the immigrants, which and over who were employed (incl.
now includes only immigrants residing up to permanent army) or unemployed during the
4 years in the country, see Introduction to determinant week.
Chapter 12 - Labour and Wages. In this chapter, employed persons are
The sampling errors for the estimates in divided according to the extent to which they
tables 5.1-5.13 were calculated for each of usually work:
the estimates separately.
HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES )43( משקי בית ומשפחות
- Usually employed full time: Employed Religion and Population group: see
persons usually working 35 or more hours above definition.
a week, including those who belong to
Type of locality: see above definition.
the permanent army.
- Usually employed part time: Employed Development localities: see definition in
persons usually working up to 34 hours a the Introduction to Chapter 12 - Labour and
For further details, see the Labour Force District and sub-district were defined
Surveys and the paragraph “Employed, according to the official administrative
Employees/Jobs, Employee Jobs” in the division of the state, which includes 6
Introduction to Chapter 12 - Labour and districts and 15 sub-districts.
Wages. As of 1972, Judea, Samaria and the Gaza
Head of household is the economic head Areas were added, in order to characterize
of household. As of 1995, the definition of the Jewish localities and the Jewish
head of household was changed and population in those areas. The data for
determined by the degree of belonging to 2005 relate to the residents of the Judea,
the labour force, without regard of age or Samaria and Gaza Areas, and do not reflect
sex. changes in the population following the
- The head of household is the main wage evacuation of the Israeli localities (the
earner of the household, i.e., an Jewish localities) in the Gaza Area and in
employed person who usually works 35 northern Samaria under the Disengagement
or more hours per week (including Plan Law, 2005.
soldiers in the permanent army), and As of 2006 - Judea and Samaria Area.
precedes an employed person who See definition in the Introduction to Chapter
works up to 34 hours a week, who 2 - Population.
precedes an unemployed person.
- If more than one person in the SOURCES
household fits the definition of head of Data on households by economic
household, the head is determined by characteristics and housing are annual
the interviewee. averages obtained from the current
- If there is no wage earner in the investigations of the Labour Force Surveys,
household, the head of household is and they relate to all of the households in
determined by the interviewee. the country (excluding kibbutzim,
institutions, students’ dormitories, and
Note: The head of household is a person people living outside localities (Bedouins in
aged 18 or over (except households where the South and others). Data on housing,
the only wages earner is aged 15-17 and excl. also absorption centers.
households where there are only 15-17 year
old persons). As of 1999, population estimates obtained
Number of rooms in the dwelling: All from the Labour Force Surveys have been
rooms used by the household as living based on the results of the 1995 Census of
quarters. The following were not included in Population and Housing. In addition, a new
the number of rooms: kitchens, bathrooms, weighting method has been implemented.
toilets, verandas, rooms used for business Data for 1998 were processed according to
purposes or for work only and rooms let to the new system in order to enable
tenants. Until 1979, half a room was comparison with the 1999 data.
counted as a room. In January 1980, a full As of 2002, a number of changes have
registration of rooms and half rooms was been made in the weighting groups. The
made, and consequently, 1980 data were data for 2001 were processed according to
processed twice. the “new” method, in order to make it
Number of persons per room (housing possible to compare them with data from
density) was calculated by dividing the 2002. For additional details, see
number of persons who live in the Introduction to Chapter 12, Labour and
household by the total number of rooms Wages.
occupied by members of the household.
HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES )44( משקי בית ומשפחות
HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE Deciles: See definition below in the
explanations on income surveys.
SURVEY, 2007 Standard person: see definition below in
(Tables 5.26-5.29 and 5.33-5.35) the explanations on income surveys.
The purposes and the uses of the survey Net income per standard person: The
are to obtain the components of household total current financial income of a
budget and additional data used for household, after deduction of compulsory
characterizing the living conditions of payments; and the household’s total income
households in aspects such as: from services provided as a result of
consumption patterns, standard and ownership of a dwelling or vehicle; divided
composition of nutrition, income level and its by the number of standard persons in the
composition, housing conditions, models for household.
forecasting consumer behavior, and the Compulsory payments: Direct taxes
incidence of the indirect tax on various imposed on current income, i.e., Income
groups in the population. One of the most Tax, National Insurance, and National
important purposes of the survey is to Health Insurance. These payments were
determine the “weight” for the basket of the calculated according to the tax rules
consumer price index. operating in the economy, and were not
The survey was first conducted at the obtained directly from households.
beginning of the 1950s, and until 1997 was Consumption expenditure: All household
conducted approximately every five years. payments for the purchase of goods or
Since 1997, the survey has been conducted services, as well as the imputation of
annually. expenditure on the consumption of housing
The population: As of 1997, includes the services and vehicles (the purchase of
entire urban and rural population, excluding which is defined as investment and not as
kibbutzim, collective moshavim, and consumption).
Bedouins living outside localities (see table Expenditures on housing services were
at the end of the Introduction). calculated by imputation of alternative rent
DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS payments for dwellings of the same size in a
Household: See definition above. locality or region. The imputation data for
Components of the budget in the rent were obtained from three sources:
Household Expenditure Survey: All the (1) The current rent survey conducted in
goods and services are divided into ten the framework of the Consumer Price
main items: food (excl. fruit, vegetables); Index;
vegetables and fruit; housing; dwelling and (2) Rent data for households residing in
household maintenance; furniture and rented dwellings, from the household
household equipment; clothing and expenditure survey itself;
footwear; health; education, culture and (3) External sources.
entertainment; transport and For key money dwellings, the difference
communications; miscellaneous goods and between the actual rent paid and the full rent
services. Within each item there is a value was imputed, on the basis of the
division into sub-groups, and each sub- values obtained from the sources mentioned
group contains the goods and services as above.
reported by the households, e.g., Health is Expenditures for vehicle services were
divided into four sub-groups: health estimated according to the value of the
insurance, dental treatment, health services services deriving from the asset. For
and other health expenditures. Each such example, for every household that owns a
sub-group contains single products, e.g., car, the value of services deriving from the
Health insurance includes supplementary asset is estimated according to the value of
insurance in all of the various health funds, its depreciation and the alternative interest
as well as other health insurance policies. that was imputed also as income for that
Earner: A person who worked at least one household.
day during the three months before the Purchase of products: A product is
interviewer’s visit to the household. It should considered purchased according to the day
be mentioned that this definition differs from in which it was received and the full sum of
the one used in the Labour Force Surveys. purchase is considered an expenditure on
HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES )45( משקי בית ומשפחות
product when the product reaches the 3. A summary questionnaire in which the
dwelling, even if it was only partially paid for enumerator recorded details of
at the time. Therefore, money paid in household expenditures over the last
advance by the household for a product or a three months or 12 months preceding
service not yet received or debts paid for a the interview.
product that is already in the dwelling are In this questionnaire, data on all household
not considered as consumption incomes were also obtained.
expenditures but as an increase in savings. All the budget components for each
Compulsory payments are not included, household were expressed in terms of a
because they don’t represent direct common denominator: a monthly estimate
purchase of a given product or service. at a uniform price level reflecting the
Money consumption expenditure: average for the 2007 survey period. That
consumption expenditures as defined average was 118.5 points, according to the
above, without imputation of services on base 1998=100.
housing and vehicles. Estimation: The survey used weighting
Ownership of durable goods: the coefficients in order to minimize, to the
percentage of households in a given group extent possible, sampling errors, as well as
that own or have at their disposal durable biases that may result from the fact that the
goods such as: the percentage of characteristics of households that did not
households in Jerusalem that have a participate in the survey may differ from
washing machine, color TV, personal those of the participating households. For an
computer, car, cellular phone, etc. explanation of the weighting coefficients,
see the above section on demographic
The survey data on expenditures were Details on the Household Expenditures
obtained from the investigation of a sample Survey can be found in Publication no.
of 6,173 households in 171 localities which 1363, Household Expenditures Survey
were investigated for a year, in the period 2007, General Summary (see the list
between January 2007 and January 2008. below).
Data on income are based on the combined
sample of the income survey and household INCOME SURVEYS
expenditures survey (an explanation of the (Tables 5.30 -5.32)
income survey sample is presented below). The data presented here were obtained
Sampling framework: Arnona [municipal from income surveys. The surveys have
property tax] lists of the local authorities been conducted regularly since 1965 as
were used as the framework for drawing the part of the Labour Force Survey. As of
sample. Completion was made from a 1997, income data obtained from two
framework of new building. surveys - the Labour Force Survey and the
Sampling unit: residential dwelling. Household Expenditure Survey - have been
combined into one combined Income
Investigation unit: a ‘household’ (see Survey (see the “Sample” paragraph in the
definition above, in the paragraph “Labour “Sources” section at the end of this
Force Surveys - Households - Demographic chapter.) The findings relate to the income
Characteristics”. of households, where the head of the
METHOD OF INVESTIGATION AND household was an employee, self-employed,
PROCESSING or not working.
Three questionnaires were filled in for each More detailed results of the Income Surveys
household investigated: and a comprehensive description of the
1. A questionnaire on the composition of methods and definitions used can be found
the household which was filled in by the in Publication no.1357, Income Survey
enumerator. The questionnaire contains 2007.
demographic and basic economic data
for each household member. DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS
2. A biweekly ledger in which the Household: See definition above, in the
household recorded the daily paragraph “Labour Force Surveys -
expenditures of all household members Households - Demographic Characteristics”.
for two weeks. Earner: See definition above, in the
HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES )46( משקי בית ומשפחות
paragraph “Household Expenditure Survey”. additional person. Based on this scale, the
Head of household: See definition above, number of persons in a household is
in the paragraph “Labour Force Surveys - expressed in terms of standard persons
Households - Economic Characteristics and per household. The full scale is presented in
Housing” the following table.
Households of employees: households
where the head of the household is an Actual number of Marginal No. of
employee or member of a cooperative. persons in Weight per Standard
Households where the head of the household Person Persons
household is not working: households 1 person 1.25 1.25
where the head of the household did not 2 persons 0.75 2.00
work for even one day over the three months 3 persons 0.65 2.65
preceding the visit of the enumerator. 4 persons 0.55 3.20
Employee: Any survey participant who had 5 persons 0.55 3.75
some salaried income over the three months 6 persons 0.50 4.25
preceding the visit of the enumerator. 7 persons 0.50 4.75
Gross money income of households: The 8 persons 0.45 5.20
total current money income of the household 9+ persons
before deduction of compulsory payments 0.40
(income tax, National Insurance, and Health (1)
For each additional person.
Insurance). Gross money income includes
income of all household members from Net income per standard person: The net
salaried or self employed, property, interest, household income is divided by the number
dividends, current income from support and of standard persons in the household.
pensions, or any other income. Gross Decile: A decile is a group including 10
money income does not include non- percent of the surveyed population,
recurrent payments (e.g., inheritance, arranged by income level (the classifying
severance pay from the place of work, income), from households with the lowest
restitution from Germany, etc). Nor does it income levels to households with the
include imputations for income from use of highest income levels (the top decile).
own dwelling or other types of income in The income used to classify households can
kind. be either gross or net, per household, per
Net money income: Gross money income capita, or per standard person.
after deduction of compulsory payments. Gini coefficient: A measure of inequality in
Data on net income were not obtained income distribution, ranging from 0
directly from the households surveyed, but (“complete equality”) to 1 (“maximum
were calculated on the basis of gross inequality”).
income and the tax rules as applied in
Standard person: the size of a household The population: The combined survey
affects the level of living that can be conducted as of 1997 represents all of the
maintained on a given income. In order to residents of Israel in Jewish localities, Arab
provide a basis for comparing the level of localities, and mixed localities - excluding
living of households with varying numbers of kibbutzim and Bedouins living outside of
members, they are usually classified by localities. In 2000-2001, there were
income per person. It is also assumed that problems investigating the population of
the number of household members does not East Jerusalem. Therefore, the latest data
have a uniform impact on the potential level do not include that population (see table at
of living that can be attained from a given the end of the Introduction).
income. Accordingly, there are advantages The sample: As of 1997, the Income
to a large household. Therefore the number Survey is based on income data collected
of household members was transformed into both in the Income Survey and in the
a uniform scale. The scale establishes the Household Expenditure Survey:
two-person household as a base unit. The 1. The Income Survey was conducted
larger the number of household members, together with the regular Labour Force
the smaller the marginal influence of each Survey (for details on the sampling
HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES )47( משקי בית ומשפחות
procedures, see Chapter 12, “Labour updated during the course of the survey
and Wages”, and see publication no. year, as new apartments were selected for
1345 of the Central Bureau of Statistics the sample were added from a special
series Labour Force Surveys 2007). framework of new construction.
One-fourth of the participants in the In 2007, the data were based on a sample
labour force survey sample that are of 14,147 households - 7,974 were taken
included in the definition of the Income from the income survey, and 6,173 were
Survey were asked about their income. taken from the household expenditures
2. Household Expenditures Survey survey.
(details of the sampling procedure The survey period: The Income Survey
appear also in Publication no. 1363, examines the income of each individual
Household Expenditures Survey 2007, aged 15 and over during the three months
General Summary, Jerusalem, April preceding the enumerator’s visit. In this
2009) - conducted annually as of 1997. way, every annual survey examines the
In the survey, household members are quarterly income of the survey population
asked about their expenditures as well over a period of 15 months.
as their income. The Household Expenditure Survey is
In both surveys, the survey sample is a conducted for a period of 13 months, during
dwelling sample. In each dwelling selected which data are collected on the income of
for the sample, all of the households every household member aged 15 and over,
residing in the same dwelling were surveyed and on the income of each household.
(in most cases, there was one household Here, too, the survey examines income of
per dwelling). each household during the three months
In general, the samples of both surveys preceding the month of the enumerator’s
were drawn in two stages: in the first stage, visit, and the income data collected over the
a stratified sample of localities was drawn. In entire survey for each household over a
the second stage, a systematic random period of 15 months.
sample of households was drawn in each of Adjustment of prices: All of the income
the localities selected for the sample. The data are presented according to the average
main source for drawing the sample of level of prices during the survey year.
dwellings was the municipal property tax file Estimation: See above, in the section on
of the local authority. The main dwelling demographic characteristics of households.
samples were supplemented by samples of
dwelling units in student dormitories,
absorption centers, and sheltered housing
for the elderly. In addition, the samples were
HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES )48( משקי בית ומשפחות
Table of Populations Included in Estimates of Households
in Household Surveys(1)
Population Labour Household
Surveys Survey and
Population by Type of Locality:
Urban localities (2,000 or more residents) Yes Yes
Rural localities (up to 2,000 residents):
Kibbutzim No No
Other rural localities (including moshavim,
collective moshavim, community localities, etc.) Yes Yes
Bedouins in the south living outside of localities No No
Places, living outside of localities (excluding
Bedouins in the south) and households in No Yes
Absorption centers(2) Yes Yes
Student dormitories at the 7 major universities No Yes
Sheltered housing(3) Yes Yes
Residents of institutions (protected residents, No No
Households in institutions No Yes
1. The discrepancy between household estimates in the Labour Force Survey, Household Expenditure Survey,
and Income Survey amounts to about 20,000 households. Of those, about 10,000 are households in institutions,
about 7,000 households are in student dormitories, and about 3,000 households are in places, or living outside of
localities, or in institutional localities.
2. Housing density estimates: absorption centers are included in the Household Expenditure Survey, and are not
included in the Labour Force Surveys.
3. Only some of the population living in sheltered housing is included in the Labour Force Surveys.
4. Includes student dormitories in colleges, hospitals, old age homes without sheltered housing, schools, etc.
TECHNICAL SERIES Demographic Characteristics 2005-
73 Typology of Households and Families 2006, Based on Labour Force Surveys
in Israel, 1999 (Internet only)
78 Labour Force Surveys - Changes in 1376 Households - Economic
the Methodology, in the Definitions, Characteristics and Housing Density
and in the Questionnaire 1954-2003 Based on Labour Force Surveys 2008
(Internet only) (Internet only)
SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS 1377 Labour Force Surveys 2008 (Internet
1222 Characteristics and Classification of only)
Local Authorities by the Socio- CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING
Economic Level of the Population 2001 1995
1231 Household Expenditure Survey 2000- 1 Population and Household -
2002: Households of Immigrants from Provisional Results
the USSR (Former) 8A Socio-Economic Characteristics of
1308 Arab Households: Income and Population and Households in
Expenditures 2006 Localities with 2,000 Inhabitants and
1357 Income Survey, 2007 More - Selected Findings (Hebrew
1363 Household Expenditure Survey, 2007, only)
1369 Households and Families -
HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES )49( משקי בית ומשפחות