Ch. 5 � Frame Relay by 165hiV1

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									Ch. 5 – Frame Relay

    CCNA 4 version 3.0
      Rick Graziani
     Cabrillo College
Note

•   Much of the information in this presentation comes from
    the CCNP 2 version 3.0 module on Frame Relay.
•   I find a lot of the information in CCNA 4 module 5 Frame
    Relay not very well written or not well explained.
•   CCNP 3 does a much better job of presenting and
    explaining these concepts.




Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                            2
Overview

• Identify the components of a Frame Relay network
• Explain the scope and purpose of Frame Relay
• Discuss the technology of Frame Relay
• Compare point-to-point and point-to-multipoint topologies
• Examine the topology of a Frame Relay network
• Configure a Frame Relay Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC)
• Create a Frame Relay Map on a remote network
• Explain the issues of a non-broadcast multi-access
    network
•   Describe the need for subinterfaces and how to configure
    them
•   Verify and troubleshoot a Frame Relay connection

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                            3
Introducing Frame Relay




• Frame Relay is a packet-switched, connection-oriented, WAN service.
      It operates at the data link layer of the OSI reference model.
• Frame Relay uses a subset of the high-level data link control (HDLC)
      protocol called Link Access Procedure for Frame Relay (LAPF).
• Frames carry data between user devices called data terminal
      equipment (DTE), and the data communications equipment (DCE) at
      the edge of the WAN.
        – It does not define the way the data is transmitted within the service
            provider’s Frame Relay cloud.
        – This is ATM in many cases!
 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                              4
    Frame Relay vs. X.25




• Frame Relay does not have the sequencing, windowing, and
     retransmission mechanisms that are used by X.25.
•    Without the overhead, the streamlined operation of Frame Relay
     outperforms X.25.
•    Typical speeds range from 56 kbps up to 2 Mbps, although higher
     speeds are possible. (Up to 45 Mbps)
•    The network providing the Frame Relay service can be either a carrier-
     provided public network or a privately owned network.
•    Because it was designed to operate on high-quality digital lines, Frame
     Relay provides no error recovery mechanism.
•    If there is an error in a frame it is discarded without notification.
    Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                        5
Introducing Frame Relay



           Access circuits




• A Frame Relay network may be privately owned, but it is more
    commonly provided as a service by a public carrier.
•   It typically consists of many geographically scattered Frame Relay
    switches interconnected by trunk lines.
•   Frame Relay is often used to interconnect LANs. When this is the
    case, a router on each LAN will be the DTE.
•   A serial connection, such as a T1/E1 leased line, will connect the
    router to a Frame Relay switch of the carrier at the nearest point-of-
    presence for the carrier. (access circuit)
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                          6
DTE – Data Terminal Equipment




• DTEs generally are considered to be terminating equipment for a
    specific network and typically are located on the premises of the
    customer.
•   The customer may also own this equipment.
•   Examples of DTE devices are routers and Frame Relay Access
    Devices (FRADs).
•   A FRAD is a specialized device designed to provide a connection
    between a LAN and a Frame Relay WAN.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                     7
DCE – Data Communications Equipment
               UNI                    NNI




• DCEs are carrier-owned internetworking devices.
• The purpose of DCE equipment is to provide clocking and switching
    services in a network.
•   In most cases, these are packet switches, which are the devices that
    actually transmit data through the WAN.
•   The connection between the customer and the service provider is
    known as the User-to-Network Interface (UNI).
•   The Network-to-Network Interface (NNI) is used to describe how
    Frame Relay networks from different providers connect to each other.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                        8
    Frame Relay terminology
    An SVC between the same two                       A PVC between the same two
    DTEs may change.                                  DTEs will always be the same.




                                   Path may change.                         Always same Path.




• The connection through the Frame Relay network between two DTEs is
    called a virtual circuit (VC).
•   Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs) are Virtual circuits may be established
    dynamically by sending signaling messages to the network.
•   However, SVCs are not very common.
•   Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) are more common.
•   PVC are VCs that have been preconfigured by the carrier are used.
•   The switching information for a VC is stored in the memory of the switch.
    Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                                         9
Access Circuits and Cost Savings




• The FRAD or router connected to the Frame Relay network may have
      multiple virtual circuits connecting it to various end points.
• This makes it a very cost-effective replacement for a full mesh of
      access lines.
• Each end point needs only a single access line and interface.
• More savings arise as the capacity of the access line is based on the
      average bandwidth requirement of the virtual circuits, rather than on
      the maximum bandwidth requirement.
• Note: Also do not have to pay for leased line between two sites even
      when no traffic is being sent.
 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                          10
IETF Frame Relay Frame




• Cisco routers support two types of Frame Relay headers.
      – Cisco, which is a 4-byte header.
      – IETF, which is a 2-byte header that conforms to the IETF
         standards.
•   The Cisco proprietary 4-byte header is the default and cannot be used
    if the router is connected to another vendor's equipment across a
    Frame Relay network.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                         11
DLCI




• A data-link connection identifier (DLCI) identifies the logical VC
    between the CPE and the Frame Relay switch.
•   The Frame Relay switch maps the DLCIs between each pair of routers
    to create a PVC.
•   DLCIs have local significance, although there some implementations
    that use global DLCIs.
•   DLCIs 0 to 15 and 1008 to 1023 are reserved for special purposes.
•   Service providers assign DLCIs in the range of 16 to 1007.
     – DLCI 1019, 1020: Multicasts
     – DLCI 1023: Cisco LMI
     – DLCI 0: ANSI LMI
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                      12
DLCI




• Your Frame Relay provider sets up the DLCI numbers to be used by
    the routers for establishing PVCs.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                  13
Frame Relay bandwidth
and flow control
  The first thing we need to do is
  become familiar with some of
  the terminology.



 • Local access rate – This is the clock speed or port speed of the
      connection or local loop to the Frame Relay cloud.
       – It is the rate at which data travels into or out of the network,
         regardless of other settings.
 •    Committed Information Rate (CIR) – This is the rate, in bits per
      second, at which the Frame Relay switch agrees to transfer data.
       – The rate is usually averaged over a period of time, referred to as
         the committed rate measurement interval (Tc).
       – In general, the duration of Tc is proportional to the "burstiness" of
         the traffic.
  Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                            14
Frame Relay bandwidth and flow control




                                                         per VC


• Oversubscription – Oversubscription is when the sum of the CIRs on
    all the VCs exceeds the access line speed.
     – Oversubscription can also occur when the access line can support
         the sum of CIRs purchased, but not of the CIRs plus the bursting
         capacities of the VCs.
     – Oversubscription increases the likelihood that packets will be
         dropped.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                         15
Frame Relay bandwidth and flow control

    Tc = 2 seconds
    Bc = 64 kbps
    CIR = 32 kbps




• Committed burst (Bc) – The maximum number of bits that the switch
     agrees to transfer during any Tc.
      – The higher the Bc-to-CIR ratio, the longer the switch can handle a
         sustained burst.
      – For example, if the Tc is 2 seconds and the CIR is 32 kbps, the Bc
         is 64 kbps.
      – The Tc calculation is Tc = Bc/CIR.
•    Committed Time Interval (Tc) – Tc is not a recurrent time interval. It is
     used strictly to measure inbound data, during which time it acts like a
     sliding window. Inbound data triggers the Tc interval.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                          16
Frame Relay bandwidth
and flow control




 • Excess burst (Be) – This is the maximum number of uncommitted bits
      that the Frame Relay switch attempts to transfer beyond the CIR.
       – Excessive Burst (Be) is dependent on the service offerings
          available from your vendor, but it is typically limited to the port
          speed of the local access loop.
 •    Excess Information Rate (EIR) – This defines the maximum
      bandwidth available to the customer, which is the CIR plus the Be.
       – Typically, the EIR is set to the local access rate.
       – In the event the provider sets the EIR to be lower than the local
          access rate, all frames beyond that maximum can be discarded
          automatically, even if there is no congestion.
  Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                           17
Frame Relay bandwidth
and flow control




 • Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN) – When a Frame
      Relay switch recognizes congestion in the network, it sends an FECN
      packet to the destination device.
       – This indicates that congestion has occurred.
 •    Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) – When a
      Frame Relay switch recognizes congestion in the network, it sends a
      BECN packet to the source router.
       – This instructs the router to reduce the rate at which it is sending
         packets.
       – With Cisco IOS Release 11.2 or later, Cisco routers can respond to
         BECN notifications.
       – This topic is discussed later in this module.
  Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                          18
Frame Relay bandwidth
and flow control




 • Discard eligibility (DE) bit – When the router or switch detects
      network congestion, it can mark the packet "Discard Eligible".
       – The DE bit is set on the traffic that was received after the CIR was
         met.
       – These packets are normally delivered. However, in periods of
         congestion, the Frame Relay switch will drop packets with the DE
         bit set first.



  Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                           19
Frame Relay bandwidth




• Several factors determine the rate at which a customer can send data
    on a Frame Relay network.
•   Foremost in limiting the maximum transmission rate is the capacity of
    the local loop to the provider.
•   If the local loop is a T1, no more than 1.544 Mbps can be sent.
•   In Frame Relay terminology, the speed of the local loop is called the
    local access rate.
•   Providers use the CIR parameter to provision network resources and
    regulate usage.
•   For example, a company with a T1 connection to the packet-switched
    network (PSN) may agree to a CIR of 768 Kbps.
•   This means that the provider guarantees 768 Kbps of bandwidth to the
    customer’s link at all times.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                         20
Frame Relay bandwidth




• Typically, the higher the CIR, the higher the cost of service.
• Customers can choose the CIR that is most appropriate to their
    bandwidth needs, as long as the CIR is less than or equal to the local
    access rate.
•   If the CIR of the customer is less than the local access rate, the
    customer and provider agree on whether bursting above the CIR is
    allowed.
•   If the local access rate is T1 or 1.544 Mbps, and the CIR is 768 Kbps,
    half of the potential bandwidth (as determined by the local access rate)
    remains available.

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                            21
Frame Relay bandwidth




• Many providers allow their customers to purchase a CIR of 0 (zero).
• This means that the provider does not guarantee any throughput.
• In practice, customers usually find that their provider allows them to
    burst over the 0 (zero) CIR virtually all of the time.
•   If a CIR of 0 (zero) is purchased, carefully monitor performance in
    order to determine whether or not it is acceptable.
•   Frame Relay allows a customer and provider to agree that under
    certain circumstances, the customer can “burst” over the CIR.
•   Since burst traffic is in excess of the CIR, the provider does not
    guarantee that it will deliver the frames.

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                        22
Frame Relay bandwidth




• Either a router or a Frame Relay switch tags each frame that is
    transmitted beyond the CIR as eligible to be discarded.
•   When a frame is tagged DE, a single bit in the Frame Relay frame is
    set to 1.
•   This bit is known as the discard eligible (DE) bit.
•   The Frame Relay specification also includes a protocol for congestion
    notification.
•   This mechanism relies on the FECN/ BECN bits in the Q.922 header of
    the frame.
•   The provider’s switches or the customer’s routers can selectively set
    the DE bit in frames.
•   These frames will be the first to be dropped when congestion occurs.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                     23
LMI – Local Management Interface




• LMI is a signaling standard between
    the DTE and the Frame Relay switch.
•   LMI is responsible for managing the connection and maintaining
    the status between devices.
•   LMI includes:
     – A keepalive mechanism, which verifies that data is flowing
     – A multicast mechanism, which provides the network server
        (router) with its local DLCI.
     – The multicast addressing, which can give DLCIs global rather
        than local significance in Frame Relay networks (not common).
     – A status mechanism, which provides an ongoing status on the
        DLCIs known to the switch
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                     24
LMI


                                      LMI




• In order to deliver the first LMI services to customers as soon as
    possible, vendors and standards committees worked separately to
    develop and deploy LMI in early Frame Relay implementations.
•   The result is that there are three types of LMI, none of which is
    compatible with the others.
•   Cisco, StrataCom, Northern Telecom, and Digital Equipment
    Corporation (Gang of Four) released one type of LMI, while the ANSI
    and the ITU-T each released their own versions.
•   The LMI type must match between the provider Frame Relay switch
    and the customer DTE device.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                       25
LMI


                                      LMI




• In Cisco IOS releases prior to 11.2, the Frame Relay interface must be
    manually configured to use the correct LMI type, which is furnished by
    the service provider.
•   If using Cisco IOS Release 11.2 or later, the router attempts to
    automatically detect the type of LMI used by the provider switch.
•   This automatic detection process is called LMI autosensing.
•   No matter which LMI type is used, when LMI autosense is active, it
    sends out a full status request to the provider switch.

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                          26
    LMI


• Frame Relay devices can now listen in on both DLCI 1023 or Cisco
     LMI and DLCI 0 or ANSI and ITU-T simultaneously.
•    The order is ansi, q933a, cisco and is done in rapid succession to
     accommodate intelligent switches that can handle multiple formats
     simultaneously.
•    The Frame Relay switch uses LMI to report the status of configured
     PVCs.
•    The three possible PVC states are as follows:
      – Active state – Indicates that the connection is active and that
        routers can exchange data.
      – Inactive state – Indicates that the local connection to the Frame
        Relay switch is working, but the remote router connection to the
        Frame Relay switch is not working.
      – Deleted state – Indicates that no LMI is being received from the
        Frame Relay switch, or that there is no service between the CPE
        router and Frame Relay switch.
    Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                     27
DLCI Mapping to Network Address




• Manual
     – Manual: Administrators use a frame relay map statement.
•   Dynamic
     – Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (I-ARP) provides a given
       DLCI and requests next-hop protocol addresses for a specific
       connection.
     – The router then updates its mapping table and uses the information
       in the table to forward packets on the correct route.

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                     28
Inverse ARP
               2                      1




• Once the router learns from the switch about available PVCs and their
    corresponding DLCIs, the router can send an Inverse ARP request to
    the other end of the PVC. (unless statically mapped – later)
•   For each supported and configured protocol on the interface, the router
    sends an Inverse ARP request for each DLCI. (unless statically
    mapped)
•   In effect, the Inverse ARP request asks the remote station for its Layer
    3 address.
•   At the same time, it provides the remote system with the Layer 3
    address of the local system.
•   The return information from the Inverse ARP is then used to build the
    Frame Relay map.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                        29
Inverse ARP




• Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (Inverse ARP) was developed to
     provide a mechanism for dynamic DLCI to Layer 3 address maps.
• Inverse ARP works much the same way Address Resolution Protocol
     (ARP) works on a LAN.
• However, with ARP, the device knows the Layer 3 IP address and
     needs to know the remote data link MAC address.
• With Inverse ARP, the router knows the Layer 2 address which is the
     DLCI, but needs to know the remote Layer 3 IP address.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                     30
Frame Relay Encapsulation

Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay {cisco | ietf}




 •     cisco - Default.
         – Use this if connecting to another Cisco router.
 •     Ietf - Select this if connecting to a non-Cisco router.
         – RFC 1490
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                              31
Frame Relay LMI
Router(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type {ansi | cisco | q933a}




• It is important to remember that the Frame Relay service provider
    maps the virtual circuit within the Frame Relay network connecting the
    two remote customer premises equipment (CPE) devices that are
    typically routers.
•   Once the CPE device, or router, and the Frame Relay switch are
    exchanging LMI information, the Frame Relay network has everything
    it needs to create the virtual circuit with the other remote router.
•   The Frame Relay network is not like the Internet where any two
    devices connected to the Internet can communicate.
•   In a Frame Relay network, before two routers can exchange
    information, a virtual circuit between them must be set up ahead of
    time by the Frame Relay service provider.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                          32
Minimum Frame Relay Configuration

            172.16.1.2                                          172.16.1.1
                                       Frame Relay
                          DLCI 101       Network     DLCI 102
Headquarters                                                    Satellite Office 1
  Hub City                                                         Spokane



  HubCity(config)# interface serial 0
  HubCity(config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0
  HubCity(config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay

  Spokane(config)# interface serial 0
  Spokane(config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
  Spokane(config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay




 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                                 33
Minimum Frame Relay Configuration

            172.16.1.2                                          172.16.1.1
                                       Frame Relay
                          DLCI 101       Network     DLCI 102
Headquarters                                                    Satellite Office 1
  Hub City                                                         Spokane



• Cisco Router is now ready to act as a Frame-Relay DTE device.

The following process occurs:
1. The interface is enabled.
2. The Frame-Relay switch announces the configured DLCI(s) to the
   router.
3. Inverse ARP is performed to map remote network layer addresses to
   the local DLCI(s).

The routers can now ping each other!
 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                                 34
Inverse ARP


                    172.16.1.2                                        172.16.1.1
                                             Frame Relay
                                  DLCI 101     Network     DLCI 102
     Headquarters                                                     Satellite Office 1
       Hub City                                                          Spokane



HubCity# show frame-relay map
Serial0 (up): ip 172.16.1.1 dlci 101, dynamic, broadcast,
   status defined, active

• dynamic refers to the router learning the IP address via Inverse ARP
• The DLCI 101 is configured on the Frame Relay Switch by the
    provider.
•   We will see this in a moment.

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                                   35
Inverse ARP Limitations

                         172.16.1.2                                       172.16.1.1
                                                 Frame Relay
                                      DLCI 101     Network     DLCI 102
            Headquarters                                                  Satellite Office 1
              Hub City                                                       Spokane


• Inverse ARP only resolves network addresses of remote Frame-Relay
    connections that are directly connected.
•   Inverse ARP does not work with Hub-and-Spoke connections. (We will
    see this in a moment.)
•   When using dynamic address mapping, Inverse ARP requests a next-
    hop protocol address for each active PVC.
•   Once the requesting router receives an Inverse ARP response, it
    updates its DLCI-to-Layer 3 address mapping table.
•   Dynamic address mapping is enabled by default for all protocols
    enabled on a physical interface.
•   If the Frame Relay environment supports LMI autosensing and Inverse
    ARP, dynamic address mapping takes place automatically.
•   Therefore, no static address mapping is required.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                                            36
Configuring Frame Relay maps

Router(config-if)#frame-relay map protocol protocol-address
   dlci [broadcast] [ietf | cisco]


• If the environment does not support LMI autosensing and Inverse ARP,
       a Frame Relay map must be manually configured.
•      Use the frame-relay map command to configure static address
       mapping.
•      Once a static map for a given DLCI is configured, Inverse ARP is
       disabled on that DLCI.
•      The broadcast keyword is commonly used with the frame-relay
       map command.
•      The broadcast keyword provides two functions.
         – Forwards broadcasts when multicasting is not enabled.
         – Simplifies the configuration of OSPF for nonbroadcast networks
           that use Frame Relay. (coming)
    Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                     37
Frame
Relay Maps



By default,
cisco is the
default
encapsulation




                                        Remote IP   Local DLCI
                   Uses cisco
                   encapsulation for    Address
                   this DLCI (not
                   needed, default)
  Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                            38
More on Frame Relay Encapsulation




                                                 Applies to all DLCIs unless
                                                 configured otherwise




• If the Cisco encapsulation is configured on a serial interface, then by
    default, that encapsulation applies to all VCs on that serial interface.
•   If the equipment at the destination is Cisco and non-Cisco, configure
    the Cisco encapsulation on the interface and selectively configure IETF
    encapsulation per DLCI, or vice versa.
•   These commands configure the Cisco Frame Relay encapsulation for
    all PVCs on the serial interface.
•   Except for the PVC corresponding to DLCI 49, which is explicitly
    configured to use the IETF encapsulation.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                            39
Verifying Frame Relay interface
configuration




•   The show interfaces serial command displays
    information regarding the encapsulation and the status of
    Layer 1 and Layer 2.
•   It also displays information about the multicast DLCI, the
    DLCIs used on the Frame Relay-configured serial
    interface, and the DLCI used for the LMI signaling.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                              40
 show interfaces serial

Atlanta(config)#interface serial 0/0
Atlanta(config-if)#description Circuit-05QHDQ101545-080TCOM-002
Atlanta(config-if)#^z

Atlanta#show interfaces serial 0/0
Serial 0/0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is MCI Serial
Description Circuit-05QHDQ101545-080TCOM-002
Internet address is 150.136.190.203, subnet mask 255.255.255.0
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 uses, rely 255/255, load 1/255


 • To simplify the WAN management, use the description command
      at the interface level to record the circuit number.




  Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                41
show frame-relay pvc




• The command show frame-relay pvc shows the status of all
    PVCs configured on the router.
•   This command is also useful for viewing the number of Backward
    Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) and Forward Explicit
    Congestion Notification (FECN) packets received by the router.
•   If a single PVC is specified, only the status of that PVC is shown.


Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                       42
 show frame-relay map




• The show frame-relay map command displays the current map
  entries and information about the connections.




 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                          43
show frame-relay lmi




• The show frame-relay lmi command displays LMI traffic statistics
    showing the number of status messages exchanged between the local
    router and the Frame Relay switch.




Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                     44
clear frame-relay-inarp




• To clear dynamically created Frame Relay maps, which are created
    using Inverse ARP, use the clear frame-relay-inarp command.




Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                  45
Troubleshooting the Frame Relay
configuration




• Use the debug frame-relay lmi command to
   determine whether the router and the Frame Relay switch
   are sending and receiving LMI packets properly.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                          46
debug frame-relay lmi (continued)




•   The possible values of the status field are as follows:
•   0x0 – Added/inactive means that the switch has this DLCI programmed but for
    some reason it is not usable. The reason could possibly be the other end of the
    PVC is down.
•   0x2 – Added/active means the Frame Relay switch has the DLCI and
    everything is operational.
•   0x4 – Deleted means that the Frame Relay switch does not have this DLCI
    programmed for the router, but that it was programmed at some point in the
    past. This could also be caused by the DLCIs being reversed on the router, or
    by the PVC being deleted by the service provider in the Frame Relay cloud.

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                               47
Frame Relay Topologies




Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu   48
NBMA – Non Broadcast
Multiple Access
Frames between two routers are only seen
by those two devices (non broadcast).
Similar to a LAN, multiple computers have
access to the same network and
potentially to each other (multiple access).
• An NBMA network is the opposite of a broadcast network.
• On a broadcast network, multiple computers and devices are
    attached to a shared network cable or other medium. When one
    computer transmits frames, all nodes on the network "listen" to the
    frames, but only the node to which the frames are addressed actually
    receives the frames. Thus, the frames are broadcast.
•   A nonbroadcast multiple access network is a network to which
    multiple computers and devices are attached, but data is transmitted
    directly from one computer to another over a virtual circuit or across a
    switching fabric. The most common examples of nonbroadcast network
    media include ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), frame relay, and
    X.25.
•   http://www.linktionary.com/
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                        49
Star Topology




• A star topology, also known as a hub and spoke configuration, is the
    most popular Frame Relay network topology because it is the most
    cost-effective.
•   In this topology, remote sites are connected to a central site that
    generally provides a service or application.
•   This is the least expensive topology because it requires the fewest
    PVCs.
•   In this example, the central router provides a multipoint connection,
    because it is typically using a single interface to interconnect multiple
    PVCs.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                             50
Full Mesh
Full Mesh Topology
Number of         Number of
Connections        PVCs
----------------- --------------
              2      1
              4      6
              6     15
              8     28
             10     45

• In a full mesh topology, all routers have PVCs to all other destinations.
• This method, although more costly than hub and spoke, provides direct
    connections from each site to all other sites and allows for redundancy.
•   For example, when one link goes down, a router at site A can reroute
    traffic through site C.
•   As the number of nodes in the full mesh topology increases, the
    topology becomes increasingly more expensive.
•   The formula to calculate the total number of PVCs with a fully meshed
    WAN is [n(n - 1)]/2, where n is the number of nodes.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                        51
A Frame-Relay Configuration Supporting Multiple Sites
                                                                Headquarters
                                                                  Hub City
 • This is known                                                                            Hub Router
 as a Hub and                                               DLCI 101            DLCI 112
 Spoke
                                                                   172.16.1.2
 Topology,
 where the Hub
 router relays
 information
 between the                                                    Frame Relay
                                                                  Network
 Spoke routers.
 • Limits the
 number of PVCs                            DLCI 102                                         DLCI 211
 needed as in a
 full-mesh                              172.16.1.1                                            172.16.1.3
 topology                                                          Spoke
 (coming).                             Satellite Office 1         Routers             Satellite Office 2
                                          Spokane                                        Spokomo

 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                                                       52
                                                                Headquarters

Configuration using Inverse                                       Hub City




ARP                                                         DLCI 101

                                                                   172.16.1.2
                                                                                DLCI 112




                                                                Frame Relay
 HubCity                                                          Network

 interface Serial0
 ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0       DLCI 102                                         DLCI 211



 encapsulation frame-relay              172.16.1.1                                            172.16.1.3



                                       Satellite Office 1                             Satellite Office 2
                                          Spokane                                        Spokomo
 Spokane
 interface Serial0
 ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
 encapsulation frame-relay

 Spokomo
 interface Serial0
 ip address 172.16.1.3 255.255.255.0
 encapsulation frame-relay



Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                                                 53
Configuration using Inverse ARP:




Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu   54
                                                                        Headquarters

Configuration using Inverse                                               Hub City


                                                                    DLCI 101            DLCI 112

ARP                                                                        172.16.1.2




                                                                        Frame Relay
                                                                          Network



                                                   DLCI 102                                         DLCI 211


                                                172.16.1.1                                            172.16.1.3



                                               Satellite Office 1                             Satellite Office 2
                                                  Spokane                                        Spokomo


HubCity# show frame-relay map
Serial0 (up): ip 172.16.1.1 dlci 101, dynamic, broadcast,
   status defined, active
Serial0 (up): ip 172.16.1.3 dlci 112, dynamic, broadcast,
   status defined, active

Spokane# show frame-relay map
Serial0 (up): ip 172.16.1.2 dlci 102, dynamic, broadcast,
   status defined, active

Spokomo# show frame-relay map
Serial0 (up): ip 172.16.1.2 dlci 211, dynamic, broadcast,
   status defined, active

 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                                                       55
Configuration using Inverse ARP

    HubCity# show frame-relay map
    Serial0 (up): ip 172.16.1.1 dlci 101, dynamic, broadcast,
       status defined, active
    Serial0 (up): ip 172.16.1.3 dlci 112, dynamic, broadcast,
       status defined, active

    Spokane# show frame-relay map
    Serial0 (up): ip 172.16.1.2 dlci 102, dynamic, broadcast,
       status defined, active

    Spokomo# show frame-relay map
    Serial0 (up): ip 172.16.1.2 dlci 211, dynamic, broadcast,
       status defined, active


• Inverse ARP resolved the ip addresses for HubCity for both
    Spokane and Spokomo
•   Inverse ARP resolved the ip addresses for Spokane for HubCity
•   Inverse ARP resolved the ip addresses for Spokomo for HubCity
•   What about between Spokane and Spokomo?
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                 56
                                                                        Headquarters
                                                                          Hub City


Inverse ARP Limitations                                             DLCI 101

                                                                           172.16.1.2
                                                                                        DLCI 112




                                                                        Frame Relay
                                                                          Network



                                                   DLCI 102                                         DLCI 211


                                                172.16.1.1                                            172.16.1.3



                                               Satellite Office 1                             Satellite Office 2
                                                  Spokane                                        Spokomo


• Can HubCity ping both Spokane and Spokomo? Yes!
• Can Spokane and Spokomo ping HubCity? Yes!
• Can Spokane and Spokomo ping each other? No! The Spoke
     routers’ serial interfaces (Spokane and Spokomo) drop the ICMP
     packets because there is no DLCI-to-IP address mapping for the
     destination address.

Solutions to the limitations of Inverse ARP
1. Add an additional PVC between Spokane and Spokomo (Full Mesh)
2. Configure Frame-Relay Map Statements
3. Configure Point-to-Point Subinterfaces.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                                                        57
Reachability issues
with routing updates

Frame Relay is an NBMA Network




• An NBMA network is a multiaccess network, which means more than
     two nodes can connect to the network.
•    Ethernet is another example of a multiaccess architecture.
•    In an Ethernet LAN, all nodes see all broadcast and multicast frames.
•    However, in a nonbroadcast network such as Frame Relay, nodes
     cannot see broadcasts of other nodes unless they are directly
     connected by a virtual circuit.
•    This means that Branch A cannot directly see the broadcasts from
     Branch B, because they are connected using a hub and spoke
     topology.
 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                         58
Reachability issues
with routing updates

Split Horizon prohibits routing
updates received on an interface
from exiting that same interface.


• The Central router must receive the broadcast from Branch A and then
     send its own broadcast to Branch B.
•    In this example, there are problems with routing protocols because of
     the split horizon rule.
•    A full mesh topology with virtual circuits between every site would solve
     this problem, but having additional virtual circuits is more costly and
     does not scale well.




 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                         59
Reachability issues
with routing updates

Split Horizon prohibits routing
updates received on an interface
from exiting that same interface.



• Using a hub and spoke topology, the split horizon rule reduces the
     chance of a routing loop with distance vector routing protocols.
•    It prevents a routing update received on an interface from being
     forwarded through the same interface.
•    If the Central router learns about Network X from Branch A, that update
     is learned via S0/0.
•    According to the split horizon rule, Central could not update Branch B
     or Branch C about Network X.
•    This is because that update would be sent out the S0/0 interface,
     which is the same interface that received the update.
 Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                       60
One Solution: Disable Split Horizon

Router(config-if)#no ip split-horizon
Router(config-if)#ip split-horizon



• To remedy this situation, turn off split horizon for IP.
• When configuring a serial interface for Frame Relay encapsulation,
    split horizon for IP is automatically turned off.
•   Of course, with split horizon disabled, the protection it affords against
    routing loops is lost.
•   Split horizon is only an issue with distance vector routing protocols like
    RIP, IGRP and EIGRP.
•   It has no effect on link state routing protocols like OSPF and IS-IS.




Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                              61
Another Solution for split horizon issue:
subinterfaces




• To enable the forwarding of broadcast routing updates in a Frame
    Relay network, configure the router with subinterfaces.
•   Subinterfaces are logical subdivisions of a physical interface.
•   In split-horizon routing environments, routing updates received on one
    subinterface can be sent out on another subinterface.
•   With subinterface configuration, each PVC can be configured as a
    point-to-point connection.
•   This allows each subinterface to act similar to a leased line.
•   This is because each point-to-point subinterface is treated as a
    separate physical interface.

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                          62
                                  Mulitpoint




                                Point-to-point

• A key reason for using subinterfaces is to allow distance vector routing
    protocols to perform properly in an environment in which split horizon is
    activated.
•   There are two types of Frame Relay subinterfaces.
     – Point-to-point
     – multipoint
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                          63
Configuring Frame Relay subinterfaces

RTA(config)#interface s0/0
RTA(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay ietf

Router(config-if)#interface serial number subinterface-number
   {multipoint | point-to-point}
Router(config-subif)# frame-relay interface-dlci dlci-number

• Subinterface can be configured after the physical interface has been
    configured for Frame Relay encapsulation
•   Subinterface numbers can be specified in interface configuration mode
    or global configuration mode.
•   Subinterface number can be between 1 and 4294967295
     – A common practice is to use the DLCI for that interface as the
        subinterface number.
•   At this point in the subinterface configuration, either configure a static
    Frame Relay map or use the frame-relay interface-dlci
    command.
•   The frame-relay interface-dlci command associates the
    selected subinterface with a DLCI.

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                              64
Show frame-relay map

Point-to-point subinterfaces are listed as a “point-to-point dlci”

Router#show frame-relay map
Serial0.1 (up): point-to-point dlci, dlci 301 (0xCB, 0x30B0),
   broadcast status defined, active




Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                  65
Point-to-point Subinterfaces

                                Mulitpoint




                               Point-to-point

With point-to-point subinterfaces you:
• Cannot have multiple DLCIs associated with a single point-to-point
   subinterface
• Cannot use frame-relay map statements
• Cannot use Inverse-ARP

• Can use the frame-relay interface dlci statement (for both point-to-
     point and multipoint)
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu                                      66
Ch. 5 – Frame Relay

    CCNA 4 version 3.0
      Rick Graziani
     Cabrillo College

								
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