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LEADERSHIP DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP Leadership is a behavioral process through which one person influences the behaviors of others toward the accomplishment of shared goals. Leadership involves the creation of a vision that empowers others to translate this vision into reality. Empowerment occurs when a leader effectively communicates with and inspires ordinary people to accomplish extraordinary results. LEADERSHIP THEORIES Trait — only a few possess the superior characteristics of leaders Cognitive (20th century Great Man) —leaders influence behaviors of others, such as with humility and fierce resolve Power or influence — includes power-sharing and empowerment of followers Situational — circumstances or environmental factors determine who will emerge as a leader LEADERSHIP THEORIES Integrative — transformational and values- based Visionary — mobilizes others to achieve shared aspirations Strategic — envision, direct, align, motivate, inspire, and energize followers Servant — listens, empathizes, persuades, and builds community Structure Strategy Systems Shared Values Skills Style Staff Peters, T.J., & Waterman, R.H., Jr. (1982). In Search of Excellence-Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies. New York: Harper & Row. McKinsey 7-S Framework-structure; strategy; staff (people); management style; systems and procedures; guid ing concepts; shared values (pp. 9-10) KEYS TO LEADERSHIP Leadership — “The skill of influencing people to work enthusiastically toward goals identified as being for the common good.” (p. 28) Authority — “The skill of getting people to willingly do your will because of your personal influence” (p. 30) “Authority is about who you are as a person, your character, and the influence you’ve built with people.” (p. 31) Service and Sacrifice — giving to and doing for others selflessly (Hunter, 1998) CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERS Leaders have integrity. Leaders live according to a moral purpose. Leaders build relationships with people. Leaders are effective communicators. Leaders are visionary and creative. Leaders establish, maintain, and model high standards of performance. Leaders show an unwavering resolve and calm determination. Leaders are energetic. LEADERSHIP MODEL FOR THE FUTURE VALUES PEOPLE TEAMWORK A CULTURE OF DISCIPLINE Build-up Disciplined Disciplined Disciplined + + Thought People Action (Collins, 2001, p. 127) CORE VALUES Identify what you believe in — you understand your core values by looking inside (Who you are) Reflect on and describe to yourself what these values mean to you Decide how you will incorporate these core values into all aspects of your daily life CORE VALUES Integrity — quality of a person's character that fulfills one’s moral obligation to self and others Respect — holding others in high regard and treating them the way you wish to be treated Mutual trust — confidence and belief in the honesty and reliability of others Responsibility — being morally accountable for your actions VALUES AND GREATNESS “Good is the enemy of great,” according to Jim Collins in his book, Good to Great. The leader who makes a good organization great is guided by values. The really great organizations place people and values first. LEADERSHIP AND CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT Leaders who are respected and successful will serve as role models of character and be examples that people will choose to emulate. Leaders provide learning opportunities that include ethical choices and emphasize the importance of character. FOCUS ON PEOPLE-CENTERED VALUES Place a high importance on values and aligning values, strategies, and people Tap into the energy of people by connecting through their values Unlock the human potential of people Increase the chance of success will lead to extraordinary results PEOPLE ARE MOST IMPORTANT Successful leaders emphasize building and nurturing personal relationships — connections with people will lead to results Leaders prioritize hiring and retaining good people Most people seek challenges and desire to be successful but want to be empowered to do the job themselves. ASSEMBLING THE RIGHT TEAM First, get the right people on the bus (and the wrong people off the bus) before you figure out where to drive the bus. Second, apply sheer rigor in making decisions about people. You need members on your team who argue and debate in pursuit of the best answers, yet who unify fully behind a decision once made. THE RIGHT PEOPLE Recruitment Nurturing and Define expectations Supervision Hire for fit Identify Coach expectations Counsel Develop a plan Guide Provide any needed retraining and resources Evaluate versus expectations TEAMWORK Teams — groups organized to work together to accomplish goals or tasks that cannot be achieved as effectively by individuals FACILITATING TEAMWORK Commitment to mutual trust and respect Dedication to the achievement of shared goals Interdependences flourish Effective in communications Mistakes provide CULTURE OR CLIMATE “Culture emphasizes the unspoken assumptions (values; beliefs; myths; traditions; norms) that underlie an organization, whereas climate focuses on the more accessible perceptions of the organization, especially how they arouse motivation and, thus, impact performance.” (Stringer, 2002, p. 14) QUALITIES OF A DREAM TEAM Team members care for one another. Team members know what is important. Team members communication with one another. Team members grow together. There is a team fit. Team members place their individual rights beneath the best interest of the team. Team members each play a special role. An effective team has a good bench. Team members know exactly where the team stands. Team members are willing to pay the price. (Maxwell, 1995) CHANGING PARADIGM IN LEADERSHIP Leaders should Behave in ethical ways based on values Enhance the personal growth of people Facilitate teamwork for greater success LEADERSHIP MODEL FOR THE FUTURE VALUES PEOPLE TEAMWORK FOUR FRAMES OF ORGANIZATIONS Structural — the leader as analyst or architect Human resource — the leader as catalyst or servant Political — the leader as advocate or negotiator Symbolic — the leader as prophet or inspiration STRUCTURAL FRAME The structural frame describes the importance of navigating the organizational maze in order to make progress toward organizational goals while gaining a better understanding of the importance of building teams. Effective structural leaders focus on implementation. STRUCTURAL FRAME Learn to navigate the organizational maze— “learning the ropes” Build a partnership with those to whom you report Gain a broader understanding of institutional policies, procedures, job expectations, and day-to-day details Establish priorities and plan for short- and long-term growth of the organization HUMAN RESOURCE FRAME The human resource frame stresses the importance of developing strong interpersonal relationships and facilitating positive group dynamics. Leadership may be more about relationships than it is about ideas or vision, e.g., people are the most important resource. HUMAN RESOURCE FRAME Hire the right people, then Empower people with authority and responsibility Facilitate their collaboration and teamwork Reward them Communicate effectively Facilitate positive relationships Treat others equitably and with respect Demonstrate strong negotiation and conflict resolution skills POLITICAL FRAME The political frame deals with managing power, conflict, and coalitions and learning how to address various political agendas. Special interest groups and individual perspectives permeate organizations, so interactions must be thoughtfully considered and handled carefully. POLITICAL FRAME Understand and manage power very carefully Realize that organizational dynamics evolve from coalitions of various individuals and interest groups with their enduring differences Build relationships with key external constituencies Recognize and handle astutely all controversies and politically-charged issues SYMBOLIC FRAME The symbolic frame emphasizes the organizational culture and how appearances and representations shape perceptions. Leaders interpret and reinterpret experiences. Perceptions are almost always more real than reality. SYMBOLIC FRAME Understand that the multiple meanings of events to the people involved overshadow any stated purpose Affirm and celebrate the symbolism of rituals, ceremonies, and special events Develop and feature special occasions and symbols so they become highly regarded by constituents Celebrate everyone’s achievements SEVEN HABITS OF HIGHLY EFFECTIVE PEOPLE 7. Sharpen the saw Renewal 6. Synergize Public understood 5. Seek first to understand, then to beVictory 4. Think win/win 3. Put first things first 2. Begin with the end in mind Private 1. Be proactive Victory (Covey, 1990, p. 53) TWO DIMENSIONS OF LEADERSHIP High Encouraging Coaching (use when (use when followers are followers able and are unable unwilling) and willing) Relationships (with people) Delegating Structuring (use when (use when followers followers are are able unable and and willing) unwilling) Low Tasks High (getting the job done) SIX STYLES OF LEADERSHIP Coercive — demands immediate compliance Authoritative — mobilizes people toward a vision and may serve as a catalyst for change Affiliative — creates emotional bonds, builds relationships, and nurtures harmony Democratic — builds consensus through participation, collaboration, team leadership, and effective communication Pacesetting — sets high standards for performance and expects excellence and self-direction Coaching — develops people to improve performance and develop long-term strengths SIX STYLES OF LEADERSHIP Is each leadership style effective? If so, in what types of situations? Which is the most effective leadership style, and why? Which is the least effective leadership style, and why?
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