Stevens County HIVA by 0V1xh8

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 52

									 STEVENS COUNTY




           HAZARD
       IDENTIFICATION
             and
        VULNERABILITY
          ANALYSIS
HIVA              August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                           STEVENS COUNTY
  HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS

                            TABLE OF CONTENTS

       I.     INTRODUCTION                                    i
       II.    LETTER OF PROMULGATION                          i
       III.   GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS                    i
       IV.    DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS                             i
       V.     HIVA SUMMARY TABLE                              i
       VI.    NATURAL HAZARDS
              A.    Avalanche                                 A-1
              B.    Drought                                   B-1
              C.    Earthquake                                C-1
              D.    Forest Fire                               D-1
              E.    Flood                                     E-1
              F.    Landslide                                 F-1
              G.    Severe Local Storm                        G-1
              H.    Volcano                                   H-1
              I.    Blank
              J.    Blank
              K.    Blank
       VII.   TECHNOLOGICAL HAZARDS
              L.    Blank
              M.    Hazardous Material                        M-1
              N.    Nuclear Detonation                        N-1
              O.    Search and Rescue Emergency               O-1
              P.    Urban Fire (Conflagration)                P-1
              Q.    Abandoned Underground Mines               Q-1
              R.    Terrorism and Violent Persons             R-1
              S.    Dam Failure                               S-1
              T.    Energy Emergency                          T-1
              U-Z   Blank
       VIII. BIBLIOGRAPHY                                     VII-1



HIVA                                                August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
       LETTER OF PROMULGATION
This Hazard Identification and Vulnerability Analysis, dated September of 2004:



Submitted By:


________________________________
CRAIG ELLIS THAYER / DIRECTOR
Department Of Emergency Services




ADOPTED by the Board of County Commissioners of Stevens County on
this ______________________ day __________________ , 2004




                                                _________________________________
                                                                              CHAIRMAN



                                                _________________________________
                                                                        COMMISSIONER


                                                _________________________________
                                                                        COMMISSIONER


Attested by:


___________________________________
CLERK OF THE BOAORD OF
COUNTY COMMISSIONERS



HIVA                                                           August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                         STEVENS COUNTY

      HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS


I.     INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this Hazard Identification and Vulnerability Analysis (HIVA) is to
provide information on potential large-scale hazards which exist within or which could
impact Stevens County. It is intended to serve as a basis for county-level emergency
management programs and to assist local jurisdictions in the development of similar
documents focused on local hazards. It is the foundation of effective mitigation,
preparedness, response, and recovery activities.

The hazards discussed herein are not all inclusive for the county. Conditions may
also periodically change, or new information may become available which could
necessitate modifications

The data is not original, but extracted from various publications. Numerous technical
experts also made contributions. The HIVA is not presented as a detailed study, but
as a general overview.

II.    GEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS

Located in the northeast Washington State, Stevens County is bordered on the north
by Canada, on the east by Pend Oreille County and on the west by Ferry County. The
country is 2,481.2 square miles, it is approximately 84 miles long and 44 miles wide,
and totaling almost 1,587,840 acres. The Spokane Tribe occupies 237.5 square miles
or 152,320 acres of Stevens County. The county elevation ranges from 1,400 feet to
5,900 feet. January is generally the coldest month with a median temperature of
24.5, while July is normally the warmest month with an average mean temperature of
61.3. Average number of days below 32 degrees is 38; average number of days above
90 degrees is 26. Average rainfall is about 17 inches, snowfall about 48 inches,
though our weather has been unpredictable as everywhere else. It is traversed by
the Columbia River on the west. This section of the river has been federally
designated as the Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area, formed by the
backwaters of Grand Coulee Dam. The Huckleberry Mountain range geographically
splits the north-south axis of the county.


HIVA                                                         August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
III. DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS

Stevens County’s population, based on census figures, is as follows:

       * 1990                    30,948 inhabitants
       * 2000                    38,500 inhabitants
       * 2003                    40,484 inhabitants

Incorporated City Population as of April 2001;

       Colville                                       5,010
       Chewelah                                       2,200
       Springdale                                       285
       Northport                                        312
       Kettle Falls                                   1,527

In the last five years, there has been a shift in the population distribution due to the
growth of housing development in the extreme southern portion of the county. While
unincorporated, the Suncrest area has an approximate population of 3,500 or 9% of
the county’s total. This is due to its immediate proximity to Spokane, WA.




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HIVA                                                          August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                                   H.I.V.A         Summary




Potential Disaster to Stevens County Summary

The following table summarizes the Stevens County Hazard Identification and Vulnerability
Analysis. Adjective descriptors represent:
    Probability to that hazard
    Overall risk posed by the hazard during the next 25-year period (25 year hazard
       probability/vulnerability/risk).
    Vulnerability is the ratio of population, commerce, and essential infrastructure and services
       at risk, relative to the entire County.


NATURAL

Earthquake            Low/High/High                 Tornado                Low/Low/Low

Volcano               Low/Med/Low                   Flood                  High/Med/Low

Winter Storm          High/Med/Med                  Drought                High/Med/Med

Severe Cold           High/Med/Med                  Wild Land Fire         High/Med/Med


TECHNOLOGICAL

Haz Mat               High/Med/Med                  Epidemic               Low/High/Med

Urban Fire            Low/Med/Low                   Critical Shortage      Low/Med/Low

Mass Casualty         Med/Med/Med                   Civil Disturbance      Med/Low/Low

Dam Failure           Med/High/Med                  Terrorism              High/Med/Med




HIVA                                                                    August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                                A. AVALANCHE




Definition of Hazard

An avalanche is a mass of loosened snow or ice that suddenly and swiftly slides down
a mountain, often growing and collecting additional material as it descends.

History of Hazard

There have been no recorded deaths/damages due to avalanche in Stevens County.

Hazard Identification

The avalanche season could begin as early as October and continues until the last
remnants of snow have melted in early summer.

Vulnerability Analysis

More and more people are recreating, working, and building in potentially hazardous
areas with little caution or preparation. The increasing development of recreational
sites in the mountains brings added exposure to the people using these sites and
associated structures.

Avalanches could impact the timber industry, homeowners, power companies,
recreation resorts, snowmobiles, ski tourists, and mountaineering groups.

Conclusions

The U.S. Forest Service, National Park Service, and the State Department of
Transportation currently have programs to monitor avalanche zones and forecast
avalanche hazards. Artillery or hand-placed explosives are often used to create
small avalanches to avoid creation of larger ones. Areas are posted if an avalanche
danger is known.

Because there is no way to keep the public out of avalanche prone areas, better
avalanche detection, and avoidance would help. All county, state, and federal



HIVA                                                         August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
agencies, along with private interests, should coordinate their efforts in making
winter observation data available to the public.

Timber harvest must be regulated near developments since heavy timber helps to
stabilize the snow cover. Reforestation should be encouraged in slide zones
affecting highways, buildings, power lines, and other improvements.

County Planning Department must acquire information on potential avalanche hazards
likely to affect proposed development in any mountainous area.




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HIVA                                                         August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                                  B. DROUGHT


Definition of Hazard

Drought is a condition of climatic dryness, which is severe enough to reduce soil
moisture and water below the minimum necessary for sustaining plant, animal, and
human life systems.

History of Hazard

Stevens County has had drought designations in the following years;
             1991               1995                2003 (requested)
             1992               2000
             1993               2001
             1994               2002

In addition, in 1985 Gov. Booth Gardner designated several Washington counties
eligible for drought assistance. Those Eastern Washington counties with farmers
who were affected by drought conditions included Spokane, Lincoln, Stevens and
Pend Oreille.

Hazard Identification

Nearly all areas of the county are vulnerable to drought.

Vulnerability Analysis

In every drought, agriculture has felt the impact, especially in non-irrigated areas
such as dry land farms and rangelands. Droughts have left their major impact on
individuals (farm owners, tenants, and farm laborers), on the agricultural industry,
and to a lesser extent, on other agriculture-related sectors.

There is increased danger of forest fires. Millions of board feet of timber could be
lost. In many cases, erosion can occur which can cause serious damage to aquatic life,
irrigation, and power development by heavy silting of streams, reservoirs, and rivers.




HIVA                                                          August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
Problems of domestic/municipal water supplies have historically been corrected
(funds permitting) by building another reservoir, a larger pipeline, a new well, or some
other facility. Short-term measures, such as using large capacity water tankers to
supply domestic potable water, have also been used.

Low stream flows have created high temperatures, oxygen depletion, disease, and
lack of spawning areas for our fish resources.

All of the above effects result in economic and revenue losses for businesses, cities,
and the county.

The Palmer Index (Wayne C. Palmer, U.S. Weather Bureau, Research Paper No. 46
"Meteorological Drought," February 1965) is computed using a complex formula
designed to indicate the cumulative effect of prolonged departures from normal
moisture. It takes into account the intensity and duration of abnormally wet or dry
weather periods using several parameters, including: (1) temperature, (2)
precipitation, (3) evaporation and transpiration, (4) runoff, and (5) soil moisture.
Current and antecedent moisture data are compared to long-term averages for each
climatological division to derive a single index number that normally falls within a -6
to +6 range.

                   Above +4      Extremely Wet
                   +3 to +4      Severely Wet
                   +2 to +3      Moderately Wet
                   -2 to +2      Near Normal
                   -2 to -3      Moderate Drought
                   -3 to -4      Severe Drought
                   Below -4      Extreme Drought

Conclusions

As a result of droughts, new techniques have occurred in agriculture. Federal and
state governments have also assumed an active role in developing new water projects
and soil conservation programs. Chapter 43.83B.400 RCW and WAC 173-166 are
sections that pertain to drought relief.

Better forest fire protection techniques have been developed and total acreage
burned has continually decreased.



HIVA                                                          August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
Progress is being made in dealing with the impact of droughts through proper
management of Washington's water resources. Hopefully, information being
collected and shared will assist in the formulation of effective programs for future
water-short years.




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HIVA                                                         August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                              C.     EARTHQUAKES


Definition of Hazard

An earthquake is the shaking of the ground caused by an abrupt shift of rock along a
fracture in the earth, called a fault. The surface of the earth is in a constant change.
Plates, much like huge paving stones, make up the earth’s crust. These plates are
constantly moving very slowly over the surface of the globe. As the stresses build
up, they periodically release energy in the areas where the plates come into contact
with each other. This release of energy is the cause of some earthquakes.

History of Hazard

From past history,
scientists know that
earthquakes will
continue to harass
mankind and that they
will occur more
frequently in the
areas where they have
been relatively
common in the past.
In the United States,
earthquakes can be
expected to occur
most frequently in the
Western States,
particularly in Alaska,
California,
Washington, Oregon,
Nevada, Utah and
Montana. The danger,
however, is not
confined to any one part of the country: major earthquakes have occurred at widely
scattered locations. Stevens County is not historically considered a high seismic risk
area and has only recorded minor damage.



HIVA                                                          August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
The following is a catalog of earthquake activity in and around Stevens County from
1970 to present.

Date            Time    Lat / Long    Dep Mag (km) Quality                 Comments

71/01/22 21:59:37 48.49N 118.17W 0.0 3.1 DD 21.5 km WSW of Colville, WA
71/05/22 15:57:10 47.79N 118.95W 35.1 3.3 CD 17.2 km SSE of Grand Coulee, WA
75/08/30 08:40:00 47.86N 118.46W 8.9 2.5 DD 41.4 km ESE of Grand Coulee, WA
75/09/18 12:19:28 47.81N 118.25W 6.5 3.5 AD FELT 57.5 km ESE of Grand Coulee, WA
76/07/09 20:35:03 47.96N 118.29W 7.9 2.9 AC 52.9 km E of Grand Coulee, WA
76/07/26 20:14:22 47.96N 118.29W 7.0 2.4 AC 53.0 km E of Grand Coulee, WA
76/11/05 01:07:11 48.47N 118.90W 33.8 2.4 DD 51.1 km ENE of Okanogan, WA
77/12/21 00:27:11 48.64N 118.31W 7.8 2.0 CD BLST 32.7 km WNW of Colville, WA
78/04/20 20:04:57 47.86N 118.17W 8.1 2.3 AD 61.2 km WNW of Spokane, WA
78/12/11 23:34:01 47.86N 118.18W 7.9 3.1 AD 61.8 km WNW of Spokane, WA
80/01/03 22:26:35 47.88N 118.15W 6.5 3.2 AC BLST 60.6 km WNW of Spokane, WA
80/01/16 19:26:48 47.88N 118.10W 9.2 2.4 AD BLST 57.3 km WNW of Spokane, WA
80/01/30 00:29:41 47.89N 118.11W 7.5 2.0 BD BLST 58.6 km WNW of Spokane, WA
80/03/19 19:22:03 47.88N 118.13W 10.1 2.2 CD 59.6 km WNW of Spokane, WA
80/04/30 23:37:39 47.88N 118.14W 8.4 2.0 AC BLST 59.9 km WNW of Spokane, WA
80/05/08 09:58:30 48.79N 118.77W 0.0 2.3 CD 70.3 km WNW of Colville, WA
80/05/08 23:34:05 47.87N 118.16W 7.6 2.1 AD 61.1 km WNW of Spokane, WA
80/06/18 18:13:44 47.81N 118.42W 8.8 2.2 DD 45.3 km ESE of Grand Coulee, WA
80/07/02 18:19:00 47.89N 118.12W 8.3 2.3 CD 58.9 km WNW of Spokane, WA
80/07/16 23:37:26 47.89N 118.13W 8.6 2.3 BD 59.4 km WNW of Spokane, WA
80/08/06 20:17:26 47.87N 118.71W 10.5 2.0 BD BLST 22.5 km ESE of Grand Coulee, WA
80/08/20 03:38:31 48.77N 118.79W 4.2 2.4 CD 70.3 km WNW of Colville, WA
81/03/25 00:28:56 47.88N 118.14W 7.8 2.0 AC 59.9 km WNW of Spokane, WA
81/10/30 00:11:11 48.04N 118.72W 9.1 2.4 BD 23.6 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
81/11/16 19:19:32 47.87N 118.14W 9.4 2.0 AC 59.4 km WNW of Spokane, WA
81/11/23 21:22:57 47.88N 118.15W 7.1 2.0 AC 60.7 km WNW of Spokane, WA
81/12/03 22:21:09 47.88N 118.14W 9.0 2.1 AC 60.3 km WNW of Spokane, WA
81/12/08 21:52:29 47.89N 118.15W 6.0 2.1 BC 60.9 km WNW of Spokane, WA
82/01/04 22:44:38 47.88N 118.14W 7.8 2.2 AC 59.8 km WNW of Spokane, WA
82/01/11 21:28:26 47.89N 118.15W 5.0 2.3 BD 61.0 km WNW of Spokane, WA
82/01/12 22:12:57 47.88N 118.15W 7.7 2.2 AC 60.4 km WNW of Spokane, WA
82/02/18 00:34:22 47.88N 118.14W 8.5 2.0 BC 60.1 km WNW of Spokane, WA
82/03/04 22:31:02 47.87N 118.23W 5.0 2.1 DD 57.7 km E of Grand Coulee, WA
82/11/09 22:14:49 47.88N 118.14W 8.6 2.1 BC BLST 59.8 km WNW of Spokane, WA
83/04/27 20:14:58 48.14N 118.29W 8.5 2.2 BD BLST 53.4 km SSW of Colville, WA
83/06/10 21:26:18 48.09N 118.97W 5.7 2.6 BC 17.4 km N of Grand Coulee, WA
83/06/16 18:55:50 47.88N 118.15W 8.7 2.1 AD 60.2 km WNW of Spokane, WA



HIVA                                                         August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
83/06/17 23:09:19 48.09N 118.97W 5.6 2.8 BC 17.0 km N of Grand Coulee, WA
83/06/23 18:14:16 48.19N 118.32W 8.4 2.0 CD BLST 50.7 km SW of Colville, WA
83/07/19 22:16:43 47.90N 118.17W 5.6 2.0 BD 61.7 km E of Grand Coulee, WA
83/07/27 19:11:03 47.88N 118.14W 9.1 2.1 BD 60.1 km WNW of Spokane, WA
83/08/25 18:47:57 47.93N 118.08W 5.0 2.3 BD 58.6 km WNW of Spokane, WA
83/09/07 02:14:33 47.88N 118.33W 7.8 2.6 BD 50.1 km E of Grand Coulee, WA
83/09/07 22:41:53 47.97N 118.98W 0.4 2.2 CC 3.7 km NNE of Grand Coulee, WA
83/09/10 01:03:37 47.88N 118.33W 9.4 3.1 CD 50.2 km E of Grand Coulee, WA
83/09/14 22:46:46 47.93N 118.95W 1.0 2.1 CC 4.0 km ESE of Grand Coulee, WA
83/09/19 22:42:44 47.96N 118.95W 1.6 2.2 CC 4.4 km NE of Grand Coulee, WA
83/09/22 18:34:00 47.90N 118.17W 2.2 2.1 CD 62.2 km E of Grand Coulee, WA
83/10/06 17:20:02 47.86N 118.04W 10.1 2.5 CD BLST 52.4 km WNW of Spokane, WA
83/10/25 20:17:18 47.91N 118.04W 8.4 2.2 CD 54.6 km WNW of Spokane, WA
84/02/29 20:41:14 47.69N 118.57W 16.8 2.2 CC 42.0 km SE of Grand Coulee, WA
84/03/07 20:36:17 47.95N 118.97W 0.3 2.1 BC 2.4 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
84/05/16 22:46:21 47.70N 118.88W 9.3 2.2 CC BLST 28.3 km SSE of Grand Coulee, WA
84/05/24 20:34:55 47.88N 118.15W 9.1 2.2 BD 60.4 km WNW of Spokane, WA
84/06/14 17:19:14 47.89N 118.15W 8.6 2.1 CD 61.3 km WNW of Spokane, WA
84/11/09 00:10:42 47.95N 118.96W 4.5 2.0 BC 3.1 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
84/11/15 00:33:26 47.95N 118.96W 0.6 2.0 BC 2.9 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/01/18 21:20:04 47.95N 118.97W 4.4 2.0 AC 2.4 km NE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/01/30 23:33:50 47.95N 118.98W 0.7 2.0 BC 2.2 km NE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/02/12 23:36:19 47.95N 118.97W 0.0 2.0 CC 2.2 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/02/26 18:38:15 47.87N 118.14W 9.4 2.3 BD 59.3 km WNW of Spokane, WA
85/03/08 23:35:12 47.94N 118.97W 1.2 2.3 BC 2.4 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/03/22 23:34:00 47.95N 118.94W 0.6 2.2 AD 4.5 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/03/25 19:33:34 47.95N 118.95W 0.7 2.2 BD 3.4 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/04/10 23:36:36 47.96N 118.95W 0.0 2.0 CC 4.9 km NE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/04/12 23:34:55 47.87N 118.93W 14.5 2.0 CD 8.8 km SE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/04/15 18:52:10 47.73N 118.53W 10.7 2.1 CDBLST41.5 km ESE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/04/24 23:38:42 47.94N 118.99W 6.6 2.0 BC 0.5 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/04/29 23:32:50 47.95N 118.97W 0.7 2.1 AC 2.3 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/05/06 23:31:56 47.95N 118.96W 1.6 2.2 CC 3.4 km NE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/05/07 17:03:26 48.84N 118.99W 26.6 2.4 DD 68.7 km NE of Okanogan, WA
85/05/17 19:02:24 47.95N 118.96W 0.0 2.0 BC 2.8 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/05/28 19:06:34 47.95N 118.94W 0.4 2.1 AC 4.5 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/05/31 22:33:41 47.91N 118.91W 5.8 2.1 CD 7.1 km ESE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/06/18 22:35:04 47.95N 118.94W 3.6 2.0 CD 4.3 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/06/25 19:06:19 47.96N 118.94W 5.1 2.0 CC 5.3 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/06/28 22:34:35 47.97N 118.93W 4.5 2.1 CC 6.0 km NE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/07/09 22:47:03 47.95N 118.96W 0.6 2.0 BC 3.4 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/07/16 21:40:06 48.12N 118.31W 0.0 2.2 CD 55.4 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA



HIVA                                                     August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
85/07/19 19:09:10 47.95N 118.97W 0.0 2.1 BC 2.5 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/08/01 19:04:24 47.95N 118.97W 0.0 2.1 BC 2.5 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/08/09 19:04:09 47.95N 118.96W 0.1 2.2 BC 2.8 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/08/20 22:05:32 47.94N 118.97W 4.0 2.0 AC 2.1 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/10/03 21:32:17 47.95N 118.96W 0.6 2.1 AC 2.7 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/10/30 23:35:01 47.95N 118.96W 0.5 2.2 AC 2.9 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/11/14 23:32:03 47.95N 118.96W 0.0 2.0 CC 3.0 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/11/15 20:03:17 47.95N 118.95W 5.4 2.4 BD 4.2 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
85/12/02 22:46:11 47.94N 118.97W 1.4 2.0 AC 1.9 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
86/01/02 23:34:31 47.95N 118.96W 3.1 2.0 BC 2.6 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
86/01/09 20:05:16 47.95N 118.95W 3.9 2.2 AD 3.9 km ENE of Grand Coulee, WA
86/04/13 00:17:05 47.82N 118.93W 7.2 2.3 BC 13.6 km SSE of Grand Coulee, WA
86/05/13 23:51:18 47.88N 118.99W 0.7 2.0 DC 6.3 km S of Grand Coulee, WA
86/08/13 21:21:14 47.74N 118.59W 6.5 2.0 CDBLST 37.9 km SE of Grand Coulee, WA
87/07/01 23:21:52 47.66N 118.07W 8.0 2.4 CDBLST 49.6 km W of Spokane, WA
89/02/14 19:57:00 48.39N 118.74W 9.6 2.9 DD 53.6 km NNE of Grand Coulee, WA
89/03/16 00:20:15 49.02N 118.25W 0.0 2.5 DD 59.5 km NNW of Colville, WA
89/03/24 02:57:03 48.51N 118.81W 0.0 2.6 BD 58.8 km ENE of Okanogan, WA
89/07/17 19:28:09 48.86N 118.51W 0.0 2.2 BD 57.4 km NW of Colville, WA
89/07/26 19:51:49 48.86N 118.51W 0.0 2.2 BD BLST 57.3 km NW of Colville, WA
89/08/11 21:56:12 48.73N 118.58W 0.0 2.1 BD 54.7 km WNW of Colville, WA
89/08/28 21:19:24 48.89N 118.51W 0.0 2.1 BD 59.6 km NW of Colville, WA
91/09/16 13:27:02 48.38N 118.64W 4.2 2.1 BD 56.3 km NNE of Grand Coulee, WA
92/01/12 14:47:07 49.02N 118.40W 0.0 2.8 DD 64.9 km NW of Colville, WA
92/03/08 18:05:26 48.17N 118.74W 9.2 2.3 BD 32.4 km NE of Grand Coulee, WA
92/03/31 04:31:52 48.18N 118.74W 0.7 2.5 CD 32.7 km NE of Grand Coulee, WA
92/04/15 20:17:55 48.14N 118.73W 0.3 2.0 CD 29.9 km NE of Grand Coulee, WA
92/04/25 20:09:21 47.64N 118.10W 23.5 2.0 DD 51.9 km W of Spokane, WA
92/06/06 16:31:28 47.72N 118.43W 4.3 2.1 CC 48.8 km ESE of Grand Coulee, WA
92/11/17 23:02:42 47.77N 118.58W 13.5 2.0 BC 36.2 km ESE of Grand Coulee, WA
93/01/29 21:33:53 48.85N 118.45W 0.0 2.0 CD BLST 53.7 km NW of Colville, WA
93/03/26 20:51:38 48.83N 118.48W 0.0 2.0 BD BLST 53.9 km NW of Colville, WA
93/04/27 17:56:02 47.91N 118.61W 6.2 2.3 BD 29.0 km E of Grand Coulee, WA
93/06/10 19:19:41 48.73N 118.53W 0.0 2.0 CD BLST 51.9 km WNW of Colville, WA
93/06/28 23:13:19 48.65N 118.53W 0.0 2.0 CD BLST 48.8 km WNW of Colville, WA
94/11/23 22:00:15 47.71N 118.16W 20.8 2.4 BD 57.0 km W of Spokane, WA
97/08/04 20:13:37 48.17N 118.01W 6.9 2.0 CD 42.0 km SSW of Colville, WA
98/03/01 18:20:36 49.05N 118.44W 0.0 2.4 AD 69.7 km NW of Colville, WA
98/03/26 00:29:06 47.94N 118.84W 5.9 2.2 DD BLST 12.0 km E of Grand Coulee, WA
98/05/05 19:13:29 47.82N 118.57W 0.6 3.4 DC BLST 34.4 km ESE of Grand Coulee, WA
98/06/18 12:40:16 48.75N 118.70W 0.0 2.6 AD 63.7 km WNW of Colville, WA
98/07/29 18:01:26 48.20N 118.02W 0.0 2.0 CD 39.1 km SSW of Colville, WA



HIVA                                                     August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
99/01/31 11:05:57 48.27N 118.68W 10.5 3.1 DD 44.4 km NNE of Grand Coulee, WA
99/03/13 05:27:40 48.17N 118.50W 2.0 2.0 DD BLST 45.3 km NE of Grand Coulee, WA
01/07/09 23:51:25 48.64N 118.64W 1.6 2.0 CD BLST 56.3 km W of Colville, WA
02/06/15 10:06:30 47.61N 118.18W 1.5 2.0 DC 58.3 km W of Spokane, WA
02/12/26 22:02:24 48.86N 118.98W 0.0 2.8 CD 70.2 km NE of Okanogan, WA


Hazard Identification

Over the last 100 years, a large area of the state has experienced earthquake
damage. The risk is greatest in Western Washington, but significant earthquakes
have occurred east of the Cascade Mountains as well.

Secondary hazards from an earthquake exist. Soft soils or human-made fills can
subside in an earthquake. Landslides and rock falls may be triggered on steep slopes.
Dam failure is a possibility. Each of these events presents other hazards.

Vulnerability

In analyzing a county map, it show the peak acceleration (as percentage of g) with a
5% probability of exceedance in the next 50 years. Probabilities show 10-15%, 9-
10% and 8-9%. As indicated by the map, the peak acceleration is in the 8-9% range or
low.

Effects

In the recent past, Stevens County have had minor effects with little or no damage
to buildings.

Conclusions

It is difficult to identify a part of the community that is not vulnerable to an
earthquake. People, buildings, emergency services, hospitals, transportation lifelines,
and water and wastewater utilities are susceptible to the effects of an earthquake.
In addition, electric and natural gas utilities and dams have a potential to be
damaged.



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HIVA                                                          August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                              D.     FOREST FIRES


Definition of Hazard

Forest fires are the uncontrolled destruction of forested lands by wildfires caused
by natural or human-made events. Wildfires occur primarily in undeveloped areas
characterized by forestlands.

History of Hazard


The following information from Washington State Department of Natural Resources
presents the history of fires in the County as it relates to state protected lands:


  Year      100-299.9 acres        300-999.9 acres   1000-49999.9 acres     5000+ acres
 1970               -                     1                  -                    -
  1971            2                       -                  -                    -
 1973               1                     -                  -                    -
 1976               1                     -                  -                    -
 1977             2                      2                   -                    -
 1978               -                    2                   -                    -
 1982             2                       -                  -                    -
 1985             2                       1                  -                    -
 1988               -                     -                  1                    -
 1990               1                     -                  -                    -
  1991              1                    3                   1                    -
 1994             3                       -                  -                    -
 1997               -                     -                  1                    -
 2001               1                     -                  -                    -


Stevens County averages approximately one “project” fire per season. This type fire
is usually over 100 acres and requires that additional fire fighting resources be
moved into the county. In addition, Washington State Fire Mobilization has also been
activated for the county and region.




HIVA                                                        August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
Large fires reported in Stevens County since the turn of the century include:
1926-31 & 1943     Over ½ of the forest burned in Pend Oreille, Ferry, and Stevens
                   Counties in the Colville National Forest.
1991               Firestorm ’91 destroyed 114 homes and 40 buildings in Ferry,
                   Lincoln, Stevens, Pend Oreille, Spokane and Whitman Counties.
                   This series of 93 fires took the life of one person.
2000               Two Rivers fire – over 2000 acres burned on the Spokane Indian
                   Reservation with no loss of life and/or structures.
2003               Paddle fire – over 1200 acres burned on the Spokane Indian
                   Reservations with no loss of life and/or structures.

Hazard Identification

Stevens County’s fire season usually runs from mid-May through October. However,
any prolonged period without precipitation presents a potentially dangerous problem.
The probability of a forest fire in any one locality on a particular day depends on fuel
conditions, topography, the time of year, the past and present weather conditions,
and the activities that are or will be taking place. Two sources, man and nature
directly cause forest fires. Man causes 79.4 percent of the forest fires in the state
while nature causes 20.6 percent. Man causes fires by debris burning, recreation
activities, smokers, children, incendiary (arson), and railroads, logging and other
causes.

Vulnerability

Stevens County has a potential for serious forest fires, especially during logging and
recreational seasons. This included the risk from a large increase of usage on Lake
Roosevelt National Recreation area due to camping actives in isolated areas. Stevens
County has had no fires of disaster magnitude in the last 20 years. Several fires
have occurred from lightning, campers, debris burning, fireworks, and etc. Small lot
home sites are particularly susceptible to wildfire. Much of this is due to isolated
locations on unimproved, dirt roads.

Effects

Wood Fiber is the chief product of the county with wood-related industries such as
logging, lumber, and chip production, etc. Forest fires destroy valuable timber
resources, watersheds, and recreational areas and wildlife habitat. The potential for


HIVA                                                          August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
flooding is increased due to the destruction of timber in part of the watersheds.
Forest fires can have a long-term economic effect as well as loss of life and personal
property.

Mitigation

The following steps should be taken to prevent a major loss of life and reduce the
number of forest fires:
      a.     Since man starts the majority of forest fires, forest fire prevention
             education and enforcement programs can reduce the actual number of
             forest fires.
      b.     Update and improve emergency communications that are essential in fire
             suppression.
      c.     Encourage rural residential homeowners to develop sites to reduce
             danger from wildfire.
      d.     Elimination of the sales of firework.

Conclusion

Better forest fire protection made in dealings with the impact of droughts through
proper management of Washington’s Water Resources. Hopefully, information being
collected and shared will assist in the information of effective programs for future
water shortage years.
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HIVA                                                         August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                                      E. FLOOD


Definition of Hazard

There are two types of floods in Stevens County:

1.      River & Lake building floods--River floods are floods caused by heavy,
        prolonged rain, or melting snow or both. Prolonged heavy rain and high
        freezing levels are the common cause of river flooding. Runoff from the
        melting of low elevation snow often contributes to these floods.

2.      Flash floods--Flash floods are characterized by a very rapid quick rise of the
        water level in a small river, stream, or dry washes. In the most extreme case,
        a flash flood is a literal wall of water moving down a steep canyon or ravine.
        Flash floods are most common, in areas of steep terrain and alluvial fans. The
        brief, intense rainfall from a thunderstorm is usually the cause of a flash
        flood.

History of Hazard

Flooding that results in damage and/or closure of county roadways is not an
uncommon occurrence. The following are examples of roadway damage that has
occurred in recent history:


    1974 – Monumental Road extensive damaged
    1976 - Little Pend Oreille River ice jam resulted in roadway/bridge damage.
    1982 – Onion Creek and Woods Spur Roads damaged for snow run-off.
    1991 – Burnt Valley and Addy-Gifford roads damaged from flash flooding.
    1996 – Gold Creek, Rickey Canyon, Monumental, Rocky Lake roads damaged from
     Chinook type run-off and heavy rains. In addition, Hatch Lake Road was restricted
     travel due to water over the roadway for six weeks.
    Over the years, high water and flooding in the Colville Valley has impacted both
     vehicle and rail travel. In the past ten years, the only north-south rail line has
     been closed due to washouts and water logged rail beds.




HIVA                                                            August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
Hazard Identification

Certain low-lying near river areas and lakes in Stevens County are vulnerable to
flooding.

Vulnerability Analysis

Due to the mountainous terrain that exists through out the county, a majority of
major and minor roadways are subject damage from a number of weather related
issues. Chinook type run-offs, heavy rainfall, and rapid release of snow packs can
result in damage and loss of both state and county roadways. Several lakes in the
county are also vulnerable to flooding, also impacting travel within the county.

Conclusions

Building in established flood plain areas is regulated; however older developments
were less regulated. New man-made developments within flood plains should be
limited to non-structures such as parks and farmlands etc. These facilities have the
least potential for damage, but maximize land use.

The general public should be made aware of hazardous areas and be provided
information on flood insurance and self-help (emergency preparedness).

The National Weather Service has an extensive river and weather-monitoring system
and provides warning and weather information to local governments and the public.
Local government plans should reflect warning, evacuation, emergency housing and
other emergency procedures.

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under PL 84-99 has the authority to assist eligible
public entities in flood fighting and rescue operations and to protect, repair and
restore federally constructed flood control works, which are threatened, damaged or
destroyed by a flood. This has reduced the damage from many floods.

Specific construction standards for onsite sewer systems and well in these areas are
required to minimize the risk of damage or contamination.




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HIVA                                                         August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                                 F. LANDSLIDE


Definition of Hazard

The term landslide refers to the down slope movement of masses of rock or soil.
Slides in Washington range in size from thin masses of soil a few yards wide, to
deep-seated bedrock slides more than six miles across.

History of Hazard

No major landslides were noted for this report. Minor landslides have occurred in the
county in conjunction with flooding. These have resulted in road closures and damage.

Hazard Identification

Although landslides can and do occur in almost any part of the county, the most
vulnerable areas are highways and railways. The form of initial failure commonly
categorizes slides, but they may travel in a variety of forms along their paths. This
travel rate may range in velocity from a few inches per month to many feet per
second, depending largely on slope, material, and water content. The recognition of
ancient dormant slide masses is important as earthquakes or unusually wet winters
can reactivate them. Also, because they consist of broken materials and disrupted
ground water, they are more susceptible to construction-triggered sliding than
adjacent undisturbed material.

Vulnerability Analysis

Typical effects include damage or destruction of portions of roads and railroads,
sewer and water lines, and destroyed homes and public buildings. Disruption of
shipping and travel routes result in losses to commerce. Many of the losses due to
landslides may go unrecorded because no claims are made to insurance companies,
lack of coverage by the press, or the fact that transportation network slides may be
listed in records simply as "maintenance."




HIVA                                                         August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
Conclusion

The most significant effect of landslides is the disruption of transportation and the
destruction of private and public property. Much more needs to be done to educate
the public and to prevent development in vulnerable areas.




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HIVA                                                         August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                          G. SEVERE LOCAL STORM


Definition of Hazard

An atmospheric disturbance characterized by a strong wind and usually accompanied
by rain, snow, sleet, hail, and often thunder or lightning. Also characteristic is any
heavy fall of snow, rain, or hail.

History of Hazard

Ice, wind, snow, rain and thunderstorms are common in Stevens County. In November
and December of 1996 Two Presidential Disaster Declarations were declared due to
Ice, wind and snowstorms.

* November 1152-DR-WA
 December 1159-DR-WA

Hazard Identification

All areas of Stevens County are vulnerable to a number of severe local storms year-
round, such as tornadoes, high wind, snow, ice, hail, and dust storms.

Stevens County generally has a high snowfall level with some high mountain roads in
the county becoming impassable for several months. Ice storms can occur when rain
precipitates out of the moist upper atmosphere into a cold dry layer of air near the
ground. Rain freezes on contact with the cold ground, which accumulates on all
exposed surfaces. Black ice can occur which could result in dangerous driving
conditions. Damage may occur to trees, utility lines, etc., if accompanied by winds.

Hailstorms occur when freezing water in thunderstorm type clouds accumulates in
layers around an icy core. Wind added to hail can batter crops, structures, and
transportation systems.

Tornadoes are the most violent weather phenomena known. Their funnel shaped
clouds rotate at velocities of up to 500 miles per hour generally affect areas of 1/4
to 3/4 of a mile wide and seldom more than 16 miles long. Tornadoes are produced by
strong thunderstorms. Such thunderstorms can also produce large damaging hail,
heavy amounts of rain, and strong damaging winds.


HIVA                                                          August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
Vulnerability Analysis

Stevens County is most vulnerable to heavy snowstorms and occasional ice storms.

The main effects of severe local storms are power outages from ice, snow or wind.
Also, there can be disruption of transportation, accidents and physical damage to
residences due to high snow pack on roofs.

Electrical power systems are vulnerable to outages during severe local storms.
Physical damage to facilities can occur from accumulation of snow, ice, hail, or dust
and from accompanying winds. The effects can vary with the intensity of the storm.

Conclusions

Most responses will take place at the local level. Local plans should reflect warning
and notification of the public, prioritization of roads and streets to be cleared,
provision of emergency services, mutual aid with other public entities, procedures for
requesting state and federal assistance if needed, and other responses.

The public should be given information on emergency preparedness and self-help to
prepare for better response during severe storms.




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HIVA                                                         August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                                  H. VOLCANO


Definition of Hazard

A volcano is a vent in the earth's crust through which molten rock (lava), rock
fragments, gases, or ashes are ejected from the earth's interior.

A volcano is created when magma (liquid or molten rock deep in the earth) erupts
onto the surface of the earth. Volcanoes take many forms according to the chemical
composition of their magmas and the conditions under which the magmas are erupted.
When magma is erupted, it is referred to as "lava." Some laves, like those of the
Hawaiian volcanoes (basalts) are hot and fluid. More silica-rich laves (andesite,
dacite, and rhyolite) are stickier (more viscous) than basalt and can erupt explosively
and form steep sided volcanoes and domes.

The andesites are the most common laves of the Pacific Northwest volcanoes. These
are thick, flow slowly, and are only moderately explosive. Dacite, the lava forming
the dome of Mount St. Helens, has some of the characteristics of both andesite and
rhyolite.

History of Hazard

The most recent volcano eruption that impacted Stevens County was May 18, 1980 by
the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Southwest Washington. The county received a light
dusting of fine volcanic ash. Normal daily activities were affected for approximately
two days.

Hazard Identification

A volcano is commonly said to be "active" when it is in the process of erupting and
"dormant" when it is not. Scientists, however, usually use the term active to refer to
any volcano that has erupted in historic time or is seismically or geothermal active.
By this definition Mounts Rainier, Baker, Hood, and St. Helens are active volcanoes.
Even Glacier Peak, long thought to have been without an eruption for over 10,000
years, is now known to have erupted as recently as a thousand years ago and possibly
even as late as the 17th century. Mount Adams is also capable of renewed activity.
Although these latter two may be quiet at this time, they are definitely not "extinct"
by scientific definition.


HIVA                                                         August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
Vulnerability Analysis

Stevens County would not be impacted by lava or mud flows from volcanic eruption.
However, the ash fall that normally accompanies the eruptions of certain types of
volcanoes could present real problems. Heavy ash fall blots out light, clogs air filters
on vehicles, and since it is very heavy, it could cause structural collapse.

The ash can clog breathing passages and cause death. However, due to the distance
from the volcanoes, this is highly improbable. Short-term exposure has not been
found to be harmful to persons in normal health.

Conclusions

Stevens County has an Emergency Operations Plan in place which would prove very
effective during ash fall and recovery efforts, should the county be impacted.

The population should be educated what to do in the event of ash fall occurring in the
county:

       1. People with respiratory problems, the young and elderly should stay indoors
          during ash fall.
       2. People required to be outdoors should wear facemasks to protect against
          inhalation of ash.
       3. Dust should be handled only in open, well-ventilated areas, and it should be
          wet down with water to prevent its movement.
       4. Travel should be limited because of poor visibility and possible damage to
          vehicles’ engines, etc.




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HIVA                                    August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                          M. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS



Definition of Hazard

The production, use, storage, transportation, and disposal of hazardous substances
and wastes, places the public, property, and environment at significant risk. The
nature and extent of this risk is difficult to determine, as the processes involved in
hazardous materials and toxic waste management are dynamic. They are subject to
regulation by a variety of state and federal agencies through an assortment of labor,
environmental, and transportation laws.

History of Hazard

Statistics available on both a national and state level show an ever-increasing rate of
incidents involving hazardous substances. Factors such as the increasing use of
chemicals in today’s technology, coupled with an increasing awareness by public
officials, private industry and the general public, which improves the reporting of
hazardous materials incidents, may in part account for this increase.

Statistics show that hazardous materials incidents are very low in Stevens County
because of the remoteness of the county and limited amount of industry, but the
ever-increasing transportation of these materials is presenting an escalating risk
factor.

Recent hazardous materials events include the following;

       o Herbicide/Chemical spill on SR 395 in June 2002 – Spokane HazMat team.

Hazard Identification

Hazardous materials incidents may occur at any time and any place, when and where
such materials are present under circumstances in which they may be released in
sufficient volume and proximity to sensitive receptors and/or environments. The
potential impact is dependent on the nature of the material, conditions of the
release, and area involved. Releases may be small and easily handled with locally
available emergency response resources or rise to the catastrophic level with
immediate effect and long-term environmental consequences.


HIVA                                                          August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
Vulnerability Analysis

A number of strategies have evolved to limit risk and provide for adequate safe
response to, and recovery from, hazardous materials incidents. Incidents in the form
of accidental releases, intentional discharges, illegal disposals, or system failures are
going to occur. A relatively comprehensive system of laws and regulations are in
place to provide for technical assistance, environmental compliance, and emergency
management. An addition source of concern has been the handling and disposal of
hazardous wastes associated with illegal meth labs. Due to the volunteer nature of
many of the fire and rescue organization, many minor and all major incidents will
require outside resources with extended response time.

A Tri County LEPC Hazardous Materials Vulnerability Analysis study was conducted in
November 1994.

Conclusion

The county has limited adoption and funding for standardized hazardous materials
emergency response training. Training has not exceeded the hazardous material
recognition level. Additional training is available to incident command and executive
emergency management levels of response and administration by several state and
federal agencies. Appropriate standards of care and established levels of concern
are identified and used to determine where additional management emphasis should
be placed.

A local Emergency Planning Committee has been established encompassing
representatives from governmental agencies, industry involved in the manufacture,
use, transportation and disposal of hazardous materials.




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HIVA                                                           August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                         N. NUCLEAR DETONATION


Definition of Hazard

A nuclear detonation is the thermonuclear reaction (fission or fusion) of a
supercritical mass of weapons grade nuclear material, either purposefully (war or
terrorism) or accidentally, resulting in massive damage from heat and blast effect
and contamination of the surrounding area by radioisotopes (by products of the
nuclear chain reaction).

History of Hazard

There has been no damage from the detonation of a nuclear device.

Hazard Identification

Any area of the county could be vulnerable to the direct nuclear weapons effects of
blast, fire, and radiation if an aggressor had a delivery system capable of striking the
state or a terrorist had the capability of placing a weapon within the boundaries of
the region.

In addition to the above listed effects, the county could be affected by radioactive
fallout, whether from a direct nuclear strike upon the United States or from a
nuclear exchange anywhere else in the world. The contamination of nuclear material
could also occur from a conventional explosion of a nuclear device without a nuclear
reaction taking place. This hazard would more likely be the case than an actual
nuclear detonation.

Vulnerability Analysis

Nuclear war remains the most significant potential disaster that could befall
mankind. Major changes in the world balance of power have occurred. The Soviet
Union no longer exists. Several successor nations, although possessing the nuclear
weapons of the former Soviet Union, are generally recognized as not being a direct
threat to the integrity of the U.S. or its allies. A direct exchange of nuclear
weapons as envisioned during the Cold War is more remote now than at any time since
the end of World War II.


HIVA                                                          August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
Smaller numbers of nuclear weapons still exist in France, Great Britain, the People's
Republic of China, and India. Additionally, the probability that other countries, (e.g.,
Israel, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, and others) now possess or will soon develop the
capability to produce nuclear weapons, unfortunately keeps the possibility of a
nuclear exchange of some form a reality.

The possibility of a nuclear exchange between two or more nations that did not
involve the United States exists. Unstable foreign leadership and proliferation of
nuclear weapons to more countries increases this possibility.
Casualties in the county from a nuclear strike could number in the thousands. All
essential local services and facilities, such as fire, medical, and law enforcement,
would be immobilized, overtaxed, or affected by radioactive fallout, if present.

Most communications and other utilities would be disrupted in a nuclear exchange,
however the detonation of a single device would probably cause physical damage only
to the local area of the blast.

Conclusions

The probability of nuclear war cannot be predicted. However, current world events
appear to make the possibility less likely for the foreseeable future. Continued
nuclear proliferation and changing world tensions could drastically change this
likelihood.

Although the use of nuclear weapons by warring nations appears unlikely, thousands
of weapons still exist in the world. Their use should not be totally discounted. The
opportunity to reduce the great numbers of potential casualties exists through
preparedness measures, including education, information, training, and planning.

The probability of an accidental detonation of a nuclear weapon is extremely remote.
A far more probable incident would be the detonation of the conventional explosives
associated with a nuclear weapon or radioactive material, not resulting in a nuclear
detonation but resulting in the contamination of the accident site with radioactive
material.

The threat of the use of a nuclear device by a terrorist group has increased since
the breakup of the former Soviet Union. The transfer of weapons grade nuclear
material from Russian Republics via the black market in recent years, points to the


HIVA                                                           August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
possibility of an actual weapon falling into the hands of international terrorists. This
weapon could be effectively used to contaminate an area for years even without the
actual nuclear detonation.




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HIVA                                                          August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                     O.     SEARCH AND RESCUE EMERGENCY


Definition of Hazard

Search and Rescue (SAR) - The acts of searching for, rescuing, or recovering by
means of ground, marine, or air activity, any person who becomes lost, injured, or is
killed while outdoors or as a result of a natural or technological disaster, including
instances of searching for downed aircraft when ground personnel are used. (RCW
38.52.010(7)).

State law (RCW 38.52) assigns the responsibility for SAR to local law enforcement
and establishes the position of state Search and Rescue Coordinator to support local
SAR activities. Air SAR for missing or downed civil aviation aircraft is the
responsibility of the Department of Transportation, Aviation Division. (RCW 47.68)

History of Hazard

There have been approximately 12 Search & Rescue missions each year.

Hazard Identification

The wide range of and easy access to outdoor recreational activities in the county
and the large number of people who participate in those activities results in a
significant number of people in Eastern Washington becoming lost and/or injured or
killed every year.

Vulnerability Analysis

Outdoor recreational activities exist throughout the county. The national forest
areas attract outdoor enthusiasts from all areas of the state. SAR missions usually
involve hunting, snowmobiling and elderly who have wandered off.

Conclusions

Loss of life and serious, sometimes permanent injury, are the effects on people.
There is also the suffering and loss for families of the victims.




HIVA                                                          August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
The widely differing terrain and climatic conditions in the state mandate a SAR first
response system that is locally based. SAR resources come primarily from citizen
volunteers, who in cooperation with local law enforcement, giving of their time and
personal resources to train, search for, and rescue lost and injured people. The
volunteer SAR organizations form the foundation of our response to a search and
rescue emergency or disaster.




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HIVA                                                        August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                                 P. URBAN FIRE


Definition of Hazard

Urban fires are ones in cities or towns involving buildings with potential for spread to
adjoining structures.

History of Hazard

In the early days of Stevens County, fire damage played a role in the destructions of
several small communities.

Hazard Identification

Many homes were constructed prior to the time that construction and fire safety
codes were actively enforced, resulting in at least two conditions which support
conflagration (large destructive burn) potential: construction with minimum interval
distance between residences, and extensive use of light wood frame construction.
Many older residences are equipped with original electrical wiring, making electrical
systems a potential source of ignition.

Vulnerability Analysis

Certain factors that support the potential for conflagration in older residential areas
are:
1.     Lack of scheduled inspection programs in residences. Such inspections are
usually accomplished only once after securing approval of the resident.
2.    All of the fire services have unmanned stations located in residential
communities, which may translate into delays in fire control or total extinguishment
of a major residential fire.
3.     Homes are frequently too close together and sprinkler systems are non-
       existent, especially prevalent on lake developments, towns and cities.


The potential for an Urban conflagration is also effected by a totally volunteer
staffing for city and county fire departments. At the present time, Stevens County
Fire District #1 is the only one county fire department with full time administrative



HIVA                                                          August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
staff. In addition, a majority of the fire departments has an ISO rating of 8 or
lower.

Conclusions

Stevens County has adopted the uniform building code, but it is also receptive to
rapidly changing fire and safety developments.

Good public education programs on fire safety, fire alarms, and fire response are
important and are conducted in most fire districts.




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HIVA                                                        August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                Q. ABANDONED UNDERGROUND MINES




Definition of Hazard

Abandoned underground mines are any large excavation in the earth formerly used to
extract metallic ores, coal, or other minerals that are no longer in production.

History of Hazard

No deaths have been reported from accidents relating to abandoned mines.

Hazard Identification

Underground silver, lead, zinc and uranium mines are the largest abandoned mine
hazard in Stevens County. Metal mines tend to be remote from populations. Most of
these operations were closed or abandoned in the early 1930’s.

There have also been water quality issues due to contaminated run off from
abandoned mine shaft openings. Remediation efforts have been under the direction
of Washington Department of Ecology.

Vulnerability Analysis

Hazards are related to mine openings and former mine openings such as shafts, the
mouths of tunnels and airways, or where mining proceeded close enough to the
surface to cave through. Such openings in developed areas are commonly plugged
with mine waste, land clearing debris, or car bodies. These "unengineered" caps may
eventually fail, especially where the original slope of workings is near or above the
angle-of-repose1 (35 degrees). Plugging of mine openings from which water is flowing
should be done with extreme caution as unexpected and sudden outbursts of water
could develop, possibly at unanticipated locations. There are no known instances in
Stevens County where mining has caused damaging surface subsidence.

Probably the most frequent direct effect of resumed caving in an abandoned mine is
the sudden appearance of a hole at the surface. Due to the size and/or slope of the
underground opening, such holes may be very difficult to plug permanently and after



HIVA                                                        August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
"filling," may reappear unexpectedly the next day or many years hence. The cost of
repairs when such a hole appears under or near a structure, transportation route, or
utility is easy to measure. Also measurable are the costs of geological and
engineering services to evaluate the safety of a particular site. More difficult to
assess are losses such as to the sale value of a home or tracts of land when it is
discovered to be over a previously unknown abandoned mine.

Conclusions

Construction over or near abandoned underground mines must be regulated in the
interests of saving both lives and property. In some cases, the exact location of
potential hazards can be assessed by careful site analysis and can either be avoided
or corrected. In other cases, the costs of assessing the degree of hazard or of
permanently correcting it are too great and the area may be inappropriate for
development. Local engineering, building, or planning agencies can often provide
information regarding areas of extensive mining. The state Department of Natural
Resources' Geology Division and Earth Resources has maps of almost every
abandoned mine in the state. However, tying surface locations to underground
points can be difficult, especially where landmarks are disturbed by grading.

Our increasingly urbanized society results in many more people without direct
outdoor experience venturing into nearby wild land areas. This highlights the need
for preventive SAR information provided through local public awareness and school
education programs.

SAR operations are primarily initiated, coordinated, and directed by the Stevens
County Sheriff’s office. The Stevens County Department of Emergency
Management coordinates requests for additional resources including special skills,
expertise, or equipment.




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HIVA                                                        August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                 R. TERRORISM and VIOLENT PERSONS


Definition of Hazard

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has defined terrorism as "The unlawful
use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a
government; the civilian population; or any segment of it, in furtherance of political
or social objectives

History of Hazard

There have been no known deaths as a result of terrorism within Stevens County, but
a number of groups have been identified as living and passing through the county.
There have been documented homicides as a result of drug activities. Contacts have
been made with Right Wing groups such as Neo-Nazis, Christian Identity and other
similar groups and/or individuals. These contacts have consisted of interviews,
arrests and surrenders based on state and federal charges. In addition, violent
activities from these type groups have been documented in adjoining counties,
including bank robberies, arson and murder.

Hazard Identification

Potential sites, such as military installations, government institutions, dams, water
supply sources, power distribution systems, communications terminals, and financial
centers are all susceptible to incidents of terrorism within the state. Random acts
of violence such as detonation of an explosive device in a public area also is within the
scope of terrorism.

Vulnerability Analysis

Stevens County and its citizens have no immunity from potential terrorist activity
within its borders. The potential occurrences could be the result of actions from
domestic or international groups. The terrorist actions could be expected to come
about as a result of grievances, real or imagined, toward activities of some
governmental entity, federal, state, or local as retaliation for some governmental act.

The terrorist "Groups" at play today are constantly emerging. Some are loose while
others are structured. Traditionally, small arms and improvised explosive devises


HIVA                                                           August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
have been the weapons of choice for terrorist entities as they are easy to acquire
and use. They will probably remain the primary option for the immediate future.
Chances are low but growing that chemical or biological agents could be used by some
groups as such agents are cheap to produce and easy to conceal as well as relatively
lethal. Due to recent illegal drug manufacturing arrest, bomb-making materials have
been seized.

All such terrorist potentialities remain impossible to predict and difficult to defend
against. Addressing and reducing their resultant aftermath is itself fraught with
certain complexities. Care must be taken to ensure that in rendering assistance to
victims of the event, that due care is taken or arrangements made to ensure that
evidence of the criminal event is not carelessly or inadvertently destroyed.

Conclusions

Through proper coordination, public and private safety systems offer the capability
to negate terrorism. Communities should use existing processes and methodologies
developed for the successful management of other threat potentials. Usually, the
plans and systems developed for other problems can serve as useful templates for
the development of a comprehensive counter-terrorism program. Coordination and
multi-agency cooperation is a vital element in minimizing the potential effects from
this hazard.




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HIVA                                                          August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                                S. DAM FAILURE



Definition of Hazard

Dam failures are releases of impounded water due to structural deficiencies, which
can affect lives and property downstream.

Flooding, earthquakes can cause dam failures, lack of maintenance and repair, mis-
operation, poor construction, vandalism, or terrorism.

History of Hazard

There has been one recorded dam failure in Stevens County. This was the
Horseshoe Lake Blowout near Chewelah, WA on May 1974. This was due to an
outlet tunnel through 50-foot high natural ridge collapsed causing ridge to fail,
draining a 20-foot deep lake. Extensive flood damage and debris deposits
occurred on cropland in downstream valley.

Hazard Identification

There are two major dams are located on the Stevens County.

   Long Lake Dam - Avista; Built as the "world's highest dam" when it was completed
    in 1915, Long Lake is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
    Constructed in a spot where the Spokane River makes a complete horseshoe bend,
    it took more than 500 workers to build this project. The picturesque plant with
    its four highly visible, exposed penstocks can be viewed from a public observation
    area on the north side of the river. Long Lake's 24-mile-long reservoir, commonly
    called Long Lake or Lake Spokane, provides numerous fishing, boating, and
    swimming opportunities. Licensed Generating Capacity: 72 Megawatts. Dam
    Height: 213 Feet. Generating Units: 4

   Little Falls Dam – Avista; Directly authorized by an act of the U.S. Congress in
    1905, Little Falls lies approximately 30 miles upstream of the Spokane River's
    confluence with the Columbia River (Lake Roosevelt). Completed in 1910, the
    project increased Avista's generating capacity at that time by more than 50
    percent. Designed and constructed entirely by the company's own engineering



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   department, more than 18 million pounds of cement were used to construct the
   dam. Featuring ornate brass fixtures and marble control panels in the powerhouse,
   project construction costs still totaled less than $1.6 million. The plant's four,
   750-ton turbines (each capable of 9,000 horsepower) were the largest in the
   world at the time of their initial operation! Listed on the National Register of
   Historic Places, Little Falls is situated in a remote setting with minimal residential
   development. Excellent views of the Little Falls spillway can be obtained from two
   bridges just south of the dam. Bald eagles and osprey can be seen along the five
   mile stretch of river between Little Falls and Avista's Long Lake development.
   Nameplate Generating Capacity: 32 Megawatts Dam Height: 64 Feet Generating
   Units.

The failure of the Waneta Dam, physically located
in British Columbia, represents one of the most
significant flood threat to residents of Stevens
County. Located just north of the Stevens County
and U.S. boundary, the Pend Oreille River dam
flows into the Columbia River. Failure of this dam
during high spring run off could cause extensive
damage to property along the Columbia River.


The Hunters Dam was retrofitted in the mi-90’s to reduce the potential for failure.
Originally built in 1917, the facility had not been filled for many years, but had the
potential for failure during extreme runoff events.

The following table is from the Washington Department of Ecology – Dam Safety
with the structures that meet the definition of a “dam” in Stevens County;

 State ID             Dam Name               Section   Township   Range          River Name
 Number
   373      Matney Dam                         17        40        42     Joe Creek
  1533      May Lake Dam                       32        36        39     Mill Creek
  1324      Beryl Baker Dam                    29        30        41     Dragoon Creek
  1308      Blue Gulch Reservoir Dam           25        36        37     Columbia River
   619      Dawn Mines Evaporative Ponds       25        28        39     Chamokane Park
   561      D'Hondt Dam                        23        28        38     Stensgar Creek
  1495      Loon Lake Aeration Lagoon          27        30        41     Loon Lake-Offstream
   519      Loon Lake Polishing Lagoon         27        29        37     Loon Lake-Offstream
   518      Loon Lake Waste Storage Lagoon     27        29        37     Loon Lake-Offstream
    41      Ponderosa Lake Dam                 13        30        42     Beaver Creek
  1760      Roening Dam                        25        31        40     Colville River
   608      Van Stone Tailings Dam             30        38        40     Offstream


HIVA                                                              August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
   378    Western Nuclear Tailings Pond      35       28      37    Spokane River
    64    Beitey Lake Dam                    21       31      41    Colville River
  1306    Boise Cascade Mill Waste Pond      14       36      37    Columbia River-Offstream
  1037    Browns Lake Dam                    31       32      40    Wrights Creek
   439    Dawn Mines Tailings Pond No. 4     25       28      39    Chumckane Creek-
                                                                    Offstream
   495    Fletcher Dam                       16       40      42    South Fork Harvey Creek
   496    Garvey Dam                         17       35      40    Truman Wood Creek
   501    Hill Lake Dam                       3       36      38    Pingston Creek
    60    Jumpoff Jim Lake Dam               29       31      41    Colville River
  1425    Keystone Dam                        9       31      39    Cedar Creek
   586    Little Sweden Dam                  30       31      40    Colville River
   377    Little Twin Lakes                   4       35      41    Camp Creek
  1208    Loon Lake Control Structure        33       30      41    Sheep Creek
   667    Loon Lake Sewer Dist No. 4 Waste   27       30      41    Offstream
          Lagoon No.3
   42     McDowell Lake Dam                   6       34      41    Tr-Little Pend Oreille River
   20     Meyers Falls Dam                   29       36      38    Colville River
   47     Miller Reservoir Dam               13       32      38    Kline Creek-Offstream
  1033    Rosanna Lake Dam                   32       36      40    Tr-Prouty Creek
   63     Sherry Lake Dam                    20       36      42    Little Pend Oreille River
   66     Snook Lake Dam                     13       29      36    Tr-Columbia River
   65     Sowers Reservoir Dam               12       30      40    Tr-Sheep Creek
  1752    Springdale Wastewater Pond          3       29      40    Offstream-Sheep Creek
          System
  1031    Waitts Lake Dam                    17       31      40    Waitts Creek
  1479    Madre Mine Tailings Dam A           1       29      37    Alder Creek
  1480    Madre Mine Tailings Dam B           1       29      37    Alder Creek
  1481    Madre Mine Tailings Dam C           1       29      37    Alder Creek
  1482    Madre Mine Tailings Dam D           1       29      37    Alder Creek
  1483    Madre Mine Tailings Dam E           1       29      37    Alder Creek


Each of these state defined dams has Emergency Action Plans.

Vulnerability Analysis

Failure of a dam can have many effects such as loss of life, damage to structures,
roads, utilities, and crops. Economic losses can also result from a lowered tax base
and lack of power profits.

Conclusions

There are three state statutes that deal with safety of dams and other hydraulic
structures: Chapters 43.21A, 86.16, and 90.03 of the Revised Code of Washington.
These laws provide authority to approve plans for dams, inspect their construction,
inspect hydraulic works, and require appropriate changes in their maintenance and


HIVA                                                         August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
operation. In addition, regulations, policies and procedures, and guidelines have been
adopted. They serve to clarify operations of the Dam Safety Section and to assist
the regulated community in their efforts to build, operate, and maintain a safe
impounding facility.

The Dam Safety Section has recognized the key role of other governmental bodies in
carrying out its public safety charge. To this end, the approval process now requires
that dams located above populated areas have an emergency action plan developed in
conjunction with the local jurisdiction emergency management agency.

The Dam Safety program was revamped in the late 1980s to better apply its
resources to the task of minimizing public safety problems arising from the presence
of impoundments above populated areas. A key element of this process was the
establishment of an aggressive inspection program. Ideally, the challenge for the
future would be to increase staffing levels to accelerate the inspection effort. In
reality, the problem will be maintaining current staffing levels in these tight
economic times.

The failure to implement a suitable operation and maintenance program at dams
appears to be a common thread in the dam incidents that have occurred. Many
municipalities are operating old reservoir systems and finding it increasingly difficult
to fund effective operation and maintenance programs. So while the failure of
projects with a high potential for loss of life become increasingly remote, the
number of failures of low hazard projects that provide important infrastructure
roles may be on the rise.




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HIVA                                                          August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                            T. ENERGY EMERGENCY


Definition of Hazard

Energy emergencies may involve various types of energy resources. Emergencies can
develop quickly, such as when Middle East countries embargo petroleum, or they can
develop slowly, such as when demand out paces the siting of new generation plants.
Energy emergencies of one type often affect other types of energy resources, such
as when a loss of electricity makes it impossible to pump gasoline.

History of the Hazard

Petroleum shortages were vividly demonstrated during the 1973-74 Arab Oil
Embargo and Iran cut-off in 1979. During those periods, a "state set aside" program
allowed the state government to allocate a portion of the fuel in the state to the
area of greatest need. This program was abolished under deregulation rules early in
1981.

Hazard Identification

All areas of Stevens County are susceptible to petroleum and electrical shortages.

Vulnerability Analysis

Stevens County is vulnerable to many localized, short-term energy emergencies,
brought about by numerous disasters such as wind and ice-storms. Most of these
emergencies are handled by the affected industry, with support provided by the
state as requested

Major effects of energy shortages include inconvenience to consumers, reduced
heating and lighting capability, reduced production in all sectors, potential failure of
transportation, water and waste, communication, information, and banking systems.
Energy emergencies can seriously hamper emergency response capabilities and should
be planned for.

Petroleum shortages can occur at any time. However, most oil shortages are due to
the inability of local distribution systems to meet rapidly increasing demand brought



HIVA                                                          August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
about by panic buying and hoarding. Encouraging normal purchasing practices can
avert these shortages.

Stevens County is connected to a regional electrical transmission grid that has major
connections with other grids out-of-region. In general, even if Washington is short
of electricity, (due to drought, for example), it can be purchased from other
markets. The result is higher cost electricity, rather than inadequate supply.
Because most out-of-region power is not hydro based, it is not affected by drought.

Conclusion

Future energy shortages are likely to occur due to numerous uncontrollable factors.
The Washington State Energy Office developed a Petroleum Products Contingency
Plan and an Electricity Load Curtailment Plan for managing major shortages of energy.
These plans should be widely disseminated among local agencies.

Consumers should be educated on the need for prudent use of all types of energy
resources, and available conservation measures should be utilized whenever possible.




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HIVA                                                        August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                  U thru Z - Blank




       These pages were deliberately left blank.




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HIVA                                      August 2003 / R.D. Anderson
                                BIBLIOGRAPHY



B.      DROUGHT
             Marty Cunningham             Phone: 509-685-0858
              Farm Service Agency / USDA
              232 Williams Lake Service
              Colville, WA 99114


C.      EARTHQUAKE
             William P. Steele             Phone: 206-685-5880
              Director of Information Services
              Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN)
              UW Earth and Space Sciences
              Box 351310
              Seattle, WA 98195-1310

D.      FOREST FIRES
             Richard Starr - ITAS 4         Phone: 360-902-1495
              Washington State Department of Natural Resources Information
              Technology Division - Maintenance Programming Unit


S.      DAM FAILURE
             David Cummings               Phone: 360- 407-6620
              Washington Department of Ecology – Dam Safety
              Structural Specialist
              WA Dam Safety Office




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 HIVA                                                     August 2003 / R.D. Anderson

								
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