# AS1684 SPLIT LEVEL C2 House Bracing Example Nov 07

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```					Understanding             Residential Timber
AS1684                  Framed Construction

Bracing Example
•    Wind classification - C2
•    Split Level
•    Dutch gable roofs
•    Ceiling height 2560mm
•    Eaves 600mm
o
•    Roof pitch 25
Bracing Example                            900
1604 + depth
roof frame

North elevation
•   C2
•   Split level
•   Dutch gable roofs                                                        2077 +
1120
•   Ceiling height 2560                                                      depth of
roof frame
•   Eaves 600mm
•   Roof pitch 25o

East elevation
Wind
Direction 2                                     Level 2

Level 1

Wind
direction 1
Wind
Level 1 and Level 2        direction 2

Wind Direction 1
Wind
Level 3
Direction 2          Level 3

Wind Direction 1
Bracing Design Process                               (Clause 8.3.1)

1. Determine the wind classification     Clauses 1.4.2 & 1.5 & AS4055/AS/NZS1170.2

2. Determine the wind pressure           Clause 8.3.2 & Tables 8.1 to 8.5

3. Determine the area of elevation       Clause 8.3.3 and Figure 8.2(A) or (B)

4. Calculate the racking force           Clause 8.3.4 and Tables 8.1 to 8.5

5. Design the bracing systems
- Sub-floors                          Clause 8.3.5, Fig 8.4, Tables 8.7 - 8.16, C1 only
- Walls                               Clause 8.3.6, Tables 8.18 and 8.19

6. Check even distribution and spacing   Clause 8.3.6.6 and 8.3.6.7, Tables 8.20 – 8.21
and Figs 8.5 – 8.6
7. Connection of bracing to              Clause 8.3.6.9 and 8.3.6.10, Table 8.23
roof/ceilings at walls and floors
AS1684.3 pg108
1. Determine the Wind Classification

Refer Clause 1.4.2 [pg 9] and AS 4055 or
AS/NZS 1170.2

C2
(provided by structural engineer,
building professional or local building authority)
2. Determine the wind pressure
(for both wind directions)

See Clause 8.3.2 [pg 108] also
Tables 8.1 to 8.5 [pgs 112–120]

Need:
• the roof pitch,
• the width of the building, and
• whether there are any flat walls, skillion ends,
gable (or Dutch gables) or hip ends.

Complex designs may require separate
pressures within the one wind direction as is
the case in this example.
Dutch Gables

In this example, the house has Dutch gables which are
neither a full gable or a hip end as described by the
pressure tables in AS 1684.3.
It is recommended that where the height of the Dutch
gable (a) is equal to or less than half the full height to
the ridge (h), that the Dutch gable end be treated as a
hip end. If ‘a’ is greater than 1/2h, then treat the Dutch
gable end as a full gable end.
a
h

Dutch gable
2.1   Determine the wind pressure
(for Wind direction 1)
See Table 8.1 [pg 112] and Table 8.2 [pg 113]
Split the house into it’s two components
• Two storey section with Dutch gable
• Single storey hip roof (long length of building)

Dutch gable
end

1
Hip roof
long side
2.1 (cont) Determine the wind pressure
(for Wind direction 1)
For each section, determine the wind pressure for each level
• Two storey section with Dutch gable
- Level 3 (upper storey of two storey)
- Level 1 (lower storey of two storey)
• Single storey hip roof (long length of building)
-Level 2 (single storey)
- Subfloor (lower storey of two storey)

Two storey
Dutch gable      Two storey
end
Single storey

1
Single storey Hip
roof long side
2.1 (cont) Determine the wind pressure
(for Wind direction 1)
Two storey section with Dutch gable
- Level 3 (upper storey of two storey)
Dutch Gable > ½ height of ceiling to ridge,
therefore treat as a full gable end.

Dutch gable > ½
Height ceiling to
ridge
Two storey
Dutch gable
end treated as
a full gable
2.1   (Cont) Determine the wind pressure
(for Wind direction 1 – Dutch gable end treated as a full gable)
Dutch Gable > ½ height of ceiling to ridge,
therefore treat as a full gable end.

See Table 8.1 [pg 112]
Dutch gable > ½
Height ceiling to
ridge

1 Pressure (Assuming gable end)
= 2.1 kPa (kN/m2)
2.1 (cont) Determine the wind pressure
(for Wind direction 1)
Two storey section with Dutch gable
- Level 1 (lower storey of two storey)
Dutch Gable > ½ height of ceiling to ridge,
therefore treat as a full gable end.

Dutch gable > ½
Height ceiling to
ridge
Two storey
Dutch gable
end
2.1 (cont) Determine the wind pressure
(for Wind direction 1 gable end)

See Table 8.1 [pg 112]
Dutch gable > ½
Height ceiling to
ridge

2560

2600   2400

1 Pressure (Assuming gable end)
= 2.1 kPa (kN/m2)
2.1 (cont) Determine the wind pressure
(for Wind direction 1 – hip end long side of building)
Single storey section
- Level 2 (single storey)

Single storey
hip roof long
side
Wind
direction 2

Wind
Level 3
direction 1

Level 1 and Level 2
Actual
8.910
2.1 (cont) Determine the wind pressure
(for Wind direction 1 – hip end long side of building)

See Table 8.2 [pg 113]

Single storey -
hip roof - long
side

Building Width is 8.91m, but     Pressure
say 9.0m, as interpolation     1 = 1.7 kPa (kN/m2)
would not gain a lot in this
case
Actual
8.910
2.1 (cont) Determine the wind pressure
(for Wind direction 1 – hip end long side of building)

See Table 8.3 [pg 115]

Lower storey of
two storey or
sub-floor of
single storey

Building Width is 8.91m, but     Pressure
say 9.0m, as interpolation     1
would not gain a lot in this     = 1.9 kPa (kN/m2)
case
2.2      Determine the wind pressure
(for Wind direction 2 )
As the wind in direction 2 can come from either side onto the east or west
elevation, a decision is required on how to account for the worst case.
The house is also split level, so other decisions are also required on how
the wind will be distributed into bracing walls in each level. This matter will
be discussed later.

Hip roof   West elevation
long side

North elevation                             Dutch gable
end
East elevation   2
2.2 (cont) Determine the wind pressure
(for Wind direction 2 – Hip end – Long length of building or
Discussion                from Dutch gable end)
As can be seen from the
elevation, the single storey
(Level 2) section of the house
falls almost entirely within the
area envelope of the two storey
section. The rear patio is
assumed to remain open. The
front porch is assumed to be
closed one end by lattice.
Also, as the height of the Dutch gable on the east East elevation
elevation is equal or less than half the overall
height to the ridge of the roof, this can be treated
as a hip end similar to the hip roof from the west
2
elevation. This section of gable will therefore not
result in greater forces than that of the hip roof so
it can be ignored in this regard.
It is therefore recommended to consider the wind for Direction 2 on the two storey
section, and make allowance for any additional small areas of elevation (as shown
in orange) outside of the two storey section and account for these forces
appropriately where these areas are also considered as a hip.
Interpolation
permitted
but not
necessary

Actual   6.9    1.6
6.880
2.2 (cont) Determine the wind pressure
(for Level 3, Wind direction 2 – Hip end –
Long length of building )

See Table 8.2 [pg 113]
Roof pitch 250

W = 6.88

Pressure (hip roof - long side)
= 1.6 kPa (kN/m2)
Interpolation
permitted
but not
necessary

Actual
6.9   1.9
6.880
2.2 (cont) Determine the wind pressure
(for Level 1, Wind direction 2 – Hip end –
Long length of building )
See Table 8.3 [pg 115]

Roof pitch 250

W = 6.88

Pressure (hip roof - long side)
= 1.9 kPa (kN/m2)
Actual
10.06
2.2 (cont) Determine the wind pressure
(for Level 1, Wind direction 2 – Short end of building - Hip end )

See Table 8.4 [pg 117]
Note: The additional           Roof pitch 250
areas highlighted in
orange, outside the
envelope of the two-
storey section are
considered as pressure
on a hip end (rather than
gable), as the height of
the Dutch gable on this
elevation is less than ½
the height from ceiling to
to the ridge.
Width = 10.06

Pressure (Hip roof end of building )
= 1.8 kPa (kN/m2)
2.2 (cont) Determine the wind pressure
(for Sub-floor of Level 1, Wind direction 2 – Hip end )

Note: Bracing of the sub-
floor (indicated in orange)
is not required for wind
direction 2 as the
pressures or forces will
be taken by the Level 1
bracing of the two storey
section of the house.

However, some
consideration of the small
additional areas as                                         2
indicated previously may
need to be added to the
Level 1 forces.
2.2 (cont) Determine the wind pressure
Summary of Pressures
Direction 1                                    Direction 2

Level 3
2.1 kN/m2
(gable)            Level 3
1.6 kN/m2
(hip)
Level 1
2.1 kN/m2
(gable)
Level 1 & 2
1.9 kN/m2
(hip)
Level 2
1.7 kN/m2
(hip)
Level 1 & 2
1.8 kN/m2
Level 2 subfloor   (hip)
1.9 kN/m2
(hip)
3.1    Determine the Area of Elevation
Discussion

Whilst the area/s of elevation should be determined relatively accurately,
high levels of precision are not really warranted and therefore use of
calculation methods (as used in this example), planimeters or by scaling
from drawings would all be acceptable.

Note: The area of elevation of triangular portion of eaves up to 1000mm
wide may be ignored . See Note 3 to Figures 8.2 (A, B & C), pg 109 – 111

The following method has been used in this example to calculate the area
of elevation of the triangular roof section:

Area = W/2 x W/2 Tan’X’ + 0.15 x W
The triangular part of eaves is ignored.

‘X’
150 mm nominal
allowance for depth roof
frame, battens and roofing.
Increase this if necessary i.e.
W                            for exposed rafter roofs.
3.1        Determine the Area of Elevation
(for Wind Direction 1 – Gable end – Level 3)
(Eaves 600mm, roof pitch 250)
Height FCL to ridge:
= 6880/2 x Tan 250
Gable End Area            Hip End Area
= 3440 x 0.47
600 mm
= 1604 mm. Say 1.6 m
1604 mm                                            Area of gable = 3.44 x 1.6
1280 mm                                                          = 5.50 m2
Area due to depth of roof frame (assume
150 mm)      = 0.15 x 6.88 = 1.03 m2
Area of wall = ½ Ceiling height x width
= 2.56/2 x 6.88

6880 mm         6670 mm                  = 8.81 m2

Total Gable End Area – Level 3
= 5.5 + 1.03 + 8.81
= 15.34 m2 say 15.3 m2
3.1 (Cont) Determine the Area of Elevation
(for Wind Direction 1 – Gable end – Level 1)
(Eaves 600mm, roof pitch 250)

Gable End Area            Hip End Area
3440 mm                            Area of gable = 3.44 x 1.6 (same as before)
= 5.50 m2
600 mm
Area due to depth of roof frame (assume 150
1604 mm                                            mm)     = 0.15 x 6.88 = 1.03 m2

Area of wall = (wall height level 3 +
3960 mm                                                           floor depth + ½ wall
height level 1) x width
= (2.56 + 0.2 + 1.2) x 6.88
= 27.24m2
6880 mm          6670 mm

Total Gable End Area – Level 3
= 5.5 + 1.03 + 27.24
= 33.77, say 33.8 m2
3.1 (Cont) Determine the Area of Elevation
(for Wind Direction 1 – Hip end – Level 2)
(Eaves 600mm, roof pitch 250, for purpose of this example assume Dutch
gable is ½ height from FCL to ridge, width of Dutch gable end is 8910 mm)
Hip Roof                 Height FCL to ridge = 8910/2 x Tan 250
2400 mm                                      = 4455 x 0.47
= 2077 mm, say 2.08 m
Depth of roof frame = 0.15 m (assumed)
2230 mm Total height to ridge = 2.08 + 0.15 = 2.23 m
Height Dutch gable = 2.23/2 = 1.12 m
Offset of Dutch gable = 1.12/tan 250
= 2.40 m
Area of roof = length x height to ridge – ¾
blue area
6670 mm                               = (6.67 x 2.23) – (0.75 x 2.4 x 2.23)
= 14.87 – 4.01
= 10.86 m2
Total Area – Level 2                       Area of wall = ½ wall height level 2 x width
= 10.86 + 8.54                                         = 2.56/2 x 6.67
= 19.4 m2                                              = 8.54 m2
3.1 (Cont) Determine the Area of Elevation
(for Wind Direction 1 – Hip end – sub-floor of Level 2)
(Eaves 600mm, roof pitch 250, assume Dutch gable is ½ height to ridge,
width of Dutch gable end is 8910 mm)
Hip Roof                    Area of roof and wall for Level 2 as previously
calculated    = 19.4 m2

Additional area of lower half of Level 2 wall +
area of ½ the height of the sub-floor (shaded
blue) is to be added to the above area, to get
the total area of elevation required for the
sub-floor bracing.
= length x (1/2 wall height + ½ the
1805 mm          sub-floor height)
1050 mm                  = 6.67 x (2.56/2 + 1.05/2)
= 12.04 m2
6670 mm

Total Area – Level 2, sub-floor
= 19.4 + 12.04
= 31.44 , say 31.4 m2
3.1 (Cont) Determine the Area of Elevation
(for Wind Direction 2 – Hip roof – Level 3)
(Eaves 600mm, roof pitch 250)
Height from FCL to ridge is 1604 mm.
900 mm
(Truss spc.)   Hip Roof      300 mm        Depth of roof frame = 150 mm
Total Height FCL to top of ridge = 1754 mm
1754 mm                                    900 mm
Height of Dutch gable is 900 mm.
Overhang on Dutch gable is 300 mm.
Total length of ridge that is missing (blue
shading) is therefore approximately
= 2 x (900 – 300)
= 1200 mm.
Roof area is = (8.91 x 1.754) – (1.2 x 0.90)
8910 mm
= 15.63 - 1.08
= 14.55 m2
Total Area – Level 3                                 Area of wall = 8.91 x 2.56/2
= 14.55 + 11.4                                                   = 11.4 m2
= 25.95, say 26.0 m2
3.1 (Cont) Determine the Area of Elevation
(for Wind Direction 2 – Hip roof - Level 1)
(Eaves 600mm, roof pitch 250)
Area of level 3 = 26 m2
Hip Roof
Area of lower half of Level 3 and upper half of
Level 1 (blue shading) is:
= (2560/2 + 200 + 2400/2) x 8910
= (1.28m + 0.2 m + 1.2m) x 8.91m
= 23.9 m2

8910 mm

Total Area – Level 1
= 26 + 23.9
= 49.9 m2
3.1 (Cont) Determine the Area of Elevation
(for Wind Direction 2 – Hip roof - Level 1
– additional small areas, shaded blue Eaves 600mm, roof pitch 250)
Note: For the additional areas, the full height of
the wall sections for Level 2 have been used as
Hip Roof           the loads are assumed to be shared by both
Levels 1 and 2

Front porch assuming one end closed in
approximately
= 3.6/2x 1.15 = 2.07 m2

2600         Rear patio gable, assuming not filled in,
and additional wall area under gable
approximately

1150                   2550
= 2.55 x tan25 x 2.55/2 + 0.6 x 1.55

Total additional areas – Level 1                 = 1.51 + 0.93
= 2.44 m2
= 2.07 + 2.44
= 4.51m2 say 4.5 m2
Wind direction 2
3.1 (cont) Determine the Area of Elevation
Summary of Areas
Direction 1                            Direction 2

Level 3
15.3 m2
(gable)    Level 3
26.0 m2
(hip)
Level 1
33.8 m2
(gable)
Level 1 & 2
49.9 m2
(hip)
Level 2
19.4 m2
(hip)
Level 1 & 2
subfloor   areas
31.4 m2    4.5 m2
(hip)      (hip)
4.      Calculate the racking force
(for both Wind Directions)

Use the formula:

Racking Force = Area of Elevation x Wind Pressure
(kN)               (m2)          (kPa) - (kN/m2)

For complex elevations, combine the results of
separate calculations to end up with a total racking
force in each of the two wind directions.
4.    Calculate the racking force
(for both Wind Directions)

Use the formula:

Racking Force = Area of Elevation x Wind Pressure
(kN)                 (m2)            (kN/m2)
Example: Total racking force for:-
Wind Direction 1, Level 2
Hip = 19.4 m2 x 1.7kN/m2 = 32.98, say 33.0 kN
Example: Total racking force for
Wind Direction 2, Levels 1 & 2
Hip = 49.9 m2 x 1.9 kN/m2 = 94.8 kN
Additional areas = 4.5 m2 x 1.8 kN/m2 = 8.1 kN
Total = 102.9 kN
4.     Calculate the racking forces
(Summary of racking forces for both Wind Directions)
Direction 1                                 Direction 2

Level 3
32.1 kN
Level 3
41.6 kN

Level 1
71.0 kN
Level 1 & 2
94.8 kN
Level 2
33 kN

Level 1 & 2
subfloor      areas
59.7 kN       8.1 kN
Distribution of racking forces
Discussion: Wind direction 1
Distribution of racking forces is relatively simple in this direction.
Consider the house broken into two parts – the two storey section
(Levels 1 and 3) and the single storey section (Level 2). The racking
forces that occur on each section should be distributed into that
section.
The racking forces should also be distributed in proportion to the forces
that occur on each level in each section.
Bracing of the sub-floor for Level 2 will be discussed later.

71.0kN       33kN
32.1kN

Level 1     Level 2                       Level 3

Wind direction 1
Distribution of racking forces
Discussion: Wind direction 2
Distribution of racking forces in this direction is more complicated.
It is assumed that Level 2 is integrally tied and connected to Levels 1 and 3, and
forces can therefore be distributed across these levels.
Level 3 should be designed as ‘stand alone’, and therefore does not contribute to
forces in Level 2.
It is suggested that up to 1/2 of the forces that occur on Level 1 can be distributed
into Level 2 in addition to the force due to the small additional areas.
The forces to be distributed in Level 2 will therefore be equal to the difference
between 94.8 kN (Level 1) and what is actually taken by Level 1 (57.6 kN see later) ,
(94.8 – 57.6 = 37.2 kN + 8.1 kN = 45.3 kN)
Bracing of the sub-floor for Level 2 will be discussed later.

94.8 kN    8.1 kN
57.6 kN   45.3 kN
41.6 kN

Level 1    Level 2                              Level 3
Wind direction 2
Distribution of racking forces

West
elevation
2
5. Design the wall bracing systems

Wind direction 1 - Level 1
As the racking force is of a significant
magnitude, relatively strong bracing
walls will be required.
As an initial start, assume bracing walls
will be plywood rated at 6.4kN/m, min
panel length 600 mm (Method A) –
Table 8.18 (h) [pg 140]
Therefore length of bracing wall
required
= 71.0/6.4 = 11.09. say 11.0 m
NOTE: Bracing should initially be
71.0 kN
placed in external walls and, where
possible, at the corners of the building –
Clause 8.3.6.6 [pg 148].
AS1684.3 p140
Wind direction 1 - Level 1

Minimum panel length for Plywood
is 600 mm for Type A bracing
Clause 8.3.6.5(a) [pg 144]
(1)     (2)
Wall 1.
For LH garage wall, available wall
(3)
length is 900 + 600 (corners) +
3600 = 5100 mm
5.1 x 6.4kN/m = 32.6 kN
Wall 2
(1)                         2 x 1.2 m panels = 2.4 m x 6.4
= 15.4 kN
Wall 3
1 x 0.9 m = 0.9 x 6.4 = 5.7 kN
71.0 kN
(4)
Wall 4
Available length is 4.4m but use
4.2 x 6.4 = 26.9 kN
(1)
TOTAL = 32.6 + 15.4 + 5.7 + 26.9
= 80.6 kN therefore satisfactory
Note: Wall 3 could be deleted and
still OK.
Wind direction 1 - Level 2
Minimum panel length for Plywood
is 600 mm for Type A bracing
(7)   Clause 8.3.6.5(a) [pg 144]
Wall 5.
Length is 2400 mm
(6)          2.4 x 6.4 kN/m = 15.4 kN

Wall 6
33.0 kN         0.8 m x 6.4 kN/m
= 5.1 kN
Wall 7
(5)                   1.2 m x 6.4kN/m
= 7.7 kN
(8)   Wall 8
1.2 m x 6.4 kN/m
= 7.7 kN
TOTAL = 15.4 + 5.1 + 7.7 + 7.7
= 35.9 kN therefore satisfactory
Wind direction 1 - Level 3

Wall 9.
0.9 m x 6.4 kN/m = 5.7 kN
(9)
(13)   Wall 10
1.2 m x 6.4 kN/m = 7.7 kN
Wall 11
0.6 m x 6.4 kN/m = 3.8 kN
Wall 12
1.2 m x 6.4kN/m = 7.7 kN
(12)          Wall 13
(10)
1.2 m x 6.4 kN/m = 7.7 kN
(Note: A 2.4 m panel of double diagonal
32.1 kN                 strap bracing rated at 3.0 kN/m may be
better placed here as this would not interfere
with line of internal or external lining etc)
(14)
(11)                       Wall 14
1.2 m x 6.4 kN/m = 7.7 kN
TOTAL = 5.7 + 7.7 + 3.8 + 7.7 +
7.7 + 7.7
= 40.4 kN therefore satisfactory
Note: Wall 10 could be deleted
and would still OK
Wind direction 2 - Level 1

Wall a.
2.7 m x 6.4 kN/m = 17.3 kN
Wall b
(a)                   1.8 m x 6.4 kN/m = 11.5 kN
Wall c
2.1 m x 6.4 kN/m = 13.4 kN
Wall d
(b)       (c)         Note: To enable as much bracing as possible to
be distributed into the front of the garage wall,
both sides of the walls either side of garage door
will be sheeted to enable doubling the rating to
12 kN/m. See Clause 8.3.6.5 [pg 144] Note this
also requires doubling the connections at the top
and bottom of wall.
57.6 kN         0.6 m x 12.8 kN/m = 7.7 kN
Wall e
0.6 m x 12.8 kN/m = 7.7 kN
Total = 17.3 +11.5 + 13.4 + 7.7 + 7.7
(d)                   (e)   = 57.6 kN
Required racking resistance equals
assumed actual racking force,
therefore satisfactory.
Wind direction 2 - Level 2

(f)        (g)   Wall f.
1.2 m x 6.4 kN/m = 7.7 kN
Wall g
1.2 m x 6.4 kN/m = 7.7 kN
Wall h
(h)                    2.4 m x 6.4 kN/m = 15.4 kN
Wall i
1.2 m x 6.4 kN/m = 7.7 kN
45.3 kN
Wall j
1.2 m x 6.4 kN/m = 7.7 kN
Total = 6 x 7.7
= 46.2 kN therefore OK
(i)                   (j)
Wind direction 2 - Level 3

Wall k.
0.6 m x 6.4 kN/m = 3.8 kN
(k)           (l)
Wall l
1.2 m x 6.4 kN/m = 7.7 kN
Wall m
(q)   2.4 m x 6.4 kN/m = 15.4 kN
41.6 kN         Wall n
(m)                   0.6 m x 6.4 kN/m = 3.8 kN
Wall o
1.2 m x 6.4 kN/m = 7.7 kN
Wall p
0.6 m x 6.4 kN/m = 3.8 kN
(n)          (o)      (p)   Total = 3 x 3.8 + 2 x 7.7 + 15.4
= 42.2 kN therefore OK
5.3   Nominal wall bracing

Clause 8.3.6.2 [pg 136] permits up to 50% of
required permanent bracing to be provided by
nominal bracing (normal lined walls).

Nominal bracing has not been considered in this
C2 example because for high wind classifications,
it is usually difficult to find any significant lengths
of un-braced wall available to utilize the nominal
bracing capacity that may have otherwise been
available.

This example demonstrates this.
Bracing the sub-floor of
Direction 1 - Level 2

North                            33.0 kN
elevation
1
59.7 kN

For Level 2, the racking force of 33.0 kN has already been accounted for.
For the sub-floor of Level 2 the racking force required to be resisted in
Direction 1 is 59.7 kN.
Bracing the sub-floor of
Direction 2 - Level 2

West
elevation

2
46.7 kN
94.8 kN                                            45.3 kN
+ 8.1 kN               57.6 kN

For Level 3, the racking force of 46.7 kN has already been accounted for.
For Level 1, 57.6 kN out of a total of 94.8 kN has been accounted for by
bracing in Level 1.
The remainder 37.2 kN plus the additional small area component, 8.1 kN
= Total = 45.3 kN is distributed into Level 2 via the Level 2 ceiling and floor
diaphragms and then into the sub-floor.

TOTAL in Direction 2 for Levels 1 and 2 = 102.9 kN
Sub-floor bracing
Clause 8.3.5.8 and Table 8.16 [pg 135] provide bracing capacities for
un-reinforced masonry. Min. panel length (l1 or l2) = 900 mm and
minimum total length of panels (l1 or l2) in any one wall 3000 mm

l1          l2                                            Bracing
Capacity
(kN/m)
Subfloor of single storey           3
with brick veneer over
Sub-floor bracing
Contribution of un-reinforced masonry

Direction 1
45.3 kN    East wall, min panel lengths > 900 ok.
required   Sum of panel lengths = 7710 - 2400 mm
= 5310 mm
59.7 kN        Bracing resistance = 5.3 x 3 kN/m = 15.9 kN
required
Direction 2
North and South walls
Sum of panel lengths = (2 x 6670) – (900
+2400 + 1800 + 1800) mm
= 6440 mm
Bracing resistance = 6.4 x 3 kN/m = 9.9kN
Total Direction 2 = 19.2 kN

Direction 1
Sub –floor bracing
Direction1
From the preceding, 59.7 – 15.9 = 43.8 kN
is still required to be provided by bracing
stumps or diagonal bracing sets between
stumps.

Direction 2
From the preceding, 45.3 – 19.2 = 26.1 kN
is still required to be provided by bracing
stump or diagonal bracing sets between
stumps.

Six stumps are available to provide
bracing in each direction.

Additional bracing resistance using steel
or timber bracing stumps will be required
to resist the remaining racking forces.

North
Sub – floor bracing
Clause 8.3.5.6 [pg 123 gives] gives Bracing Capacities for timber stumps in a
concrete footing, but the values are only applicable to Wind Classifications up
to C1. As this example is C2, these values cannot be applied.

It is worth noting, as can be seen for Wind Classifications up to C1 from Table
8.10, pg 124 and from Table 8.14 [pg 133], for timber stumps 800 mm high,
with a footing diameter and depth of 450 mm and 1000 mm respectively,
reasonable bracing capacities can be obtained. By engineering design,
reasonable capacities may also be able to be obtained for C2.

As noted in Clause 8.3.5.6, capacities of these stumps (timber or steel) in
Wind Classification C2 are required to be determined by engineering design in
accordance with AS 2870. Therefore refer to an engineer for design and
certification.
6.     Maximum spacing of bracing walls

For C2 wind classification, the maximum
distance between braced walls (at right
angles to the building length or width) is
determined in accordance with – Clause
8.3.6.7 [pg 145] and Table 8.21 [pg 146].
6. Maximum spacing of bracing walls

Ceiling diaphragm
depth – Direction 1       Ceiling diaphragm
– Level 3 = 7870 mm       depth – Direction 2 –
Level 3 = 6440 mm

Ceiling diaphragm
depth – Direction 1 –
Level 2 = 8590 mm
6.     Maximum spacing of bracing walls

For Direction 1 – Level 2 – Diaphragm depth = 8590,
Interpolation     Therefore maximum spacing of bracing walls is 5.1 m
permitted

8.59                                           5.1
6         Maximum spacing of Bracing walls

For Wind direction 1 -
(7)
Level 2, the maximum
spacing is 3.6 m which
is less than 5.1 m
(6)
therefore satisfactory.
Max spacing
= 3600 mm
Note: For wind direction
(5)                         2 for Level 2, maximum
spacing of bracing walls
is not a concern, as this
(8)   direction is restrained
by the two-storey
section.

Direction 1
6.     Maximum spacing of bracing walls

For Direction 1 – Level 3 – Diaphragm depth = 6440,
Interpolation     Therefore maximum spacing of bracing walls is 4.5 m approx.
permitted

6.44                                           4.5
6.     Maximum spacing of bracing walls

For Wind direction 2 -
(k)             (l)
Level 3, the maximum
spacing of bracing walls
is 3.6 m which is less
(q)   than 4.5 m therefore
(m)                   satisfactory.

Note: Wind direction 1
Max spacing            for Level 3 also needs to
= 3600 mm
be checked.
(n)            (o)     (p)

Direction 1
6.    Maximum spacing of sub-floor bracing

The spacing of bracing in the sub-floor is also
required to be checked Clause 8.3.5.9 [pg 135]
provides details.
As the maximum spacing in C2 is 11 500 mm, for this
example, sub-floor spacing of bracing is not a
concern as actual spacing is considerably less in
both directions
Fixing of Bottom of Bracing Walls
7.   Connection of bracing - floors

The bottom plate of timber-framed bracing
walls shall be fixed at the ends of the bracing
panel and, if required, intermediately to the
floor frame or concrete slab with connections
determined from Table 8.18 (pgs 137 to 143
and Table 8.25 (pgs 152 to 153).
(Clause 8.3.6.10, pg 151)

AS1684.3 p151
AS1684.3 p140
7.1        Fixing of Bottom of Bracing Walls

12.8 kN/m

Plywood, Method A – 6.4 kN/m

2560 mm

Ceiling diaphragm

An M12 rod each end
Note: For double sided                                  and
walls @ 12.8 kN/m fixing
requirements are to be
a 13 kN capacity
in accordance with                                      connection
Clause 8.3.6.10, pg 151.                                intermediately at 1200
Therefore the tie-down                                  mm maximum
rods each end are
required to have a
capacity of 2.56 x 12.8 =
32.8 kN
Note: In C2 additional fixings for shear at 900
mm Max crs is required – see Table 9.3, pg 161.
7.1    Fixing of Bottom of Bracing Walls

From Table 8.25, [pg 152 – 153], some acceptable options
to achieve 13kN assuming JD4 joint group framing are:

Note:
1. For chemical
or other proprietary
fasteners or anchors,
refer to manufacturers
specifications.
2. MGP15 – JD4
MGP12 – JD4
MGP10 – JD5
Fixing of Top of Bracing Walls
7.2   Fixing of Top of Bracing Walls

Ceiling diaphragm
7.2   Fixing of Top of Bracing Walls Cont.

All internal bracing walls must be fixed at
the top “with structural connections of
equivalent shear capacity to the bracing
capacity of that particular bracing wall”
(Clause 8.3.6.9, pg 147)

These fixings are determined using Table
8.23, p148-151.
AS1684.3 p147
7.2   Fixing of Top of Bracing Walls Cont.

To determine the correct fixing at the top
plate, look at the (in this case) truss plan.
And….
1. Determine what direction the walls are
running in relation to the trusses.
Wall parallel to roof
Wall                                 trusses
perpendicular
to roof
trusses                               Roof Trusses

Plan view
7.2    Fixing of Top of Bracing Walls Cont.

2. Select an appropriate fixing requirement
from Table 8.23 [pg 148 151]
7.2   Fixing of Top of Bracing Walls Cont.

NOTE: Be sure that the total bracing capacity
of that individual wall can be resisted by the
connection.
For a 1.2 m Plywood panel rated at 6.4 kN/m,
the force to be resisted by the connection at
the top of the brace wall is:
1.2 m x 6.4 kN/m = 7.7 kN
Note: Where MGP10 (JD4) is used for internal frames, alternative fixings
or more frequent fixings would be required ie 2 trimmers/1.2 m panel.

JD4 JD5

Connection of braced walls parallel to trusses
Connection of braced walls perpendicular to trusses
JD4

Connection of braced internal walls to external walls
Note: The braced section of internal wall does not have to abut the external wall,
but the top plate must provide a continuous tie to the external wall.
Connection of braced internal walls
abutting external walls - alternative detail

Nail plate - use in accordance
with manufacturers specifications.

Internal bracing
wall

Top plate                                   External wall

Capacities available from nail-plate manufacturers
Acknowledgement

Prepared and reviewed by:
 Timber Queensland Ltd
 TPC Solutions Pty Ltd (Vic)
 Place Designs (Qld)

This educational resource has been prepared as part of the
Forest & Wood Products Australia
Technical Resources Program – Supporting Timber
Education & Training

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