PowerPoint Presentation - Warwick School by pengxuezhi


									Dr Gary Leeke
School of Chemical Engineering

November 15th 2010
What is Chemical Engineering by Definition?
• Definition found in a standard dictionary:

“A branch of engineering which involves the design and operation of
large scale chemical plants, petrochemical refineries, and the like.”

• Another definition (from the www):
“Concerned with processes that cause substances to undergo
required changes in their chemical or physical composition,
structure, energy content or physical state.”
               What do Chemical Engineers make?

   Low volume, high cost
     – Foods, Pharmaceuticals, Cosmetics, Skin Creams,
     – Detergents, Paper, Ceramics,
     – High Performance Materials (carbon fibre etc.),
       Fuel Cells, Bone implants.
     – Smart Materials…nanofactories….
   High volume, low cost
     – Petrochemicals,
     – Fertilisers,
     – Plastics, Paints, Textiles
              What Chemical Engineers do...

   Chemical Engineers scale up processes from
    the Chemistry Lab             Process Scale
                                  Volume of
                                  several m3

           Lab Scale
           Volume of few ml
  A question of scale?
  N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 (exothermic)

                                                         Primary Reformer

Secondary Reformer

                     1200 Tonnes per day Ammonia Plant
A question of scale?
Microreactors and Novel Reactor Configurations



                       0.5 mm   Silicon nitride
   Pt catalyst                  membrane
             Silicon                                              Plate
             Aluminium sealing plate

 Pt heater             3.5 mm

   0.55 mm       Gas flow
                                 Pt catalyst                    Packed Bed
             Aluminium sealing plate
                       18 mm
            What do we do when the oil runs out?

   Fuel Cells – Clean Power

                               of a Fuel Cell
                                Anode side:
                              2H2 => 4H+ + 4e-
                               Cathode side:
                           O2 + 4H+ + 4e- => 2H2O
                                Net reaction:
                             2H2 + O2 => 2H2O
Biofuels - Biodiesel

   Production of ‘carbon-neutral’ fuels from plant
Influence of Process on Product Structure
At molecular scale....
                                                    ....and above
   Multiphase materials
    – Immiscible
      phases (e.g.
    – Crystallisation
      and crystal forms
    – Effect of structure
      on product                                     air cell mayonnaise
                                                  traditionalin ice cream

    Norton et al. (2006) AIChE J., 52, 5, 1632.
Cell factories and
biotechnology -
Using bugs to make
complex chemicals
                            SEM of various cells

                  Motion of cells in the
                  body and material

Red blood cells
What do you need to know?
   How to move materials around (Fluid Flow)

   How to change a material’s temperature or state (Heat
    Transfer /Thermodynamics)

   How to optimise chemical reactions /reactors
    (Reaction Engineering/ Chemistry)

   Handling and processing of multiphase materials and
    how it affects their (micro)structure (Multiphase Flow /
    Colloid Science)
What do you need to know?

   Computer modelling. Use of IT/Computers and
    electronic resources (C&IT) to design plants.

   How to work in teams and be an effective
    manager (Process / Project Management)

   Be able to problem solve!
 A chemical engineer is more than a chemist

  Chemistry                                Physics

                   Chemical Engineer


What makes a good Chemical Engineer?
  Chemical Engineers need to be problem solvers, who enjoy
  science and maths. They must be looking for a challenge and be
  excited by a degree choice that will help them develop a wide
  range of skills including……

       Specialist scientific                     Communication skills
        knowledge                                 Leadership skills
       Project management                        IT
       Resource management                       Business & legal
       Health & Safety                            knowledge
       Team Work

  All skills which are highly valued by employers, even outside the
  chemical engineering industry
       Real Life Chemical Engineers
           Matt Savage is an Environmental Consultant
           working in New Zealand. He works with different
           companies to reduce the amount of pollution their
           plants produce.

           Christine Waweru is a design engineer. She is
           developing hollow fibres for breathing systems used
           in space.

           Ryan McGovern works for ExxonMobil. He has
           been involved in making oil refineries more energy
           efficient and loves the challenge his job brings.

Real Life Chemical Engineers
   Rachel Cooke works for Cadbury’s. Her job includes
   doing plant trials, running the machinery in a different
   way to see how that can make a new product. She
   even gets to try out the chocolate!

   Peter Foster discovered how to process the drug
   used to treat haemophilia so that it could be
   produced on a large scale

   Lisa Lilley is Shell’s Technical Support manager. She
   tests and evaluates the fuels and lubricants used by
 How do I become a Chemical Engineer?
The most straight forward entry route into Chemical          Further Study
Engineering is……

                                              BEng or MEng
     GCSEs or            A-Levels or            Chemical
    equivalent            equivalent          Engineering

It is possible, but less common, to enter Chemical            Employment
Engineering with a HND/HNC instead of A-levels or
their equivalent.
           What subjects should
            I take after GCSE?
 • A levels, Scottish (Advanced) Highers, Irish Leaving
   Certificate, European Baccalaureate – Maths is
   essential. Chemistry and Physics are the other 2
   most useful subjects
 • Diploma – The new Engineering Diploma level 3 ,
   combined with a maths A level is an alternative
 Is a Chemical Engineering degree well
 Chemical Engineering is a degree that is well respected in industry and

 A Chemical Engineering degree will equip you with skills that are easily
 transferable and graduates invariably take on considerable responsibility
 within a few years of graduation.

 For this reason job prospects are excellent and often involve the chance to
 reach senior managerial positions at a young age.

             What are the benefits?
 Benefits include……

     • Excellent job prospects on graduation
        and beyond
     • High earning potential
     • Variety and challenge
     • Opportunities to travel and see the world
     • The chance to make a real contribution
       to a sustainable future

   What do Chemical Engineers earn?
Chemical Engineers are the best paid group of engineers and have the potential
to earn more than doctors, lawyers and accountants.

  • The average graduate starting salary is           £27,500
  • The average salary is £50,000
    rising to £60,400
    for Chartered Chemical Engineers who are
    regarded as professional ‘high flyers’

    (Source: Institution of Chemical Engineers Salary Survey, 2010)

What Qualifications do I need?
   Typical offers based on 3 A

   Birmingham offer (2011):
    340 points (AAB)
     – including A levels in
       Maths and Chemistry

   To become a Chartered
    Engineer, should do MEng
Why do Chemical Engineering at
   Excellence in Teaching and Research
             – 65% of our research is world leading and
               internationally excellent
             – 30% is nationally leading

   1st National Student Survey 2010

   Advanced laboratory, computational and e-learning facilities

   Breadth and depth: 14 professors and 27 teaching staff in total

   Approx 80-100 undergraduates per year; greater than 100

   Industrial Links
Courses Available

Single Honours Programmes (Yrs 1-2 are common)
 H800 BEng/MEng Chem. Eng.
 H801 MEng Chem. Eng. (International Study)
    – 3rd Year Abroad Studying in an Overseas University

   H802 MEng Chem. Eng. (Industrial Experience)
     - Gap year in third year (Certificate in Industrial Studies)

Joint Honours Programmes
 H8ND BEng/MEng Chem.Eng. with Business Management
   (joint with Business School)

   H803 Chemical and Energy Engineering
Our modern society relies on the work of Chemical Engineers – they help
manage resources, protect the environment and control health and safety
procedures, while developing the processes that make the products we desire or
depend on……

Chemical Engineering is all about
changing raw materials into useful
products you use everyday in a
safe and cost effective way. For
example petrol, plastics and
synthetic fibres such as
polyester and nylon,
all come from oil.
How can I find out more?



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