Chapter 4 Determinants of Learning by 7RDdOk3J


									       Chapter 4

Determinants of Learning
  Educator’s Role in Learning

The educator plays a crucial role in the
learning process by:
• assessing problems or deficits
• providing information in unique ways
• identifying progress made
• giving feedback
• reinforcing learning
• evaluating learners’ abilities
The Educator’s Unique Position

The educator is vital in giving support,
encouragement, and direction during the
process of learning.

The educator assists in identifying optimal
learning approaches and activities that can
both support and challenge the learner.
Assessment of the learner includes attending to the
        three determinants of learning:

* Learning Needs
  (WHAT the learner needs to

* Readiness to Learn
  (WHEN the learner is receptive to

* Learning Style
  (HOW the learner best learns)

                         Haggard, 1989
    Assessment of Learning Needs

• Identify the learner
• Choose the right setting
• Collect data about, and from, the learner
• Involve members of the healthcare team
• Prioritize needs
• Determine the availability of educational
• Assess demands of the organization
• Take time-management issues into account
Needs are prioritized based on the
       following criteria:
Mandatory: Needs that must be learned
   for survival when the learner’s life or
   safety is threatened
Desirable: Needs that are not life-dependent but
 are related to well-being
Possible: Needs for information that are “nice to know” but not
  essential or required because they are not directly related to
  daily activities or the particular situation of the learner
Methods to Assess Learning Needs

•   Informal conversations
•   Structured interviews
•   Focus groups
•   Self-administered questionnaires
•   Tests
•   Observations
•   Patient charts
    Assessing Learning Needs of
           Nursing Staff

•   Written job descriptions
•   Formal and informal requests
•   Quality assurance reports
•   Chart audits
•   Rules and regulations
•   Knox Four-Step approach
Take TIME to take a PEEK at
the four types of Readiness to
The Four Types of Readiness to
          Learn Are:
 P = Physical readiness

 E = Emotional readiness

 E = Experiential readiness

 K = Knowledge readiness
The Components of Each Type of Readiness
            1. Physical readiness

     – measures of ability
     – complexity of task
     – health status
     – gender
     – anxiety level
     – support system
The Components of Each Type of Readiness
            2. Emotional readiness

    -   Anxiety level
    -   Support system
    -   motivation
    -   risk-taking behavior
    -   frame of mind
    -   developmental stage
The Components of Each Type of Readiness
       3. Experiential readiness

    – level of aspiration
    – past coping mechanisms
    – cultural background
    – locus of control
    – orientation
The Components of Each Type of Readiness
        4. Knowledge readiness

    – present knowledge base
    – cognitive ability
    – learning disabilities
Learning Styles
    Six Learning Style Principles
• Both the teacher’ style prefers to teach and the
  learner’s style prefers to learn can be identified.
• Educators need to guard against relying on
  teaching methods and tools which match their
  own preferred learning styles.
• Educators are most helpful when they assist
  learners in identifying and learning through the
  their own style preferences.
   Six Learning Style Principles
• Learners should have the opportunity to
  learn through their preferred style.
• Learners should be encouraged to
  diversify their style preferences.
• Educators can develop specific learning
  activities that reinforce each modality or
Learning Style Models and Instruments

 • Brain Preference Indicator
   (Right-Brain, Left-Brain, and Whole-Brain)
 • Embedded Figures Test (EFT)
 • Environmental Preference Survey
   (EPS) (Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Inventory)
 • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Learning Style Instruments (cont.)

• Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI)
• 4MAT System
• Gardner’s Eight Types of Intelligence
• VARK Learning Styles
      Right-Brain/Left-Brain and
        Whole-Brain Thinking

• Brain Preference Indicator
• Right hemisphere—emotional, visual–spatial,
  nonverbal hemisphere
  Thinking processes using the right brain are
  intuitive, subjective, relational, holistic, and
  time free
• Left hemisphere—vocal and analytical side
  Thinking process using reality-based and
  logical thinking with verbalization
     Right-Brain/Left-Brain and
       Whole-Brain Thinking

• No correct or wrong side of the brain
• Each hemisphere gathers in the same
  sensory information but handles the
  information in different ways
• Knowledge of one’s own brain
  hemispherical performance can help
  educators identify the strengths and
  weaknesses of various teaching
 Examples of Right-Brain/Left-Brain and
        Whole-Brain Thinking
       Left Brain                    Right Brain
• Prefers talking and writing   • Prefers drawing and
• Recognizes/remembers            manipulating objects
  names                         • Recognizes/remembers
• Solves problems by
                                • Solves problems by looking
  breaking them into parts        at the whole, looks for
• Conscious of time and           patterns, uses hunches
  schedules                     • Not conscious of time and

       Whole brain—combining both sides of the brain
       Embedded Figures Test
• Embedded Figures Test
• Learners have preference styles for certain
  environmental cues.
• Helps the educator structure the learning task
  and environment
• Helps assess the extent to which learners are
  able to ignore distractions from other persons
• Assesses whether learners see the whole first
  or the individual parts of a task when learning
 Environment Preference Survey





 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Extraversion (E)   Introversion (I)

    Sensing (S)    Intuition (N)

  Thinking (T)     Feeling (F)

  Judgment (J)     Perception (P)
     Kolb Learning Style Inventory

    Concrete experience       Abstract conceptualization

Active experimentation        Reflective observation

   Diverger                 Converger
              Assimilator               Accommodator
             4MAT System
• There is a combination of Kolb’s model
  combined with right/left brain research.
• There are four types of learners.
• Educators can address all four learning
  styles by teaching sequentially from
  type-one learner to type-two learner,
• Learning sequence is circular and
          Gardner’s Eight Types of
        (#8 identified in 1999--naturalistic)

             Linguistic inte llige nce   M us ical inte llige nce

             Spatial inte llige nce      LogicalĞmathe matical inte llige nce

Bodily kine sthe tic inte llige nce      Intrape r sonal inte llige nce

Inte rpe rs ona l inte llige nce
    Interpretation of Style Instruments
• Caution must be exercised in assessing styles so
  that other equally important factors in learning are
  not ignored.
• Styles only describe how individuals process
  stimuli, not how much or how well information is
• Style instruments should be selected based on
  reliability, validity, and the population for which
  they are to be used.
• More than one learning style instrument should
  be used for appropriate assessment of learner.
        Generational Styles- Silents
born 1925-1942 >61 years old
   This group is not clueless about technology; the fastest
    growing group of Internet users
   Older adults may need technology training.
   Let your students dictate the pace; don’t rush things.
   Be polite, say “please” and “thank you”.
   Use proper grammar at all times
   Avoid all off-color language or humor.
   Even if you’re using computers for training, provide
    plenty of opportunity for personal

***interaction: Older learners like to interact with people,
   not machines.
    Generational Styles-Baby Boomers
born 1943-1960       43-60 years old
 Show them that you care, Be nice
 Fairness is important.
 Tell them they are important.
 Know their names.
 Give them a chance to talk-they want to show you what they
 Dialogue and participation is key.
 Don’t be authoritarian; don’t boss them around.
 Be democratic--Treat them as “equals”
 Acknowledge what they know; ask them lots of questions so
 they can demonstrate what they know
 Treat them as though they’re young, even if they aren’t
 Avoid “sir” and ma’am”, which they may take as an insult
 Respect their experience
              Older people
             Do’s and Don’ts
– All printed material should be clear, easy to read,
  large enough font.
– Provide a summary of topics and goals.
– Be pleasant, personal but not too intimate.
– Don’t put them on the spot. Give them time to prepare.
– If you’re a 20-something trainer…
– Get coaching from someone older to understand the
  mindset of this generation.
– Invite someone with a little more gray hair to be a
  guest presenter in your class, to help with credibility.
– Show respect for age and experience.
   Generational Styles- Gen Xers
born 1961- 1981
  Can multitask well
  Used to change
  Want to get job done
  Visual & dynamic
  State of art technology & know how to use it
  Only read when they have to!
       Generational Styles- Gen Y
born 1981- 2003
   Accept authority & follows rules
   Balance work & personal life
   Direct & Vocal
   Optimistic
   Socially aware & involved
   Team player
   Technology expected
   Active-let them move around
   Frequent and instantaneous feedback
   ARE readers—provide backup info

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