.rsrapport 2005_senaste by xumiaomaio

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									Events at SIK
Research and business in 2006
                                                                       Contents
… is an industrial research institute owned by SP Technical           • Positive future for SIK                                    3-4
Research Insitute of Sweden. The purpose of the Institute is to
strengthen the competitiveness of its members.                        • The Vinn Excellence Center – a major investment in
                                                                        supramolecular biomaterials                                     5
… has an annual turnover of approximately SEK 100 million.
One-third of its income comes from the Swedish state via the          • Computer-based simulation for increased
National Swedish Board for Industrial and Technical Develop-            microbiological safety                                          6
ment (NUTEK), the Nordic Fund for Technology and Industrial
Development, the EU, IRECO AB and research councils. The              • Developing methods for the detection of bacteria
other two-thirds come from assignments and membership fees              on surfaces                                                     7
from industry via the SIK Members’ Association.
                                                                      • Tax incentives to reinforce biotechnology companies             8
… conducts strategic and applied research for industry in             • Building bridges between pharmaceutical development
accordance with a goal-oriented research programme and in               and Nordic diagnostic companies                                 9
the form of joint industrial projects. SIK also provides advice
and service in R&D matters.                                           • IR technology opens up new potential for the food
                                                                        industry                                                       10
… offers comprehensive consultancy services in product and
process development and problem-solving of both an acute              • SIK Forum invests in growth and a broader range of
and strategic nature.                                                   services                                                       10

… is the specialised resource for the co-ordination of R&D for        • Research put into practice at a dairy reduces
the Swedish Food Federation (Li).                                       environmental impact dramatically                              11

                                                                      • Research aimed at sustainable production
… is a member of United Competence, an industrial research              development                                             12-15
and development consortium.
                                                                      • Successful training programmes in sensory analysis             16
… maintains a strategic alliance with the British research
institute Campden & Chorleywood FRA Group.                            • Over 800 people in Västernorrland acquire greater
                                                                        hygiene skills                                                 17
… is a member of an international network made up of other
centres of knowledge and communicates know-how, ideas                 • Programmes and seminars 2006                                   17
and information via regular customer contacts, reports and
                                                                      • EU projects in which SIK is involved                           18
seminars.
                                                                      • Research year 2006                                             19
… provides tailored training courses for individual companies
and participates in graduate and undergraduate course pro-            • SIK PhDs during 2006                                           20
grammes at universities and colleges in Gothenburg, Lund
and Uppsala. The Department of Food Science at Chalmers               • Research projects at SIK during 2006                    21-22
University of Technology is based at SIK.
                                                                      • CCFRA: Authenticity testing                                    23
… has around 100 employees, most of whom are university
                                                                      • Reports                                                 24-25
graduates. The head office is in Gothenburg and there are
regional offices in Lund, Uppsala, Umeå and Linköping.                • SIK Board                                                      26

                                                                      • Industrial Advisory Group                                      26

                                                                      • The SIK Members’ Association                                   27

                                                                      • SIK Industrial Research Reward                                 27

                                                                      • The SIK Members’ Association                                   28




                                                                                                                SIK-Document No. 177
                                                                                                                ISSN 0280-9737



                                                                  2
Positive future for SIK
Operations at SIK increased during 2006, mainly in rela-                 The greatest threat to operations has been the low
tion to large companies in Sweden outside the food sec-            level – by international standards – of public funding in
tor but also at major international food groups. SIK               Sweden during 2006 in the development of know-how. In
also undertook a number of assignments for small                   addition, there were very few announcements made by
biotechnology and food companies which received fund-              Swedish research funding bodies within the food sector
ing through the new VINNOVA programme initiative                   during the year. The food industry has not yet been the
"Research and Grow".                                               subject of sector discussions or investments similar to
     Small food companies have also engaged the services           those undertaken by the government together with a
of SIK, due largely to the investment made a few years             number of other key export industries. However, following
ago in a special development centre with small-scale               contact between the Swedish Food Federation, Li, and the
equipment for food production, which during the year has           new government, there are high hopes of joint future ini-
been reinforced even further. Through the SIK Members‘             tiatives within Swedish food research.
Association, SIK has received financial support from in-
dustry to boost the Institute's expertise in the health field       SIK's subsidiaries and associate companies
and to develop its international operations. The expansion         SIK's associate company Food Radar Systems has con-
of administrative and operational synergies in the new SP          tinued to develop positively. The company has secured a
Group has gradually begun to produce results.                      number of orders and during the year it received a grant
     SIK has been very successful in the EU research pro-          of approximately SEK 2 million from VINNOVA for a major
grammes and several new agreements were signed during              development project.
the year. In total, the EU projects have a turnover of ap-              Following a decision by the SIK board, the shares in
proximately SEK 20 million per year, of which half is in           the subsidiary SIK Fastighetsbolag, which owns the pro-
the form of grants from the EU. We have also been ex-              perty in Kallebäck, were divested. The shares in the wholly
tremely active in the build-up of the European food tech-          owned certification company SIK Valiguard were divested
nology platform "Food for Life" and on different commit-           at the beginning of 2007. Streamlining SIK's operations in
tees linked to the EU research programmes. The interna-            this way will generate substantial capital gains, which
tional contact interface has also been developed in other          will then be reinvested in SIK's core operations.
ways and SIK has a very strong role in a number of inter-
national networks and collaborative projects.                      The market and the world
     Co-operation with the higher education sector in              The structural change that has been taking place for a
both Sweden and abroad has remained strong. SIK, Chal-             number of years in the Swedish food industry is continu-
mers and around ten industrial companies reached agree-            ing. At the same time, Swedish food exports have in-
ment during the year on a 10-year collaborative project            creased considerably and during 2006 they reached a new
dealing with biomaterials of the future. VINNOVA has               record level of SEK 35 billion. Interestingly, two-thirds of
agreed to contribute one-third of the total annual budget          these exports were in the form of highly processed food,
of SEK 20 million.                                                 an export which requires considerable research and




                                                               3
development. Many companies are seeking to increase                Looking to the future
their exports and there is potential among companies               We already enjoy strong industrial support within the
looking to break into the export market who need help              food and biotechnology sectors and the potential for
with their product development. These companies are an             broadening and deepening our industrial contacts will be
important target group for SIK. The major international            a priority. The major collaborative projects built up during
food conglomerates on the other hand are looking for               the year with universities and colleges and within the EU
specialist expertise that transcends national boundaries.          research programmes will become fully operational in
In a number of areas we have unique expertise even by              2007. We will actively support the creation by the Swe-
international standards and there is a growing export              dish Food Federation, Li, of a programme for the food
market for SIK and other companies in the SP Group.                sector and also work to continue the strong involvement
      There is also considerable potential in other indus-         on the European level. SIK will in the future continue to
trial segments. The expertise which SIK has built up is            devote a great deal of energy to building on all the new
also relevant to many companies outside the food sector.           synergies which the new SP Group can offer. In the light
SIK, SP and YKI can together offer a broader knowledge             of this and the increase in basic funding indicated by the
base and further customer benefits within the food and              government the future for SIK is looking bright.
biotechnology fields. Likewise, the group's collective mar-
ket contacts cover virtually every industrial sector, open-
ing up a whole range of new opportunities. The EU's
seventh framework programme, similar to earlier EU re-
search initiatives, will also include significant openings in
both the biotechnology sector and the food sector.
      In the research policy bill the government has open-
ed up the prospect of a 25 per cent increase in funding
for the development of know-how in 2007, which is ex-
tremely positive. Two inquiries were presented during the
year, initiated by the government and VINNOVA, aimed at
the future organisation and funding of Swedish industrial
research institutes. Both proposed a significant reinforce-
ment of the institute sector with a gradual increase in
public funding. At the same time, the formation of a new
institute group was proposed in which all the Swedish
institutes are expected to be included. These proposals
will probably be realised in part during in 2007.




                                                                                                         KAJ MÅRTENSSON
                                                                                                            PRESIDENT

                                                               4
The Vinn Excellence Centre – a major
investment in supramolecular biomaterials
A new centre of excellence has given SIK the oppor-
tunity to be involved in a 10-year collaborative venture
with Chalmers and an industrial consortium.
Anne-Marie Hermansson is programme director for the
VINNex Centre and is also head of the Structure and
Material Design unit at SIK and she will be actively in-
volved in this research collaboration.

In 2006, Chalmers was granted funding for a centre of
excellence focusing on supramolecular biomaterials –
structure dynamics and properties, in the face of extremely
keen competition.
  The programme will work with structure design in order
to control water transport-dependent material properties.
This is of central significance to properties such as control-
led release, taste experience, water uptake, barrier features,                Hierarchical structures and multifunctional properties are the overall
swelling and dissolution. The programme is governed by the                    objectives of the work at the Centre
research needs of industry and is based on co-operation
with researchers within physics, physical chemistry, surface                    Drugs, cosmetics and wound care products are other areas
chemistry, polymer chemistry and mathematical statistics.                     where it is vital to control diffusion and release. Cellulose-
Research at the centre takes place within different areas of                  based products are an example of another application. At
expertise and there will be close collaboration with com-                     the Centre companies will take part to represent all these
panies' research and development departments.                                 applications. "The challenge is to meet the companies' long-
  "The Centre receives annual funding of SEK 7 million each                   term objectives and a number of examples are shown above.
from VINNOVA, the University and industry. Approximately                      What is interesting is that the guiding features are common
two-thirds of the company contributions are in the form of                    to different products. For both food and drugs one must un-
in-house work, which leads to considerable involvement and                    derstand what is required for a structure to be broken down
commitment," says Anne-Marie Hermansson.                                      at the right speed in the body so that release of active com-
                                                                              ponents and nutrient uptake can take place in the desired
Central issue for many applications                                           manner," states Anne-Marie Hermansson.
The issue of structure-mass transport is central to a number
of different applications. For food this is important for sen-
sory properties such as taste experience and consistency
properties but also for breakdown and nutritional uptake.
For a diaper rapid water uptake is obvious but the challenge
is to be found in producing new, eco-friendly materials with
optimal features.


 Good potential to tailor-make materials
 In a recently concluded collaborative project between SIK,
 Chalmers and industry, funded by the foundation for strategic
 research, links between structure and mass transport properties
 have been studied. Molecular diffusion in gels has been charac-
 terised with the aid of microscopy and NMR techniques as well
 as modelling. The results have shown that the structure is of
 major significance to the speed of the molecules through the gels
 and that there is good potential to tailor-make materials with the
 desired mass transport properties.

                  Example of molecular diffusion in a three-dimensional
                          polysaccharide structure. Photo: Niklas Lorén



                                                                          5
Computer-based simulation
for increased microbiological safety
In the LOGISAFE research project SIK is co-operating
with the Department of Packaging Logistics at Lund
University of Technology. With the aid of predictive
microbiology and simulation technology, existing and
alternative transport and logistics scenarios can be eval-
uated and compared from the point of view of product
safety and quality..

In the LOGISAFE project the focus is on the logistics chain
and spoilage of chicken. Time and temperature, i.e. the
cooling chain, are the most important factors when making
a microbiological risk assessment. Computer tools make it
possible to easily build up different logistics scenarios, take
into account variations and to simulate bacteria levels
throughout the whole chain.
   "Different scenarios, such as alternative times and tem-
peratures in the transport phase, can be compared in order
to identify weak points and reduce the microbiological
risks," says Alexander Milanov, project manager at SIK.

Good hygiene as a
preventive measure
Compared with many other industries, the food industry
handles "living" products. The quality and safety of the food
can be affected negatively by bacteria. The occurrence and            With the aid of predictive microbiology and simulation technology, existing
growth of bacteria is prevented by good hygiene and inter-            and alternative transport and logistics scenarios can be evaluated and com-
                                                                      pared from the point of view of product safety and quality.
nal control based on HACCP principles.                                Photo: Deutsche Post AG
  "We are seeking to quantify bacteria levels and risks
throughout the whole food chain, not least in conjunction
with changes in products and processes," says Alexander                Investment within
Milanov.                                                               Vinnova programmes
Increasingly important aid                                             LOGISAFE is one of 10 or so projects being run within "Good,
Exposure assessment is a central element in risk assess-               convenient food on a large scale", which is in turn one of four
ment, where calculations are made of the bacteria levels in            initiatives within the Vinnova-funded programme "Innovation in
the food under different conditions. Predictive microbiology           the Border Country". The aim of the LOGISAFE project is to pro-
has become an increasingly important aid.                              duce a computation tool for the simulation of bacteria in food
   "With the help of models and computer tools growth and              in the logistics chain.
killing of bacteria can be predicted and calculated if one
has information about a number of factors which have an               ate engineer from Lund University of Technology, now at
effect on the bacteria," says Alexander Milanov. Normally             Network Logistics AB.
this involves the pH value of the food, water activity, salt
content and conservation agents, but also external para-              Extreme values create problems
meters such as the type of packaging (atmosphere) and the             As both process and product variables vary as well as the
temperature.                                                          status of the raw material, the number of bacteria in the
                                                                      finished product also varies. It is not the average values or
In-house developed software                                           the low levels which cause problems but the more rare
In order to be able to handle and calculate probability               occasions with high levels and extreme values. Alexander
distributions in conjunction with exposure assessment, the            Milanov states that the exposure assessment becomes of
'Monte Carlo simulation technique' is being used increas-             little interest and misleading if account is not taken of
ingly.                                                                variations and probabilities.
  "We have developed our own software in order to be able
to handle the heavy computations which are required to
simulate bacteria levels," says Andreas Kamvissis, a gradu-

                                                                  6
Developing methods for the detection
of bacteria on surfaces
Is the surface free of harmful microorganisms following                                                               Microscope image
disinfection? Does it have antibacterial properties?                                                                  of a biofilm.
Being able to detect bacteria on surfaces is important in
a whole range of contexts.
At SIK researchers are developing their own methods to
detect bacteria and other microorganisms.

Microorganisms on a surface - a conveyor belt, a joint, a
pipe or a machine for example - are more protected against
influence from the environment and can often form a so-
called biofilm. It can take anything from a couple of hours
up to 24 hours to create a biofilm. Apart from micro-
organisms, the film also contains polysaccharides, which
provide extra protection.
  "As these biofilms are in different ways unwanted - due                Cross-section
to the risk of infection for example - it is important to be            through a biofilm.
able to analyse what is on the surface," says Birgitta                  Photo: Siv Kidman
Bergström at the SIK Microbiology and Biotechnology Unit.

Producing totally new methods
Surfaces have different properties and the questions that
arise can vary. Consequently, methods using different
approaches are required.
   "We use several different methods, both standard meth-
ods (such as ISO/EN) and methods developed in-house, in
order to detect bacteria on surfaces. In some cases both
living and dead bacteria are detected and in other cases
only the living. Often it is necessary to use a combination of
methods," explains Birgitta Bergström.                                    "One way is to add an antimicrobial component or to
   It is difficult to analyse the number or composition of              change its surface properties. In doing so it is possible to
bacteria or their activity directly on a surface. Often it is re-       prevent microorganisms from becoming attached."
quired that the biofilms are removed from the surface be-                  In those cases what is needed in the development and
fore the analysis and this must be done reproducibly with-              follow-up phase is to monitor the effects of these modi-
out harming the bacteria.                                               fications. The number and composition of microorganisms
   "In a current research project (NovelQ) we use a method              on the surface are determined using different methods.
that can detect surviving bacteria in microcracks in the
material. A highly sensitive marker technique based on ATP-
luminescence gives a direct answer as to whether only a
few bacteria have survived in the crack," explains Patrick
Gustavsson.
   It is also possible to treat a surface in such a way that it
acquires an antimicrobial function.

 Studies of biofilm using genetic methods
 Using PCR-DGGE we can study the composition of biofilms. It is possible to analyse which
 bacteria dominate in biofilms formed under different conditions and on different materi-
 als. PCR-DGGE is an analytical method which in a gel separates DNA products that are ob-
 tained in conjunction with traditional PCR.
    We have developed the technique for Listeria spp. The image shows a PCR-DGGE profile
 of a biofilm with Listeria spp under varying conditions. Each vertical "strip pattern" is a
 sample and produces a pattern which shows which species dominate in the biofilms that
 have been formed.


                                                                    7
Tax incentives to reinforce
biotechnology companies
The biotechnology field is a high-technology sector
characterised by long development times before prod-                         Participants in the EU project
ucts become available on the market. SIK has initiated                       (a so-called Specific Support Action)
an EU project in an attempt to create tax relief, par-
ticularly for newly started companies.                                       •     SIK (co-ordinating partner)
                                                                             •     SwedenBIO
"An effective way of stimulating growth," says Per
                                                                             •     Estonian Biotechnology Association
Vretblad, project co-ordinator at SIK.
                                                                             •     Chemical Industry Federation of Finland
                                                                             •     Federation of Norwegian Industries
                         A number of European countries                      •     France Biotech
                         have taken the initiative in recent                 •     EuropaBio (the European industrial organisation for bio-
                         years to increase competitiveness in                      technology companies, based in Brussels)
                         their domestic industry. France
                         started early. In 2004, a system was
                         introduced known as "Young Inno-                     What is YIC?
                         vative Company Status". In the
autumn of the same year, SIK took the initiative for an EU                    YIC or "Young Innovative Company status" is the designation given
application together with a number of other European bio-                     to a system for tax relief, introduced in France in 2004. Innovative
technology organisations, all of which are members of the                     companies are not permitted to be older than eight years and
European sector organisation EuropaBio.                                       must earmark at least 15 per cent of their costs for research and
  "The aim was to find support to develop plans for the in-                    development. In return they receive a number of benefits. Among
troduction of tax relief in the participating countries and to                other things they have full social security cost exemption and they
disseminate knowledge to other EU countries. The applica-                     pay less tax on the profit during the first profitable years.
tion was granted and the project "Realisation of Young In-
novative Company Status for Biotech Companies" started in
October 2005. It will continue until September 2007," says                   SwedenBIO. This report was published in June 2006 and
Per Vretblad, who is co-ordinating the project.                              was distributed to the EU members states under the auspi-
                                                                             ces of EuropaBio.
Local working groups established                                               At the turn of the year 2006-2007 an international semi-
One of the activities in the project has been to establish                   nar was prepared, which took place in Stockholm in Febru-
local working groups in Sweden, Norway, Finland and                          ary. The seminar, "How tax incentives can boost the com-
Estonia. These groups are charged with the task of review-                   petitiveness of European high-tech industry" was attended
ing the conditions in each country and producing a basis                     by external speakers from the EU Commission and the OECD
for national plans, which within the framework of the pro-                   as well as representatives from the participating countries'
ject will be merged into one document.                                       government offices and companies.
  Another activity has been to produce a broad body of                         "This is a highly interesting project which has generated a
factual knowledge in the form of a benchmark study, which                    large number of international contacts. It reinforces the
has been run by the Swedish industrial organisation                          Swedish network of research-funding bodies, industry and
                                                                             political decision-makers. We are working to produce pro-
                                                                             posals for measures which could in time result in improved
                                                                             competitiveness for high-tech industry in the participating
                                                                             countries," says Per Vretblad.




Ulla Mortensen and Per Vretblad at SIK are co-ordinating the project..

                                                                         8
Building bridges between pharmaceutical
development and Nordic diagnostic companies
In 2006, SIK, in co-operation with the Nordic Innova-
tion Centre, built up DiagISN, a member-funded Nordic
industrial network for diagnostics and pharmaceutical
companies. A total of 39 companies took part in the
work, which has now brought together 27 active mem-
ber companies. The long-term objective of the network
is to stimulate greater co-operation between diagnostics
companies in the Nordic region. This will take place at
the interface with those who need new diagnostic
methods in order to choose the right pharmaceutical for
the individual patient. During 2006 we worked closely
with drug development.



                          "In the future we will also discuss
                          orders from the healthcare sector
                          for methods aimed at eliminating
                          the day-to-day work of removing
                          unnecessarily expensive or less
                          appropriate drugs," explains Gunnar             Heavy demands from FDA
                          Hörnsten.
                                                                          The American drug administration FDA has over the past two
   For decades the pharmaceutical industry has worked to
                                                                          years focused strongly on requiring that drugs are developed
develop drugs to counteract major public health problems
                                                                          and produced more effectively and that the methods employed
such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer.
                                                                          to quality-assure treatment in individual cases are developed in
The hope is to find a drug that can be used for the vast
                                                                          a focused way. Diagnostics aims to define the right patient
majority of patients. Flagships such as Losec are leading the
                                                                          group for the right drug is what the FDA calls "Drug -
way to billions in profits.
                                                                          Diagnostics Co-Development", i.e. joint development of drugs
   "At the same time, knowledge of how highly varied
                                                                          and diagnostic methods.
biology actually functions has increased markedly. People
are not built up in the same way and what works for one
person could be dangerous for another. The right drug must                 At the same time diagnostics companies cannot develop
be administered to the right patient.                                    products that will perhaps only be in demand in ten years'
   It is also important to compare the drug with other poss-             time and only then if the drug requires that a particular
ible treatments to ensure that a new (and more expensive)                diagnostic product is sold in combination with the drug.
drug is actually better. The test comes when all the clinical              "It is sometimes crucial that detailed studies are under-
trials have been completed. Sometimes clinical trials show               taken at an early stage of ways to diagnose how the inten-
that a drug works for some patients                                      ded drug works in persons with different biochemistry. The
but not for others.                                                      cost of correction through trials that select the right patient
   "When a prospective drug does not                                     groups at a later stage in the development process could be
work for all patients within a diagnosis                                 disastrously high," says Gunnar Hörnsten.
it is possible to change strategy in the
product development process. The task
then is to find those patients where
the new drug has better properties
than alternative forms of treatment.
This type of test must be undertaken at Gunnar Hörnsten.
an early stage in the development of
the drug to permit medical data to be processed statistically
during the clinical trials. In the light of the fact that it still
takes over 10 years to ensure that a new drug works, a lot
of things need to be in place well before the pharmaceutical
company actually knows that the product will work in prac-
tice.

                                                                     9
IR technology opens up                                              SIK Forum invests in
new potential for the                                               growth and a broader
food industry                                                       range of services
SIK has for many years worked with IR technology as a               SIK Forum is SIK's meeting point for, above all, small
process aid. IR technology is characterised by rapid                and medium-sized food companies that require help
heating of the product surface.                                     with education and solving problems. In autumn 2006,
                                                                    SIK Forum acquired a new head, Susanne Ekstedt, for-
                                                                    mer project manager and business co-ordinator at SIK.
The technique is used within a number of industries, such
as the automotive industry for drying lacquer and the pa-
per industry for drying paper.                                        "The range of services will now be
  Applications within the food industry which have been             expanded and broadened. To date the
successfully tested at SIK are:                                     focus has been on meat and meat
                                                                    products. Dairy, bakery and ready
•   baking                                                          meals are areas that will acquire
•   surface pasteurisation                                          greater prominence in the future,"
•   drying                                                          says Susanne Ekstedt.
•   roasting                                                          "A new training programme for
•   frying/deep-frying                                              companies in the ice cream industry
                                                                    was launched in autumn 2006. In        Dairy, bakery and ready
  SIK has studied, for example, the possibility of replacing        spring 2007 we will also produce a meals are areas that will
deep-frying of fish fingers with an IR process which is fat-          new version of our popular 'recipe    acquire greater promin-
                                                                                                          ence in the future," says
free.                                                               assistant”.                           Susanne Ekstedt..
  In the conventional process frozen, breaded fish fingers              The investment in SIK Forum has
are fried in an oil bath. The breading coagulates while the         also led to the recruitment of more employees during the
fish meat is kept frozen in the process, and the fish fingers          year:
are then freeze-stored ready for cooking by the consumer.
Even during the IR process the fish meat is kept frozen.             Dan Melin:
  "The result is a fish finger with a very low fat content in         "For 28 years I've worked with all types of meat products.
the breading," says Per Floberg, who continues:                     After attending the meat products college at the age of 18
  "Whilst the final frying in the frying pan raises the fat          I began as an apprentice at KF Charkfabrik (Goman). After
content, the level is lower than conventionally produced            eight years I was offered the position of factory manager
fish fingers. The consumer can also personally choose what            at Jakobsdals chark. I worked there for 10 years before tak-
type of fat is used when frying.                                    ing the step and run-
  To increase knowledge about these processes and how               ning my own business.
they can be used in the future, tests involving IR technol-         In February 2006 I
ogy will continue at SIK.                                           took the opportunity
                                                                    to try something new.
IR radiation                                                        At SIK I work with
IR, Infra Red, is the designation of heat radiation genera-         commissioned activities and training programmes in the
ted from everything that has a temperature above absolute           meat and cooked meat sector."
zero. The infrared spectrum is next to visible light in the
electromagnetic spectrum with longer wavelengths and                Hans Pettersson:
lower frequencies. At very high temperatures one can often          "In 1981 I started at the Swedish Dairies National Associa-
see that the spectrum expands to the visible part - e.g. in-        tion, now Svensk Mjölk AB, to train personnel in the dairy
candescent steel.                                                   industry. In 1989 I became head of operations, which a
  The power of radiation increases drastically as the tem-          number of years later were transferred to Denmark. I work-
perature increases. As with normal light, IR radiation pro-         ed there until 2004. I then started my own company where
pagates through air without being affected very much                I continued to run training programmes for the dairy in-
whilst surfaces absorb and reflect the radiation. The IR ra-         dustry. During this period I also worked for SIK with dairy
diation has a penetration depth which depends on the                training programmes. It therefore felt natural to begin
properties of the material and the frequency range.                 working at SIK where I will focus more on the dairy in-
                                                                    dustry, working with education and other projects"




                                                               10
Research put into practice at a dairy
reduces environmental impact dramatically
The Arla Foods dairy in Linköping was one of the dairies
which Johanna Berlin studied as part of her PhD. Her
work focused on the potential for environmental im-
provement in the milk chain. Johanna took her PhD in
2005. Together with her supervisor, Ulf Sonesson, she
investigated the environmental consequences of an
increased range of milk products.

In the study in which the Linköping dairy was involved, it
was the dairy itself that was in focus. Previous studies con-
ducted by SIK showed that agriculture is the part which has
the greatest environmental impact on dairy products from a
life-cycle perspective.
   "Minimising wastage is therefore the measure which has
the best outcome with regard to minimising post-farm
environmental impact at the dairy, the store and the con-
sumer," explains Johanna.                                            The Arla dairy in Link-
                                                                     öping could extend the
Fewer product changes in production                                  shelf-life of its soured
As part of her research Johanna produced an optimised                products. In doing so
production planning programme and also investigated the              they were able to re-
environmental impact of production frequency. It emerged             duce the production
that when each product is produced 1-2 times per week                frequency, which result-
instead of 2-5 times per week wastage, and thus environ-             ed in less wastage and
mental impact, is reduced dramatically.                              reduced impact on the
  This reduction in production frequency also makes it               environment.
possible to reduce the number of production days by two a
week. By employing these measures the Linköping dairy
could reduce the environmental impact from a life-cycle
point of view three times more compared with what they                                          "It is gratifying to see how well things can turn
themselves have in emissions linked to over-fertilisation and                                   out when research results are put into practice
0.33 times with regard to the greenhouse effect. This can be                                    out at a company," says Johanna Berlin.
attributed to the fact that the dairy uses more of the milk
produced by agriculture.

Reduced wastage despite more products
When Johanna Berlin and Ulf Sonesson were at the Lin-
köping dairy in autumn 2005 to present their results the
dairy was in the process of minimising its wastage. As the             "We are extremely pleased with the results of the
Linköping dairy has very good product quality they decided           changes," says the president of the Linköping dairy Jan
at the same time to extend the shelf-life of their soured            Håkansson.
products and in doing so made it possible to reduce pro-               The future development of an increased product range
duction frequency.                                                   and greater flexibility requirements within the food industry
  "Today, almost two years later, we have reduced our wast-          have given rise to a need for research within flexible pro-
age dramatically, and yet at the same time we have in-               duction, quantification techniques and environmental
creased the number of products compared with when Jo-                system analysis. SIK has initiated research in this area
hanna and Ulf conducted their study," says Mustapha Aoufi,            through the REELIV project (page 13). Arla Foods is also in-
a quality technician at the Linköping dairy.                         volved in the project.
  "We have cut out production on two lines one day a
week. On that day routine maintenance is carried out and
there is also time for staff training. We have also reduced
the number of shifts from three to two at the department
that produces fruit yoghurt. Apart from reduced wastage of
milk the wastage of jam has also been reduced.

                                                                11
Research aimed at sustainable
production development




The food industry has been subject to intense competition on what has
become a globalised and customer- and consumer-adapted market. The
establishment of major international food chains and the manufacturing of
own brand names are contributing to increasingly keener competition. The
retail trade is demanding a high level of delivery assurance with an increas-
  ingly shorter time from order to delivery.

                  Resource management required
                     In order to meet this change and support the Swedish
                        food industry, SIK is investing in research within
                          sustainable production development. The focus is on
                           financially effective and environmentally sustain-
                             able production systems.

                              "In order to meet this change it is necessary
                              that the food industry works efficiently and
                              manages its resources," says Barbro Sundström,
                              an expert on Lean Production at SIK.

                               Wastage an important factor
                             At the same time the consumer wants a wider
                            choice of products, thus leading to more product
                          variants. Production becomes more complicated and
                       waste increases.
                   "SIK's work in the past within the environmental field has
              shown that waste, apart from the cost, is an important para-
      meter in reducing the environmental impact of the products from a life-
cycle perspective," says Johanna Berlin, expert in
environmental systems analysis.




                     12
New traceability
models required
• Authorities and consumers demand safety/
  traceability.
• The market demands short lead times.

Within the food industry this has created a need
for new types of models where safety and tracea-
bility are integrated. This subject is being studied
as part of a project involving participants from SIK,
tuniversities and industry.
   "We are making use of the traceability perspec-
tive to highlight potential for greater efficiency in
production by adopting an integrated approach.
Technical and financial risk evaluation is used
together with process simulations," says Karin
Östergren.

Structured analysis
The project aims to produce general working
methodology. It will be used in order to analyse in
a structured way production systems from the
point of view of safety, quality and financial risks.
It will also demonstrate the applicability of the
methodology when choosing the traceability level in two of the participating compa-
nies' production systems.
   "Alongside this we will be working on basic scientific issues. These mainly involve
financial risk evaluation from a supply chain perspective and a process-based dynamic
simulation model," says Karin Östergren.
   SIK is working in co-operation with Lund University of Technology, the Technology
Management Centre at Lund University, Tetra Pak Processing Systems, Vin&Sprit AB,
ABB and Brämhults Juice. The project commenced in November 2004 and will continue
for three years.



REELIV – a tool for effective,
resource-efficient food production
 How should production systems be de-
 signed to ensure sufficient flexibility and
 yet still be financially and environment-
 ally sustainable? This is one of the quest-                 Problem formulation
 ions which SIK's Karin Östergren is work-
 ing on in the research project REELIV.                         Objectives and framework
 The aim is to produce a tool which com-                         Inventory
 bines environmental system analysis with
 the simulation of production flows (dis-                           Model construction
 crete, event-controlled simulation) and
                                                                    Simulation
 evaluate this together with the food in-
 dustry.                                                              Result analysis
    "The common objective is a competi-
                                                                        Reflections and conclusions
 tive Swedish food industry," says Karin
 Östergren.
    A consequence of the changes in the
 food industry is that manufacturing se-
                                                                        Methodology


                                                           13
REELIV …                                Lean production creates
                                        a learning company
ries are shrinking and set-ups          The research project "Lean production - tool for sustainable development" has
between product changes are in-         been run at SIK for two years. The overall aim of the project has been to pro-
creasing in number.                     duce tools for effective and sustainable food production based on lean produc-
   "This generates changeover           tion.
times, more washing and product            Lean production aims to create an effective, learning company and to induce
waste," says Karin Östergren.           different units in the value stream to interact. The central principle is to divide
   In the REELIV project the econo-     up time and resources into a value-adding part and a non-value-adding part.
mic and environmental impact are        Value-adding time and resources generate value for the customer, whereas
highlighted. Examples include:          non-value-adding time and resources are simply a waste.
                                           "By reducing the waste one can also reduce costs or free up resources that
•    Time from order to delivery        can be used to create further customer benefit," explains Ulla-Karin Barr at SIK.
•    Production frequency
•    Stock size                         Adapted to the food industry
•    Change-over times                  SIK has worked on the development of methods for value stream mapping by
•    Volume of waste in con-            adapting it to the food industry and incorporating environmental aspects. In-
     junction with each set-up          volved is the environmental impact from the manufacturing of the raw materi-
     and washing                        als and products that become waste and scrap.
•    Availability                         "Within the framework of SIK's research project value stream mapping has
                                        been performed at a number of food companies.
   Examples of results are delivery
assurance, number of back-order         Insight into bottlenecks
products, identification of bottle-      Value stream mapping is one of the tools used to achieve lean production.
necks, capital tied up in stock, lost     "It is about going through and analysing the production flow from supplier to
product costs and environmental         customer in order to eliminate waste and thus costs".
impact through waste, lead times,         The analysis provides an insight into bottlenecks and waste. Proposals are
stock status, water consumption         presented for production changes to reduce costs and to gain greater flexibility
and energy consumption.                 and delivery assurance. This method is customary within the engineering/auto-
   The participants in the project      motive industries but the food industry has other requirements and conditions.
are SIK, Chalmers University of           The illustration above shows part of the results from a value flow analysis in
Technology (Environmental               conjunction with the manufacturing of dairy products. Initially, pen and paper
Systems Analysis and Product and        are the main tools.
Production Development) Arla
Foods, Ingemar Johansson in
Sweden, Kiviks Musteri and Lant-
männen Axa Foodservice AB.                                   Value stream mapping is a useful tool
                                                                                                                                          Customer
Linked to the project is an indus-        Supplier
trial platform with several food
companies and the retail trade. The
project commenced in April 2006                                                                        Information flow
and will continue for two years.

                                                                                      Intermediary storage (N)
                                                                                     Transportation (time, dist)     Pushing flow
                                                            Pulling flow



                                                                                        Process step
                                                                                        •personnel
                                                                                        •cycle time
                                                                                                                          Material flow
                                                                                        •switch over
                                                                                        •Cleaning
                                                             13 h                       •Up-time
                                                                                        •Waste
                                                                                        •Batch size


                                                                           Value added time/Non-value added time



                                        SIK has worked on the development of methods for value stream mapping by adapting it to
                                        the food industry and incorporating environmental aspects. Involved is the environmental im-
                                        pact from the manufacturing of the raw materials and products that become waste and scrap.

                                                                      14
Robot with a gentle hand

                                    Robots are used increasingly upstream in manufacturing processes in the
                                    food industry. In the EU project NovelQ, which commenced in March 2006,
                                    new process techniques and their potential are highlighted. Part of this is a
                                    PhD project at SIK where a new robot gripper will be developed.
                                      "Up to now robots that individually and carefully handle unpacked, varied
                                    and impact-sensitive foods such as fruit and vegetables are unusual," says
                                    Anders Pettersson, a PhD student at SIK.

                                    Unhygienic robots
                                    The problem with robots is that they are insensitive, inflexible and unhygien-
                                    ic. When handling unpacked fruit using robots a solution must be found to
                                    handle the variation between different fruits and also solve the variation that
                                    arises between, for example, two tomatoes of the same type. Normal robot
                                    handling using standard grippers often presupposes both known and precise
                                    dimensions - down to tenths of a millimetre – of the object to be handled.
                                       "This is virtually impossible with natural products," states Anders Petters-
                                    son.

                                    Attractive alternative
                                    The envisaged placing of the robot in the food process is, for example,
                                    between the processing and the packing. This could be a bottleneck and a
                                    potential source of contamination. When using new process technologies,
                                    modified atmosphere etc., a robot could be a very attractive alternative. The
                                    robot can also be used for surface decontamination and in refrigerated en-
                                    vironments.

                                   Developing versatile gripping devices
                                   At the start of the project the focus is on building up a robot station that is
                                   appropriate for the food industry. Using this system as a base, a versatile
                                   gripper for fruit and vegetables will be developed and tested. The robot must
                                   be able to identify the different products and choose an appropriate way of
                                   picking them up.
  "The gripper must handle the product quickly in order to keep the cycle times down but without damaging the
product," says Anders Pettersson.

Simple handling
During the course of the project the potential for creating a hygienic design for the gripper will be sought.
Towards the end of the project the potential for simplifying the operator interface in the system will be exam-
ined. The aim is that an operator who does not have any knowledge of robots or any extensive computer know-
how should be able to "design" new approaches and also introduce new products.




                                                 15
Successful training programmes
within sensory analysis
During the year SIK has run several commissioned train-                    Comments from course participants:
ing assignments within sensory analysis, both open and
in-house courses for companies.                                            Lyckeby Culinar chose to tailor a course and Ulrika Karls-
"As part of our ongoing endeavour to improve our oper-                     son, who is the head of Taste Development at the company,
ations we evaluate our courses continuously. It is impor-                  was one of the participants. Her summary was:
tant for us to know that we have interpreted the educa-
                                                                           "We focus on our customers and projects and it has been
tional needs of customers/companies correctly and that
                                                                           beneficial to engage the services of external experts for this
our training programmes are actually of benefit to the                      course. It was extremely rewarding. It was valuable for those
customer/company in their day-to-day work. It is gratify-                  of us who work with quality control and development to
ing to note that we have consistently received very high                   have an opportunity to meet and discuss sensory analysis,
ratings," state Karin Wendin and Annika Åström.                            which is a central and common issue in our work. We have
                                                                           quite a lot of new employees and it is important that we
"We have produced a concept involving four different train-                have a common knowledge platform which we can then
ing programmes which together form a totality and provide                  gradually develop."
an excellent platform for people seeking to start or who are
already running sensory analysis operations. Knowledge of                  Mia Ackebo, who works at the quality department at ICA
sensory analysis is also extremely valuable to everyone work-              AB, took part in the course
ing with product development, quality assurance, consumer                  'Sensory analysis, senses, products and consumers – a mat-
surveys and market surveys. In total, the four training pro-               ter of taste!' The course was designed specially for the
grammes offer a grounding in different sensory analysis                    product development staff at the company.
methodologies and an understanding of how human beings
perceive food in different ways. It also offers insight and                "We acquired a good overview of the different testing meth-
training in how sensory data is evaluated and an in-depth                  ods used as well as an insight into the opportunities that ex-
examination of how to train an analytical panel.                           ist and the difficulties that can arise. What gave us the most
                                                                           was the practical exercises with many 'sudden realisations'
                       Annika Åström.                                      and permanent memories. An excellent day," said Mia.

                                                                           Therese Lindberg, a product developer at Milko, took part
                                                                           in the open programme 'Training of a sensory analysis pa-
                                                                           nel'. Therese felt that the experience in the practical exer-
                                                                           cises provided an understanding which she wanted to share
                                                                           with her colleagues at the company. Consequently, Milko
                              Karin Wendin.                                decided to continue and run an advanced in-house course.


Long experience of industry-adapted                                    During the past

sensory training                                                       year SIK has noted
                                                                       a significant in-
A prerequisite for being able to control the sensory properties in     crease in interest,
a product is the ability to quantify them. The SIK sensory analysis    not only in the
training programmes include practical and theoretical knowledge        open courses
of how our senses function, how different types of sensory anal-       offered through the
ysis panels are selected and trained, how consumer panels are          training prospectus
selected, how sensory analysis assessments are made and how            but also in courses
the data that has emerged can be evaluated. In one of the train-       adapted specially
ing programmes the sensory analysis experiences are explained          to the needs of the
based on chemistry, physics and physiology.                            customer.

SIK has for long time run industry-adapted training operations             1990s SIK has also been involved in academic programmes
within the sensory field. This started with Birgit Lundgren run-            within sensory analysis.
ning such courses in collaboration with Tragon Corp, USA. A new
initiative was taken at the beginning of the 1990s when the
foundation was laid for ongoing training. Since the middle of the


                                                                      16
Over 800 people in Västernorrland
acquire greater hygiene skills
From 2006 all food companies are obliged to have in-
house control programmes to ensure the hygienic quality                    Own supervision according to HACCP
of the products. In Västernorrland an ambitious project
has meant that SIK has acted as workshop leader for over                   With effect from 2006, restaurants'
800 people since the start in 2002.                                        own in-house control has been ba-
                                                                           sed on the principles in HACCP. This
The project "Good food quality in Västernorrland" was                      means that the handling of food in
financed by the EU structure funds, Target 1, the County                    a restaurant should be examined. An
Administrative Board in Västernorrland, the National Food                  assessment should be made of all
Administration and seven municipal authorities in the area.                the hazards that exist and safe rou-
                                                                           tines should be established. Every-
The consulting assignment to design the workshop pro-
                                                                           thing should be written down in an
gramme went to SIK.
                                                                           in-house control programme. The
   "In concrete terms it involved a series of working meet-
                                                                           aim is that no consumers should be
ings, each lasting approximately four hours. We interspersed               harmed by the food.
theory and practice and provided the participants with sup-
port in order for them to develop further or establish their
own control programmes when they returned home," ex-                   • The motivation to run an HACCP-based in-house control
plains Richard Karlsson, hygiene expert at SIK.                          programme increased by 88 per cent
   Thanks to public support the cost was no more than SEK              • 90 per cent say that they would not have been able to
100 per person, which included a binder with working                     set up a control programme without having attended the
material. The participants came from restaurants, small-                 workshop
scale processing companies and municipal catering estab-               • 83 per cent commenced work on establishing a control
lishments throughout the county.                                         programme during the workshop

Increased motivation                                                     At the start at 2002 a central working group was set up
During the four years the project has been in progress an              consisting of project leaders, project managers, a food inspec-
impressive number of people have acquired increased hy-                tor from each municipality in the county, a government in-
giene skills. In total, 48 workshops have been run for 646             spector from the National Food Administration and represen-
different companies and organisations with more than 800               tatives from industry. The aim of the project was reinforced
participants. An evaluation from 286 restaurants indicates             food safety in Västernorrland.
that the results were obviously successful:                              "And we have achieved our objective. Some 80 per cent of
                                                                       those interviewed agreed on this in the evaluation, which was
• 96 per cent of the participants feel that the workshop               run by an external body," says Annika Bjarnhagen Gradin, project
  was rewarding or extremely rewarding                                 manager at the County Administrative Board in Västernorrland.


Programmes…                                                            •      Köttets ABC - från gård till bord
                                                                       •      Mjölkbehandling, delkurs 1-3
•    Mätning av upplevd kvalitet - grundkurs i sensorisk analys        •      Syrningsteknik
•    Träning av sensorisk panel                                        •      What makes your product unique?
•    Livsmedelsmikrobiologi med laborationer, grundläggande            A large number of in-house training programmes have also been
•    Livsmedelsmikrobiologi med laboration, fördjupning                run.
•    Livsmedelsmikrobiologi med laborationer - konfirmerings-
     rutiner
•    Mikrobiologi för läkemedelsindustrin                              … and seminars 2006
•    Mögelsvampar med laborationer - grundläggande
•    Hygien och HACCP för restauranger och storhushåll                 •      Färsk forskning på SIK
•    Klarar din pizzeria de nya EU-kraven?                             •      SIK-mässa om livsmedelshygien
•    HACCP - grundläggande                                             •      Food Factory of the Future 3
•    HACCP - fördjupning                                               •      Biopowders - Properties, production & handling
•    BRC Global Food Standard - grundkurs                              •      Cleaning Validation for the Pharmaceutical, Biotechnology
•    ISO 22000 - ledningssystem för livsmedelssäkerhet                        and Cosmetic Industries
•    Revisionsteknik                                                   •      Nya lagkrav i restaurang och storhushåll - är du redo?
•    Späckats grundkurs i charktillverkning                            •      Födoämnesallergener – problem/lösningar/möjligheter

                                                                  17
EU projects in which
SIK is involved:

    FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY

•   Grain legumes – New strategies to improve grain
    legumes for food and feed
    Contact person: Ulf Sonesson                                NANO-MULTIFUNCTIONAL-PROCESSES

•   HEATOX – Health risks from heat-treated foods           •   Controlled release – New controlled release
    and food products                                           systems produced by self-assembly of biopolymers
    Contact person: Hans Lingnert                               and collodial particles at fluid-fluid interfaces
                                                                Contact person: Anne-Marie Hermansson
•   REPRO – Food processors to reduce disposal of
    co-product wastes
    Contact person: Ulf Sonesson                                MARIE CURIE

•   HELENA – Healthy lifestyle in Europe through            •   BioPowders – Research training in food powders
    nutrition in adolescence                                    Contact person: Lilia Ahrné
    Contact person: Gunnar Hall

•   Doublefresh – Towards a new generation of                   LIFE SCIENCES
    healthier and tastier ready-to-eat meals with
    fresh ingredients                                       •   Realisation of young innovative company status,
    Contact person: Anders Leufvén                              YIC, for biotech companies
                                                                Contact person: Per Vretblad
•   Optim’Oils – Valorisation of healthy lipidic
    micro-nutrients by optimising food processing
    of edible oils and fats                                     RESEARCH AND INNOVATION
    Contact person: Katarina Nilsson
                                                            •   IRC Western & Southern Sweden and Iceland
•   NovelQ – Novel processing methods for the                   Contact person: Bruno Hedlund
    production and distribution of high-quality
    and safe foods
    Contact person: Thomas Ohlsson                              CRAFT

•   Nutri-Senex – Improving the quality of life of          •   FOODPRO – Ohmic heating for food processing
    elderly people by co-ordinating research                    Contact person: Ingela Lindbom
    into malnutrition of the elderly
    Contact person: Gunnar Hall

•   Healthy structuring – Nutritional and structural
    design of natural foods for health and
    vitality
    Contact person: Maud Langton

•   HighQ-RTE – Innovative non-thermal processing
    technologies to improve the quality and
    safety of ready-to-eat meals
    Contact person: Elisabeth Borch




                                                       18
Research year 2006
SIK has been successful in the EU sixth framework pro-                 pean technology platform, Food for Life. Thomas Ohlsson has
gramme and is participating in ten projects in the theme               been a leader for the working group, which has dealt with
area Food Quality and Safety. Negotiations regarding five               the area of Sustainable Food Production and Hans Lingnert
of these have now been completed. These commenced                      has been part of the working group for Food Chain Manage-
during 2006 and will thus be a significant contribution                 ment. The technology platform has a very broad base and
to our knowledge development in the years to come. They                will be an important source of ideas for the EU Commission
address different subject areas and make use of a number               in its future programme descriptions in the food field
of the key areas of expertise at SIK.
                                                                       New centre of excellence
One of the projects, Healthy Structuring, is co-ordinated              Another extremely important platform for our research in
from SIK. The project largely has its starting point in our re-        the years to come is the VINNex Centre at Chalmers, which
search into food structure build-up and is aimed at creating           SIK has been involved in establishing during the year (des-
attractive products based on fruit and vegetables where                cribed on page 5). Anne-Marie Hermansson is the head of
both sensory properties as well as bioavailability of im-              the centre and it will offer an extremely valuable and devel-
portant nutrient components are optimised through active               opmental contact interface with a broad range of multi-
structure design.                                                      disciplinary skills and new industrial sectors.
  Health aspects are also in focus in a number of the other
projects. One of them, Doublefresh, has the full title:                Doctoral programmes in collaboration with
"Towards a new generation of healthier and tastier ready-              small and medium-sized companies
to-eat meals with fresh ingredients". The project includes             The two PhD defences during the year brought to an end
technology development for the production of new meal                  the successful company research school which SIK has built
concepts, which will be evaluated from the point of view of            up and run with grants from the KK Foundation. The pro-
health, taste and safety.                                              gramme has resulted in nine PhDs and two licentiate de-
  The Optim'Oils project is aimed at using and upgrading               grees. It has been company-oriented and above all directed
micronutrients in edible oils. The idea is to optimise the             at small and medium-sized companies. The aim has been to
manufacturing processes in such a way that small, bene-                create an industry-adapted doctoral programme which
ficial components can either be preserved in the oil or can             makes use of the interaction between the University, the
be utilised in by-product fractions. The role of SIK is to             company and SIK and in doing so create a good basis for
study and evaluate environmental aspects.                              continued professional activities in industry following gra-
  We are also taking part in two new projects, both strongly           duation. The majority of the new PhDs are now working in
oriented towards new process methods. The NovelQ project               industry.
includes process technologies such as high-pressure, pulsed              The graduate school started by attracting interest among
electric fields, cold plasma and new packaging concepts. The            individual small and medium-sized companies to involve
aim is to increase the shelf-life and freshness of products            them in the doctoral programmes. SIK then conducted dis-
and achieve greater environmental friendliness in the pro-             cussions with the individual company to formulate a rele-
duction methods. The primary focus is on vegetable prod-               vant doctoral programme project based on the company's
ucts. The HighQ-RTE project is directed at innovative, non-            know-how requirements. SIK then identified and contacted
thermal process technologies for ready-to-eat food prod-               an appropriate university partner depending on the orienta-
ucts. SIK's work is concentrated on process treatment using            tion of the PhD project. This means that eight different de-
pulsed electric fields.                                                 partments at three different universities took part in the
  In addition to these projects, a project within the EU               programme. The company and the university department,
nanoprogramme had been prepared for commencement at                    together with SIK, influenced the recruitment of the PhD
the turn of the year. Controlled Release aims to develop new           students. The programme subsequently proceeded in the
systems for the controlled release of components through               form of collaboration between these three parties and spe-
controlled structural formation at the fluid-fluid interfaces.           cial industry-oriented elements were incorporated into the
The project is of a general nature and has applications in a           programme. The whole arrangement was thus based on
broad product field, including food.                                    SIK's broad contact interface with both the university world
                                                                       and small companies. Anna-Clara Rönner and Friederike
Seventh framework programme                                            Ziegler, who graduated in 2006, were the last PhD students
The new project marks the end of the EU sixth framework                to receive funding in this way within the KK Foundation
programme. At the same time, 2006 was marked by planning               initiative. The programme has provided good experience to
of the seventh framework programme, which will commence                build on for a continuation if we succeed in securing the
in 2007. In this work we have from SIK's point of view also            equivalent funding.
been active in reference groups and committee work. Among
other things we have taken part in the build-up of the Euro-

                                                                  19
                 SIK PhDs during 2006

Fishing method and sustainable                                                    Effective analysis methods provide
exploitation most important in                                                    people with stomach disorders with
environmentally adapted fishing                                                   better and more rapid help
The demand for food from the sea is expected to increase signi-                   In Sweden tens of thousands of people fall ill each year with
ficantly in the coming decades. To ensure that fishing remains                      bacterial stomach disorders. Sometimes only an extremely small
as sustainable as possible it is vital to map the use of resources                dose is required for a person to be affected - approximately 500
throughout the whole production chain. In her thesis, comple-                     organisms are sufficient.
ted at SIK and Göteborg University, Friederike Ziegler presents                      Campylobacter is the most important reported cause of
results which show that the status of the stocks and the fishing                   bacterial stomach disorder in industrialised countries and many
method employed are of major significance to the environmen-                       people are stricken while travelling abroad.
tal impact of fish and seafood products. She also demonstrates                        "The most common sources of infection are unclean water,
that the transport from store to home is the most important                       chicken cooked without sufficient heating, unpasteurised milk
transport movement from an environmental point of view.                           and pork," says Anna-Clara Rönner, a PhD student at SIK and
   Fishing has a number of environmental effects over and                         the Clinical Bacteriology Section at the Sahlgrenska Academy.
above the direct effect on the fish stocks, such as the effects on                    "Our work has produced valuable knowledge that can reduce
the seabed as it is dragged by fishing equipment, the rejection                    the number of persons who fall ill with Campylobacter infec-
of sub-standard fish, exhaust emissions from fuel combustion                       tion. It is important that the patients are treated with the right
and the emission of toxic substances from hull paints. LCA                        antibiotics, as many types of bacteria are resistant to certain
methodology offers a structured means of mapping resource                         drugs. We have also tested more rapid and more accurate ana-
consumption throughout the whole production chain and in her                      lytical methods and studied sources of infection and infection
work Friederike Ziegler has used and developed LCA for marine                     pathways. The studies have been directed at chicken infected by
foods. Two different fishing areas have been studied: Swedish                      two types of Campylobacter - C. jejuni and C. coli.
cod fishing with trawls and gillnets in the Baltic and West                           Using more effective analytical methods patients can receive
Coast prawn fishing using conventional trawls, species-selective                   more rapid and more effective help. Anna-Clara Rönner has
trawls and creels. In the first case the product was frozen                        studied Swedish patients infected in Sweden or during short
blocks of cod and in the second case one kilo of boiled Norway                    stays abroad between 1996 and 2005. She mapped the resist-
lobster.                                                                          ance in Campylobacter for three antibiotics. The products tested
   The results show, among other things, that fishing is the                       were kinolonen norfloxacin, tetracycline and erythromycin. The
single most important element in the chain and that there are                     resistance to erythromycin was consistently low. It is thus the
major variations between the different fishing methods. Cod                        best antidote for this type of stomach disorder, particularly if
fishing using a gillnet and fishing for Norway lobsters using                       the infection occurred abroad.
baskets resulted in considerably less environmental impact than                      "We identified and characterised Campylobacter jejuni and
other methods.                                                                    the "fingerprints" of the bacteria were compared using different
   "As regards transport it emerged that transport by road                        techniques. The variations were considerable, which also sup-
between the plant, the wholesaler and the food store had very                     ports the idea that other sources of infection are of importance.
little impact compared with the transport between the store                          Anna-Clara has collaborated with the chicken industry where
and the home," says Friederike Ziegler.                                           they are very particular to ensure that chicken meat that
   In the Norway lobster study an evaluation was made of the                      reaches the consumer should be as free from harmful bacteria
environmental impact of the measures introduced in 2004, i.e.                     as possible. Using modern analysis techniques the meat can be
the compulsory use of species-selective trawls when trawling                      checked more quickly and more specifically. One problem, how-
for Norway lobsters in national waters. The selective trawls led                  ever, is that consumers do not appear to be prepared to pay for
to a considerably lower environmental burden compared with                        the microbiological quality.
the conventional trawls.                                                             "Perhaps people do not feel that the risk of being affected by
   Friederike Ziegler has found significant potential for improve-                 stomach disorders can be avoided by paying a little extra. Our
ment with regard to the environmental impact of fish and sea-                      work shows that the problem of resistant bacteria is global and
food production, particularly the fishing, in the form of both                     requires international co-operation," concludes Anna-Clara.
technical and structural measures. In the latter part of the life
cycle the potential for improvement lies mainly in choosing the                   The title of the thesis is Characterisation of Campylobacter jejuni/coli from
correct products, retaining quality and minimising loss.                          Swedish patients and chickens - antibiotic resistance, genomic diversity
                                                                                  and detection.
The title of the thesis is "Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of seafood
products from capture fisheries".

                                                                             20
SIK research projects 2006

Product design                                The VINN Excellence Center: Supra-          Material properties of biopolymer films
                                              molecular biomaterials – Structure          and foams
of tomorrow                                   dynamics and properties                     PhD student: Thomas Gillgren
                                              Project Manager: Anne-Marie Hermansson      Supervisor: Mats Stading
Water distribution and molecular mobility
in heterogeneous structures of relevance      Healthy structuring - Nutritional and
to the food and pharmaceutical industry       structural design of natural foods for      Product safety
Project Manager: Anne-Marie Hermansson        health and vitality
                                              Project Manager: Maud Langton               and consumer trust
Active starch based coatings
Project Manager: Mats Stading                 Controlled release - new controlled         Heat-generated food toxicants –
                                              release systems produced by self-assembly   identification, characterisation and risk
Biogradable films as an environmentally        of biopolymers and colloid particles at     minimisation (HEATOX)
friendly packaging solution for fruit         fluid-fluid interface                         Project Manager: Hans Lingnert
Project Manager: Mats Stading                 Project Manager: Anne-Marie Hermansson
                                                                                          Acrylamide-Precursors – limiting sub-
Sensory design and optimisation of con-       Anti-microbial coatings for wood and        strates and in vivo effects (NORDACRYL)
sistency to promote health and comfort in     other biological construction materials     Project Manager: Hans Lingnert
elderly people                                Project Manager: Mats Stading
Project Manager: Karin Wendin                                                             CRAN - Company Risk Assessment
                                              PhD projects:                               Network
Healthy lifestyle in Europe by nutrition in                                               Project Manager: Pernilla Arinder
adolescence (HELENA)                          Structure-failure behaviour of biopolymer
Project Manager: Gunnar Hall                  gel mixtures                                LOGISAFE - Simulation of bacterial growth
                                              PhD student: Jenny Brink                    in the logistics chain
New products from foamed sorghum              Supervisor: Anne-Marie Hermansson           Project Manager: Alexander Milanov
Project Manager: Mats Stading
                                              Environmental assessment of seafood         INPLISTA Information Platform on Inter-
Marine-inspired high performance super-       products with a life cycle perspective      national Standards for SMEs in the food
absorbents based on renewable resources       PhD student: Friederike Ziegler             sector
Project Manager: Susanne Ekstedt              Supervisor: Thomas Ohlsson                  Project Manager: Patrick Gustavsson

Oxygen scavanging and aroma affecting         Flow-induced structure formation            Plant allergenicity
enzymes embedded in barrier coatings          PhD student: Camilla Lundell                Project manager: Bo Ekstrand
Project Manager: Anders Leufvén               Supervisor: Anne-Marie Hermansson
                                                                                          Image analysis as a tool for site specific
Scientific basis for an international          Ready meals and consumers' meal             weed control
standard on "easy to open" packages           experience                                  Project Manager: Niklas Lorén
Project Manager: Annika Åström                PhD student: Mia Ahlgren
                                              Supervisor: Gunnar Hall                     A molecular safety approach for
Towards a new generation of healthier                                                     Campylobacter
and tastier ready-to-eat meals with fresh     Active product packaging interaction        Project Manager: Elisabeth Borch
ingredients (Double-fresh)                    surfaces
Project Manager: Anders Leufvén               PhD student: Anna Nestorson                 Consumer acceptance and trust; Re-
                                              Supervisor: Anders Leufvén                  commendations for using health related
Consumer-based product design                                                             claims in marketing
Project Manager: Karin Wendin                 Enhanced films for controlled release        Project Manager: Annika Åström
                                              PhD student: Maria Petersson
Improving the quality of life of elderly      Supervisor: Mats Stading                    Enumererarion of Listeria spp. On surfaces
people by co-ordinating research into mal-                                                using DNA-based technology
nutrition fo the elderly (Nutri-Senex)        Structure design for optimal sweetness      Project Manager: Maria Lövenlev
Project Manager: Gunnar Hall                  intensity in food model systems
                                              PhD student: Karin Holm                     Tool for systematic hazard evaluation
                                              Supervisor: Anne-Marie Hermansson           along food production
                                                                                          Project Manager: Pernilla Arinder

                                                                  21
Packaging of fresh pistachio nuts under       New technologies to reduce disposal of       Decontamination of heat sensitive powder
various conditions                            co-products (REPRO)                          food ingredients by infra red heating
Project Manager: Anders Leufvén               Project Manager: Ulf Sonesson                PhD student: Norman Staack
                                                                                           Supervisor: Lilia Ahrné
The effect of crop variety and soil type on   Criteria for sustainability labelling
potato aroma                                  Project Manager: Ulf Sonesson                Osmotic dehydration of mango and papaya
Project Manager: Tim Nielsen                                                               PhD student: Maida Khan
                                              Environmental assessment of seafood with     Supervisor: Lilia Ahrné
PhD projects:                                 a life cycle perspective
                                              Project Manager: Friederike Ziegler          A robot system for sensitive and flexible
Campylobacter infections in poultry                                                        hygienic handling of food items
PhD student: Anna-Clara Rönner                Tools for productive and environmentally     PhD student: Anders Petersson
Supervisor: Elisabeth Borch                   efficient food production management         Supervisor: Thomas Ohlsson
                                              Project Manager: Karin Östergren

                                              Novel Q - Novel Food Processing Methods
Technology development                        for the Production and Distribution of
                                              High-Quality and Safe Foods
and production                                Project Managers: Thomas Ohlsson/Lilia
                                              Ahrné
Microwave assisted drying
Project Manager: Lilia Ahrné                  Development of alternative frying tech-
                                              nologies – low fat frying
Ohmic heating for food processing             Project Manager: Lilia Ahrné
Project Manager: Ingela Lindbom
                                              Development of Mozambican shelf-stable
Reduction of energy and water con-            fruit products with high quality
sumption by application of membrane           Projekt Manager: Lilia Ahrné
separation
Project Manager: Karin Östergren              High Q RTE Innovative non-thermal
                                              processing technologies to improve the
Software for Microwave thawing                quality and safety of ready-to-eat meals
optimisation                                  Project Manager: Elisabeth Borch
Project Manager: Birgitta Raaholt
                                              Mobile Pipelines
Agro Food Chains in Central America           Project Manager: Pernilla Arinder
Project Manager: Thomas Ohlsson
                                              Cleaning Traceability Validation
Sustainable plant protection                  Project Manager: Alexander Milanov
Project Manager: Ulf Sonesson
                                              New environmentally effective process and
Environmental systems analysis of grain       production systems
legumes for food and fodder                   Project Manager: Ulf Sonesson
Project Manager: Ulf Sonesson
                                              PhD projects:
Modelling traceability, risk evaluation and
risk handling in food process line design     In-line rheology for enhanced food quality
Project Manager: Karin Östergren              PhD student: Johan Wiklund
                                              Supervisors: Mats Stading/Lilia Ahrné
Biopowders
Project Manager: Lilia Ahrné                  Energy effective microwave drying
                                              PhD student: Emma Holtz
LCA of Salmon Fisheries and Aquaculture       Supervisor: Lilia Ahrné
in the North East Pacific
Project Manager: Ulf Sonesson

                                                                    22
                                                                     22
 Authenticity testing
We are at the forefront in developing methods to authenti-             explains: “The traditional
cate food materials using DNA- and protein-based tests.                approach of acid polyacryl-
We concentrate on examples of importance to industry and               amide gel electrophoresis
government, including the presence or absence of genetic-              requires skilled operators and
ally modified material, the identification of a range of fish,            involves potentially hazard-
meat and plant species including basmati rice and fruit                ous chemicals, whereas lab-
juice, and the detection of nut allergens.                             on-a-chip is easy to use and
                                                                       takes less than 50 minutes,
As Steve Garrett of CCFRA's Chemistry and Biochemistry                 making it most suitable for
Department explains: “The approaches we use demonstrate                use in mill intake and food
our strength in identifying techniques from other fields and            testing laboratories. An opti-
applying them to food and drink. We work closely with                  mised system developed
state-of-the-art equipment manufacturers to help develop               through a series of nabim-
simple procedures that can be used within industry.                    funded projects will enable
                                                                       millers to make more con-
A good example is the lab-on-a-chip capillary electro-                 fident decisions in accepting
phoresis system which we applied to fish species identifica-             grain consignments, and
tion with funding from the Food Standards Agency. As well              could become widely accept-
as offering a service ourselves, the system has been adopted           ed as an effective policing
by a number of UK enforcement laboratories to be used for              tool within the grain in-
surveillance and enforcement purposes.”                                dustry.”

Another recently validated method will help ensure that vir-           Looking ahead, these ap-
gin olive oils have not been adulterated with cheaper hazel-           proaches are likely to be
nut oil for fraudulent sale. The two are particularly difficult        complemented by bioinfor-
to distinguish using standard analytical techniques. The new           matics - using the power of
approach, again developed with the support of the Food                 computers to analyse bio-
Standards Agency, enables detection of hazelnut DNA using              logical information. Com-
the polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). The sen-                paring publicly available
sitivity and accuracy of the method, and overall success of            DNA sequence information
the approach, suggest that it could also be applied to other           with that generated from
oils.                                                                  authentic, reference and
                                                                       unknown samples, we were
Lab-on-a-chip can also be used to distinguish between                  able to classify unknown anchovy samples according to
wheat varieties on the basis of their protein profiles, as              their geographical origin – namely Peruvian, Japanese or
Dhan Bhandari of CCFRA's Cereals and Milling Department                Argentine clusters. A similar approach was used to help
                                                                       companies identify particular species of clam and prawn.
                                                                       With applications to any plant, animal or microbial species
                                                                       as well as in protein analysis, protein structure prediction
                                                                       and microbial typing, this type of approach is likely to find a
                                                                       wide range of applications relevant to the food industry




                                                                              Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association Group
                                                                                   Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, GL55 6LD
                                                                         Tel: 01386 842000; Fax 01386842100; email info@campden.co.uk



                                                                  23
                                                                                          SIK Publications (SP) are off-prints of published
                                                                                          articles.

Reports 2006                                                                              SIK Reports (SR) and SIK Documents (SD) are
                                                                                          research reports or reports of a more general
                                                                                          nature.


Ahlgren, Mia K; Gustafsson, Inga-Britt;        Events at SIK 2005                                  Henningsson, Marcus; Östergren, Karin;
Hall, Gunnar.                                  SD 175                                              Dejmek, Petr
Buyers’ demands for ready meals – in-                                                              Plug flow of yoghurt in piping as
fluenced by gender and who will eat them        Flysjö, Anna.; Ohlsson, Thomas.                     determined by cross-correlated dual-plane
Journal of Foodservice 7(2006) pp. 205-211     Life cycle assessment (LCA) of different            electrical resistance tomography
SP1022                                         Central American Agro-Food Chains                   Journal of Food Engineering 76(2006):2,
                                               2006, 98 p.                                         pp. 163-168
Ahlqvist, J.; Dainiak, M.B.; Kumar, A.;        SR 752                                              SP 1016
Hörnsten, G.; Galaev, I.Yu; Mattiasson, B.
Monitoring the production of inclusion         Florén, Britta; Flysjö, Anna; Lorentzon,            Nilsson, M.; Trägårdh, G.; Östergren, K.
bodies during fermentation and enzyme-         Katarina                                            The influence of sodium chloride on mass
linked bodies during fermentation and          Ekologiska produkters miljönytta                    transfer in a polyamide nanofiltration
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay              2006, 56 s. + 4 bil.                                membrane at elevated temperatures
analysis of intact inclusion bodies using      SR 749                                              Journal of Membrane Science 280(2006):
cryogen minicolumn plates                                                                          1-2, pp. 928-936
Analytical Biochemistry 354(2006):2,           Fritzson, Anna; Berntsson, Thore                    SP1017
pp. 229-237                                    Energy efficiency in the slaughter and meat
SP 1005                                        processing industry – opportunities for im-         Holm, Karin
                                               provements in future energy markets                 The relations between food structure and
Ahlqvist, J.; Kumar, A.; Sundström, H.;        Journal of Food Engineering 77(2006)                sweetness. A literature review.
Ledung, E.; Hörnsten, E.G.; Enfors, S.-O.;     pp. 792-802                                         2006, 55 p.
Mattiasson, B.                                 SP 1002                                             SR 750
Affinity binding of inclusion bodies on
supermacroporous monolithic cryogels           Fritzson, Anna; Berntsson, Thore                    Kaufmann, Svenja; Hall, Gunnar;
using labeling with specific antibodies         Efficient energy use in a slaughter and             Wendin, Karin
Journal of Biotechnology 122(2006):2,          meat processing plant – opportunities for           Influence of chewing and swallowing on
pp. 216-225                                    process integration                                 flavour perception
SP 1006                                        Journal of Food Engineering 76(2006)                2006, 16 p.
                                               pp. 594-604                                         SR 745
Ahlqvist, Josefin                               SP 1003
Using monolithic cryogels for direct capture                                                       Kaufmann, Svenja
of inclusion bodies during fermentation –      Gao, C.; Stading, M.; Wellner, N.; Parker,          Food for elderly with dysphagia. A study of
a way to monitor the process                   M.L.; Noel, T.R.; Mills E.N.C.; Belton, P.S.        sensory and instrumental characteristics of
Licentiate thesis. Department of Bio-          Plasticization of a protein-based film by            texture modified carrot products.
technology, Lund University.                   glycerol: A spectroscopic, mechanical, and          Diploma work.
2006, 35 p. + 2 app.                           thermal study                                       2006, 71 p. + app.
SR 755                                         Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry          SR 751
                                               54(2006):13, pp. 4611-4616
Davis, Jennifer; Sonesson, Ulf; Flysjö, Anna   SP 1007                                             Lorén, Niklas; Hamberg, Lars;
Lokal produktion och konsumtion av balj-                                                           Hermansson, Anne-Marie
växter i Västra Götaland                       Gillgren, Thomas                                    Measuring shapes for application in
2006, 75 s.                                    Mechanical,microstructural and barrier              complex food structures
SR 756                                         properties of agricultural biopolymer films          Food Hydrocolloids 20(2006) pp. 712-722
                                               and foams. A literature review.                     SP1009
Det händer på SIK 2005.                        2006, 34 p.
SD 174                                         SR 748                                              Lundell, C.amilla, de Hoog, Els H.A.; Tromp,
                                                                                                   R.Hans; Hermansson, Anne-Marie
Ekman, Susanne                                 Henningsson, Marcus; Östergren, Karin;              Effects of confined geometry on phase-
Konsumentanalys och tidsdynamisk               Sundberg, Rolf; Dejmek, Petr                        separated dextran/gelatin mixtures
sensorisk analys.                              Sensor fusion as a tool to monitor                  exposed to shear
Konsistensanpassade kött- och morots-          dynamic dairy processes                             Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
produkter för äldre personer med dysfagi.      Journal of Food Engineering 76(2006).               288(2005) pp. 222-229
2006, 34 s. + 6 bilagor                        pp.154-162                                          SP 1008
SR 743                                         SP 1001


                                                                      24
Lundell, Camilla                               Nilsson, M.; Trägårdh, G.; Östergren, K.          Ziegler, Friederike
Flow-induced structure formation in phase-     Salt and temperature dependent                    Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of
separated biopolymer system.                   permeability changes of a NF membrane             Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus)
Licentiate thesis. Department of Chemical      Desalination 199(2006):1-3, pp. 39-40             caught along the Swedish west coast by
and Biological Engineering, Chalmers           SP 1015                                           creels, conventional crawls and species-
University of Technology, Göteborg,                                                              selective trawls. A data report
Sweden.                                        Nilsson, M.; Trägårdh, G.; Östergren, K.          2006, 34 p. + 1 app.
2006, 37 p. + 2 app.                           The influence of sodium chloride on                SR 746
SR 747                                         mass transfer in a polyamide nanofiltration
                                               membrane at elevated temperatures                 Ziegler, Friederike
Lycken, Lena; Borch, Elisabeth                 Journal of Membrane Science 280(2006):            Environmental life cycle assessment of
Characterization of Clostridium spp.           1-2, pp. 928-936                                  seafood products from capture fisheries.
isolated from spoiled processed cheese         SP 1017                                           Doctoral thesis. Department of Marine
products                                                                                         Ecology, Göteborg University, Sweden.
Journal of Food Protection 69(2006):8,         Regner, M.; Östergren, K.; Trägårdh, C.           2006, 50 p. + 5 app.
pp. 1887-1891                                  Effects of geometry and flow rate on               SR 754
SP 1010                                        secondary flow and the mixing process in
                                               static mixers – a numerical study                 Åström, Annika; Goldman, Anne;
Löfgren, Caroline; Guillotin, Stéphanie;       Chemical Engineering Science 61(2006):18,         Heiniö, Raija-Liisa
Hermansson, Anne-Marie                         pp. 6133-6141                                     Workshop summary: Cross-cultural
Microstructure and kinetic rheological         SP 1011                                           sensory and consumer studies
behavior of amidated and nonamidated LM                                                          Food Quality and Preferences 17(2006)
pectin gels                                    Rönner, Anna-Clara                                pp. 646-649
Biomacromolecules 7(2006):1, pp. 114-121       Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni          SP 1021
SP 1013                                        and C. coli from Swedish patients and
                                               chickens – antibiotic resistance, genomic
Löfström, C.; Eriksson, J.; Aspán, A.;         diversity and detection.
Häggblom, P.; Gunnarsson, A.; Borch, E.;       Doctoral thesis. Department of Infectious
Rådström, P.                                   Diseases, Section of Clinical Bacteriology,
Improvement and validation of RAPD in          Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University,
combination with PFGE analysis of Sal-         Sweden.
monella enterica spp. enterica serovar         2006, 51 p. + 4 app.
Senftenberg strains isolated from feed mills   SR 753
Veterinary Microbiology 114(2006):3-4,
pp. 345-351                                    Suutari, T.J.; Valkonen, K.H.; Karttunen, T.J.;
SP 1019                                        Ehn, B.-M.; Ekstrand, B.; Bengtsson, U.;
                                               Virtanen, V.; Nieminen, M.; Kokkonen, J.
Munkevik, Per; Hall, Gunnar; Duckett, Tom      IgE cross reactivity between reindeer and
Quality control of meal components by          bovine milk β-lactoglobulins in cow´s milk
appearance-based novelty detection             allergic patients
Industries Alimentaires et Agricoles           Journal of Investigational Allergology and
123(2006):3, pp. 11-15                         Clinical Immunology 16(2006):5,
SP 1000                                        pp. 296-302
                                               SP 1018
Nestorson, Anna; Leufvén, Anders;
Järnström, Lars                                Walther, Bernhard; Lorén, Niklas; Nydén,
Interactions between aroma compounds           Magnus; Hermansson, Anne-Marie
and latex films: Partition coefficients and     Influence of κ-carragenan gel structures
influence on latex film formation                on the diffusion of probe molecules
Packaging Technology and Science 19(2006)      determined by transmission electron
pp. 71-82                                      microscopy and NMR diffusometry
SP 1004                                        Langmuir 22(2006):19, pp. 8221-8228
                                               SP 1012
Nilsson, M.; Trägårdh, G.; Östergren, K.
The influence of different kinds of pre-        Wiklund, J.A.; Stading, M.; Pettersson, A.J.;
treatment on the performance of a poly-        Rasmuson, A.
amide nanofiltration membrane                   A comparative study of UVP and LDA
Desalination 195(2006):1-3, pp. 160-168        techniques for pulp suspensions in pipe flow
SP 1014                                        AIChE Journal 52(2006):2, pp. 484-495
                                               SP1020



                                                                     25
SIK Board                                                         Industrial Advisory Group
The responsibility and authority of the board of SIK – the        The Industrial Advisory Group assists the Board in a con-
Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology are governed,        sultative capacity and submits proposals concerning guide-
among other things, by the Companies Act, the Articles of         lines and programmes for the Institute’s research activities,
Association and the rules of procedure for the board. The         knowledge transfer and working procedures for contacts
owner of SIK, SP Swedish Testing and Research Institute           with industry.
appoints the SIK board following consultation with the SIK           The Group monitors SIK’s activities and listens to feedback
Members' Association. SIK Board is as follows:                    from members of the SIK Members’ Association. It also
                                                                  participates in the planning of the Institute’s three-year
Members elected at the annual general meeting                     research programme and the evaluation of SIK’s activities.
Jan Rosenström, Stockholm, Chairman                                  The Industrial Advisory Group consists of some thirty rep-
Claes Bankvall, SP, Borås                                         resentatives from member companies who have experience
Agneta Dreber, Livsmedelsföretagen (Li), Stockholm                of and insight into research and development in the food
Bernt Gustafsson, Falsterbo                                       industry. The Chairman and members of the Group are
Gunilla Jönson, Lund University of Technology, Lund               nominated by the President of SIK and appointed by the SIK
Lisbeth Kohls, ICA AB, Solna                                      Board.
Inger C Larsson, Findus Sverige AB, Bjuv
Jan-Olof Lidefelt, Karlshamns AB, Karlshamn                       Advisory Group
                                                                  Rickard Albin, Campbell Soup Sweden AB
Employee representatives                                          Kenneth Alness, Svenska Lantmännen
Claes-Göran Andersson, SIF                                        Henrik Andersen, Arla Foods
Annika Åström, SACO/CF                                            Jörgen Andersson, Nordmills AB
                                                                  Rolf Andersson, SCA Hygiene Products AB
Auditors                                                          Bert-Ove Bergman, TetraPak Dairy & Beverage Systems AB
Bo Strömberg, Authorised Public Accountant                        Sandra Flodström, Santa Maria AB
  Öhrlings PricewaterhouseCoopers                                 Pia Fäldt, Aromatic AB
Bengt Kron, Deputy Auditor                                        Bert Holmqvist Swedish Meats AB
  Öhrlings PricewaterhouseCoopers                                 Håkan Hulander, Abba Seafood AB
                                                                  Kjell Ivarsson, Lantbrukarnas Riksförbund
                                                                  Lars Bo Jörgensen, Danisco Sugar AB
                                                                  Mats Larsson, Cerealia R&D
                                                                  Anders Lassing, FMC Foodtech AB
                                                                  Mats Lennersten, Göteborgs Kex AB
                                                                  Marianne Lindblom, Kraft Foods Sverige
                                                                  Christian Malmberg, Cloetta Fazer Produktion AB
                                                                  Stefan Olsson, Ecolab A/S
                                                                  Hans-Erik Pettersson, Svensk Mjölk
                                                                  Hasse Redestam, AB Sardus
                                                                  Anna Ström Unilever R&D
                                                                  Ulla Stöllman, Procordia Food AB
                                                                  Svante Svensson, Orkla ASA
                                                                  Mari Widov, Findus AB




                                                             26
The SIK Members’ Association
The SIK Members’ Association is a non-profit-making                     The Board of the SIK Members’ Association
association. The primary purpose of the Association is to              Lars Holmström, Chairman
promote technical and scientific research and higher                    Mikael Aru, Procordia Food AB
education and to disseminate know-how and applications                 Bo Berg, Milko
within food and biotechnology – and related areas – and in             Anne-Marie Dahlén, Svensk Mjölk AB
doing increase the competitiveness of industry. Members                Peter Elving, Chairman, Livsmedelsföretagen (Li)
of the Association are companies and organisations that                Göran Harrysson, Tetra Pak International AB
work within or have links to the food and biotechnology                Bertil Pettersson, Jakobsdals Charkuteri AB
industries and collaborating companies. The members make
an annual contribution to SIK, which is intended to finance             Auditors
in part the research, dissemination of know-how and ser-               Bo Strömberg, Authorised Public Accountant
vice at SIK that will benefit the members.                                      Öhrlings PricewaterhouseCoopers
  The Members’ Association puts forward proposals for the              Bengt Kron, Deputy Auditor
members of the SIK board and appoints the members of the                       Öhrlings PricewaterhouseCoopers
SIK Industrial Committee. Through its board or through rep-
resentatives from individual companies, the Association
also has the opportunity to keep the Institute's manage-
ment informed about areas that are considered particularly
topical from the member companies' point of view.
  Fifteen new member companies joined the Association                     The SIK Members’ Association is a legal entity, independent
during the year.                                                          of SIK.
                                                                          The address is:
                                                                          c/o SIK
                                                                          Box 5401
                                                                          SE-402 29 Gothenburg, Sweden
                                                                          Phone: 031-335 56 00 (SIK switchboardl)




SIK Industrial Research Award
The SIK Industrial Research Award was established in 2000.             2002     Harald Skogman, BioGaia Fermentation AB
According to the statutes:                                             2003     Rickard Öste, Ceba Foods AB
                                                                       2004     Gun-Britt Fransson, Orkla Foods AS
"The award is given to a person or persons in industry                 2005     Svante Svensson, Orkla Foods AS
working for or who have links with food or biotechnology               2006     Ingmar Börjesson, Lantmännen Food R&D
and collaborating companies, and who, through R&D co-                           (formerly Cerealia)
operation with an industrial research institute or universities
and colleges, have successfully contributed to industrial
development in the food and/or biotechnology sectors".

The winner of the award is selected by an award committee,
comprising Nils-Georg Asp, Lund University, Lennart Björk,
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sven-Olof
Enfors, Royal Institute of Technology, Lena Gustafsson,
Chalmers University of Technology, and Kaj Mårtensson, SIK.

The winners of the SIK Industrial Research Award to date are:
2000 Hans Burling, Arla FoU
2001 P O Werling, Kraft Freia Marabou                                  Ingmar Börjesson, winner of the SIK Industrial Research Award 2006.


                                                                  27
The SIK Members’ Association
•   3N Produkter AB, Helsingborg                  • Findus Sverige AB, Bjuv                        •   Per i Viken Chark AB, Höganäs
•   AarhusKarlshamns Sweden AB, Karlshamn         • Finnerödja Bär AB, Hisings Backa               •   Pergo Elektronik AB, Solna
•   Abba Seafood AB, Göteborg                     • Fiskberedning Paul Mattsson AB, Ellös          •   Polarbröd AB, Älvsbyn
•   AGA AB, Lidingö                               • Fjellfrys AB, Arvidsjaur                       •   Procordia Food AB, Eslöv
•   Almondy AB, Torslanda                         • FMC FoodTech Sweden, Helsingborg               •   Pågen AB, Malmö
•   Alpharma AS, Oslo, Norway                     • Foodmark Sweden AB/Rydbergs Sallader           •   Quest International Scandinavia AB, Lund
•   Arla Foods AB, Stockholm                        AB, Spånga                                     •   Raytor Compounds AB, Perstorp
•   Aromatic AB, Stockholm                        • Fram Foods AB, Lysekil                         •   Recip AB, Årsta
•   ASM Foods AB, Mjölby                          • Friesland Coberco Dairy Foods, Deventer,       •   Ridderheims Delikatesser AB, Västra
•   Astra Tech AB, Mölndal                          Netherlands                                        Frölunda
•   AstraZeneca Liquid Production Sweden AB,      • Friggs AB, Stockholm                           •   Roberts, AB, Örebro
    Södertälje                                    • General Mills Technology Center East,          •   Saab Aerotech AB, Linköping
•   Axfood Sverige AB, Solna                        Minneapolis, USA                               •   Salico KB, Helsingborg
•   Backens Skaleri AB, Falkenberg                • GG Handel i Skara AB, Skara                    •   Santa Maria AB, Mölndal
•   Barilla Alimentare SpA, Parma, Italy          • Gisip AB, Skövde                               •   Sardus, AB, Helsingborg
•   BE-Chark AB, Halmstad                         • Go'Bullen i Motala AB, Motala                  •   SCA Hygiene Products AB, Mölndal
•   Berendsen Textil Service AB, Angered          • Godbiten Konditori AB, Åstorp                  •   Scan Foods AB, Johanneshov
•   Bergströms Rökeri AB, Själevad                • Gården Partihandel AB, Lundsbrunn              •   Semper AB, Stockholm
•   Bimbo-group, Mexico                           • Göteborgs Kex AB, Kungälv                      •   Sigill Kvalitetssystem AB, Stockholm
•   Bioinvent International AB, Lund              • Hot Cuisine, Varberg                           •   Skal-Man i Halmstad Potatis AB,
•   BioReal (Sweden) AB, Gustavsberg              • Hägges Finbageri AB, Örnsköldsvik                  Harplinge
•   Björnekulla Fruktindustrier AB, Åstorp        • ICA Sverige AB, Solna                          •   Solanum Långås AB, Långås
•   Bohus BioTech AB, Strömstad                   • Iggesunds Paperboard AB, Strömsbruk            •   Stadex, AB, Malmö
•   Bouquet Saft & Vinjäst AB, Väderstad          • ITI, Technical Institute of Iceland,           •   Stora Enso Skoghall AB, Karlstad Research
•   Boxholm Mejeri AB, Boxholm                      Reykjavik, Iceland                                 Centre, Karlstad
•   Bröderna Magnusson Lantbruks AB,              • Jakobsdals Charkuteri AB, Göteborg             •   Strovels AB, Kristianstad
    Falköping                                     • Jojjen AB, Västervik                           •   SVA, Statens Veterinärmedicinska Anstalt,
•   Bröderna Nilsson AB, Göteborg                 • Jästbolaget AB, Sollentuna                         Uppsala
•   Campbell Soup Sweden AB, Kristianstad         • Karamellpojkarna, AB, Alingsås                 •   Sveba-Dahlén AB, Fristad
•   Cederroth International AB, Upplands-         • Kavli AB, O, Älvsjö                            •   Svensk Mjölk AB, Lund
    Väsby                                         • KLS Livsmedel ek.för., Kalmar                  •   Svenska Lantmännen Ek. för., Stockholm
•   Ceres Foods AB, Bjuv                          • Konsum Värmland, Karlstad                      •   Svenska Lantägg AB, Skara
•   Charkprodukter i Billesholm AB, Billesholm    • Kraft Foods Sverige AB, Upplands Väsby         •   Svensson Partiaffär AB, Olle, Olofström
•   Chiquita International Services Group,        • Källbergs Industri AB, Töreboda                •   Swedish Match North Europe AB,
    Antwerpen, Belgium                            • Lantbrukarnas Riksförbund, Stockholm               Göteborg
•   Cloetta Fazer Produktion AB, Ljungsbro        • Leksandsbröd AB, Leksand                       •   Swedish Meats AB, Johanneshov
•   CSM Bakery Supplies Division Europe,          • Lindvalls Chark AB, Strömsnäsbruk              •   Swedish Oat Fiber AB, Väröbacka
    Warrill, United Kingdom                       • LivsTek, Visby                                 •   Swits Bake AB, Malmköping
•   Dahls Bageri AB, Göteborg                     • Lyckeby Stärkelsen Food & Fibre/               •   Tetra Pak Processing Systems Division,
•   Dalsjöfors Slakteri, AB, Dalsjöfors             Industrial, Kristianstad                           Lund
•   Danica Foods AB, Lycksele                     • Marianne’s Farm AB, Ängelholm                  •   Topp Chark AB, Bastuträsk
•   Danisco Sugar AB, Malmö                       • Masterfoods Europe, Verden, Germany            •   Trensums Food AB, Tingsryd
•   Delicato Bakverk AB, Huddinge                 • McNeil AB, Helsingborg                         •   Ugglarps Slakteri AB, Malmö
•   Diffchamb Sverige AB, Västra Frölunda         • Medipharm AB, Kågeröd                          •   Unilever R&D, Vlaardingen, Netherlands
•   Direkt Chark i Göteborg AB, Göteborg          • MicVac AB, Göteborg                            •   Vaggeryds Chark AB, Vaggeryd
•   DTI Sweden/XiniX AB, Märsta                   • Milko ek.för., Östersund                       •   Varbergskött AB, Varberg
•   ECAB Djupfryst AB, Mjölby                     • Mills DA, Oslo, Norge                          •   Västfem AB, Göteborg
•   Ecolab AB, Hägersten                          • Munters Europe AB, Sollentuna                  •   Wasa Medicals AB, Halmstad
•   Eklunds Chark AB, Linköping                   • MälarChark AB, Eskilstuna                      •   Whirlpool Sweden AB, Norrköping
•   Emballator Lagan Plast AB, Ljungby            • Mäster Olof Kött AB, Göteborg                  •   Åbro Bryggeri, AB, Vimmerby
•   Fam Olsson Kött & Charkuterier AB,            • Novozymes Biopharma AB, Lund                   •   Öresundschark AB, Malmö
    Askim                                         • Nya August Larsson Charkuteri AB, Råda
•   Finax Bröd AB, Trelleborg                     • Opti Sverige AB, Motala




                                                                                                                   part of the SP-group
                             SIK, Box 5401, SE-402 29 Gothenburg, Sweden.
                             Visiting address: Frans Perssons väg 6.
                             Phone: + 46 31 335 56 00. Fax: +46 31 83 37 82.
                             E-mail: info@sik.se Internet: www.sik.se

Regional offices:       Lund +46 46 286 88 50.         Uppsala +46 18 18 85 27.         Umeå +46 90 15 48 35.         Linköping +46 13 20 07 35.

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